My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1854 Charge of the Light Brigade

My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History is in My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915.

One of my friends has often said that to visit Deene is to step back into the past, for the place bears upon it no impression of modernity, and even the additions made to the house are thoroughly in character with the older parts.
Deene is first mentioned in the Domesday-Book, when the surveyors noted the wood of a mile long belonging to it which joined Rocking- ham Forest. It was the property of the Abbey of Westminster, and was used as a hunting-box by the Abbots. It was called the Grange, and "the monks' well" is still to be seen in the park. A most interesting feature of the house is the Great Hall, 50 feet long and 50 feet high, which is a duplicate in miniature of Westminster Hall, and the carved chestnut roof, the wood of which is impervious to the ravages of insects, has never had an accident since it was first erected in 1086.

The Brudenells have been landowners in Northamptonshire since the time of Henry III, and in 1518 Sir Robert Brudenell, a Justice of the King's Bench, bought Deene from William Litton. Robert Brundenell made a large fortune, and his wife, Margaret Entwyssel, became heiress to her brother's estates of Staunton Wyvile, which naturally added to the wealth of the family. In 1520 Sir Robert settled Deene on his eldest son, Thomas, and eleven years later he died and was buried in the transept of Deene Church.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Sir Thomas, who was a hospitable and generous man, died in 1549, and Deene passed to his son Edmund, who married Agnes Bussey, a member of the great Lincohishire family. Sir Edmund Brudenell carried out extensive building operations at Deene, and the numerous initials of E. and A. and the many shields with the Brudenell and Bussey arms show that he considered his alliance with their family an important one. Camden mentions that Sir Edmund had literary and antiquarian tastes, which were also possessed by his nephew Thomas, who succeeded to the estates in 1606. He also built largely, but the great Tower was not finished until about 1628. Sir Thomas was a staunch cavalier, who raised soldiers for the King's garrisons, and he was made a Baron by Charles I. After the Royal cause was lost he suffered the penalty of his loyalty and was imprisoned in the Tower for twenty years. The brave old cavalier kept a most interesting diary during his imprisonment, which is still preserved in the library at Deene; it consists of about 30 or 40 volumes of MS., which give interesting details of his confinement and the principal events of the time.

Before 1585. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edmund Brudenell 1521-1585.In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine.Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.Around 1763. Canaletto Painter 1697-1768. Northumberland House looking towards Strand. Note the Percy Lion; crest of the Duke Northumberland. And the statue of Charles I King England Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 which remains in situ on the corner of what is now the south-east corner of Trafalgar Square.

In 1661, Charles II rewarded his father's faithful adherent by creating him Earl of Cardigan on April 22, but the old man did not live long to enjoy his new honours, for he died at Deene in 1663, aged eighty.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

The second Earl became a Roman Catholic, and spent most of his long life of 102 years at Deene. His daughter, Lady Anne Brudenell, was one of the most lovely of the beauties associated with the Court of Charles II She married the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the story is well known of how she, dressed as a page, held the Duke of Buckingham's horse whilst he fought with and slew her husband.

In 1659 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

Allan Fea, in his interesting book, " Nooks and Corners of Old England", describes how, " some time before the poor little plain Duchess (of Buckingham) suspected that she had a formidable rival in the beautiful Countess, she was returning from a visit to Deene to her house at Stamford, where her reckless husband found it convenient to hide himself, as a warrant for high treason was out against him, when she noticed a suspicious little cavalcade travelling in the same direction. Ordering the horses to be whipped up, she arrived in time to give the alarm. The Duke had just then set out for Burleigh House with some ladies in his company, and the serjeant actually saw the Duke alight and lead a lady into the house, but he and his soldiers were not in time to force an entrance, and so the Duke escaped ! ".

After 1659. After John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720.In 1659 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

The wicked Countess and her lover lived at Clieveden — "the bower of wanton Shrewsbury and of love " — and her spirit is supposed to haunt the beautiful riverside retreat, but I am thankful to say she has never appeared in the old home of her innocent girlhood. Her portrait by Sir Peter Lely hangs in the White Hall at Deene, and is a fine example of the artist's well-known very décolleté style of " robes loosely flowing, hair as free", with the usual mise en scène of a beauty of Charles II's time. The third Earl of Cardigan was Master of the Buckhounds to Queen Anne; he married a daughter of the Earl of Ailesbury, and their fourth son inherited the Ailesbury title and estates. Lord Cardigan's eldest son married the heiress of the Duke of Montagu in 1766 [Note. Married on 07 Jul 1730. He was created Duke in 1766]. He was a friend of Horace Walpole, the influence of whose pseudo-Gothic tastes may still be seen in the south front of Deene, built at this time, and which now incorporates the great ball-room built for me by my dear husband.

In 1659 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford 1642-1702.In 1703 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.Before 24 May 1711 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Possibly school of. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.In 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.Around 1705. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland 1665-1714.1738.François Harrewijn Painter 1700-1764. Portrait of Thomas Bruce 3rd Earl Elgin 2nd Earl Ailesbury 1656-1741.Before 1790. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839. Portrait of George Brudenell aka Montagu 1st Duke Montagu 1712-1790 in the Windsor Uniform.Around 1735 Gavin Hamilton Painter 1723-1798. Portrait of John Montagu 2nd Duke Montagu 1690-1749 and Mary Churchill Duchess Montagu 1689-1751, and Mary Montagu Duchess Montagu 1711-1775.Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of John Montagu 2nd Duke Montagu 1690-1749.Around 1740 George Knapton Painter 1698-1778. Portrait of John Montagu 2nd Duke Montagu 1690-1749.

The fourth Earl was succeeded by his brother John, whose nephew, the sixth Earl, was the father of my husband, James Thomas Brudenell, seventh Earl of Cardigan.

Before 1790. William Beechey Painter 1753-1839. Portrait of George Brudenell aka Montagu 1st Duke Montagu 1712-1790 in the Windsor Uniform.1841 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of James Brudenell 7th Earl Cardigan 1797-1868.

Battle of Bosworth

There are many features of interest in the old house. In the Great Hall there is a blocked-up entrance to an underground passage through which despatches were carried in the Civil War; and there is a hiding-place large enough to hold twenty people. Henry VII slept at Deene, when as Earl of Richmond he rode to Bosworth Field; the room is known as " the King's Room", and the Royal arms are sculptured over the fireplace. The Tapestry Room has a fine ceiling, and is the room always reserved for Royal guests, the last visitors who occupied it being the sons of the Infanta Eulalia, Don Alphonso and his brother, who stayed at Deene in 1907. They both thoroughly enjoyed the shooting, and used to telegraph the bags to King Alfonso, who wired that he was not having anything like such good sport !

Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes.Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes.Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Charge of the Light Brigade

I believe my husband replaced a great deal of the original furniture at Deene with more modern examples, but many valuable old pieces still remain. The pictures are very beautiful, including a priceless Vandyke representing Queen Henrietta Maria, in the happy days of her early married life, as a regal, gracious figure arrayed in shimmering satin. There is a lovely portrait of Louise de Keroualle and her son, the Duke of Richmond, who married a Brudenell, and there are many examples of Lely, Sir Joshua Reynolds and other eighteenth- and nineteenth-century artists. One painting by Sant represents the Prince Consort and the Royal children listening to the account of the Charge of the Light Brigade by Lord Cardigan, and there are also some interesting pictures of hunting-field incidents, depicting Cardigan and his friends on their favourite mounts.

1841 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of James Brudenell 7th Earl Cardigan 1797-1868.Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629.Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller Painter 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.Before 05 Oct 1878 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861.10 Feb 1840. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Hayter included portraits of fifty-six of those present at the occasion and sittings took place over the next year. The Queen sat for him in March in her 'Bridal dress, veil, wreath & all', and Prince Albert also posed for his portrait several times during the following months. Hayter's family too helped out with his son, Henry, modelling the Prince's costume, while his daughter Mary posed for the Queen's arm and wearing the veil. Victoria's aunt Queen Adelaide, however, was unwilling to co-operate and the artist had to refer to a miniature for her likeness. Hayter included himself in the painting, on the lower right, with his sketchbook and pencil.Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861.Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901 and Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861 and their children.Around 1859. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861.

The house has been very judiciously added to, each architect retaining the motif of the old house, so it has not a patched appearance. My husband's father built the dining-room, and in 1861 Lord Cardigan added the ball-room, especially to please me. It is 70 feet long and 40 feet high; and I designed the heraldic stained-glass windows which represent the family's forbears of Royal descent. The windows were executed by Lavers and Burrow, but my aid as an artist reduced their account by £200 ! There is a magnificient marble fireplace in the ball-room, which has an oak floor and a musician's gallery.

Charge of the Light Brigade

The White Hall is full of Balaclava relics, including my husband's uniforms, and the head of " Ronald", the horse he rode when he led the Charge of the Light Brigade. I gave one of "Ronald's" hoofs, mounted as an inkstand, to the King, who expressed a great wish to have it as a souvenir. The illuminated addresses received by Lord Cardigan are in the Great Hall, and some of them are really works of art.

Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales.1901. Luke Fildes Painter 1843-1927. Coronation Portrait of Edward VII King United Kingdom 1841-1910.1911. Luke Fildes Painter 1843-1927. Drawing of Edward VII King United Kingdom 1841-1910 on his deathbed.

After my husband's death I decided to have the parish church of St. Peter restored, and an altar tomb erected to his memory. The church adjoins the park, and was originally a quaint Early English structure of which little now remains.
The restoration cost me £7000, and I built the Brudenell Chapel, which contains my husband's beautiful tomb by Boehm. His recumbent figure is full of dignity and I had my own marble effigy placed by his side. At each end of the tomb are bas-reliefs representing the Charge and the address to the troops, and at the sides are many armorial bearings. The late Mr. G. Bodley, R.A., was responsible for the restoration and redecoration of the church, which was finished in 1869. On the occasion of the inauguration of the church, the Bishop of Peterborough preached, and I afterwards entertained 300 people at a banquet in the ball-room. During the afternoon " Ronald " (who lived for some years after) was led about the grounds, and many of those who saw him sighed as they thought of his gallant master, now sleeping "far from the stress of war's alarms"..

Lord Cardigan hated the idea of being put underground, so his coffin was placed immediately under his effigy inside the tomb and not in a vault. He had always intended to have a monument erected during his lifetime in the Rectory grounds, and actually had some stone brought from his Stanion quarries for this purpose. One day Lord Westmorland called, and noticing the quantity of stone, asked what it was to be used for. Cardigan told him. "Nonsense", said Lord Westmorland, "give the stone to me instead. I want to make an entrance-hall at Apethorpe, and it will be the very thing!" My husband very good-naturedly gave him the Stanion stone, and the low entrance-hall at Apethorpe was built of it.
The late Queen Victoria greatly admired the design for the monument, and I was told on good authority that she even had her own figure modelled in her lifetime for her memorial tomb but that when search was made after her death the figure had disappeared and nobody knew what had become of it.

1841 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of James Brudenell 7th Earl Cardigan 1797-1868.1845 Francis Grant Painter 1803-1878. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901.1833. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901.Around 28 Jun 1838. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Coronation Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901.10 Feb 1840. George Hayter Painter 1792-1871. Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Hayter included portraits of fifty-six of those present at the occasion and sittings took place over the next year. The Queen sat for him in March in her 'Bridal dress, veil, wreath & all', and Prince Albert also posed for his portrait several times during the following months. Hayter's family too helped out with his son, Henry, modelling the Prince's costume, while his daughter Mary posed for the Queen's arm and wearing the veil. Victoria's aunt Queen Adelaide, however, was unwilling to co-operate and the artist had to refer to a miniature for her likeness. Hayter included himself in the painting, on the lower right, with his sketchbook and pencil.Around 1840. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901. Note the Garter worn on the Arm as worn by Ladies of the Garter.Around 1846. Franz Xaver Winterhalter Painter 1805-1873. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901 and Prince Albert Saxe Coburg Gotha 1819-1861 and their children.In 1840. Richard Rothwell Painter 1800-1868. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901.1880. Henry Tanworth Wells Painter 1828-1903. Portrait of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom 1819-1901 being informed she was Queen by Francis Nathaniel Conyngham 2nd Marquess Conyngham 1797-1876 and William Howley Archbishop of Canterbury 1766-1848.Death of King William IV Succession of Queen Victoria

Deene lies like some rare jewel in a setting of peaceful lake and well-timbered parkland; its own peculiar charm would be gone for ever if it relied on blazinsr flower-beds and obtrusive gardening triumphs to make it attractive.
Behind the bowling-green are the kitchen gardens, where the fruit ripens on the mellowed walls, and in spring and summer, masses of old- fashioned flowers make vivid splashes of fragrant colour everywhere. The stables and the riding-school, which I built, are close to the house, and I have a most interesting collection of ancient carriages, many of them over a hundred years old and unique specimens of the coach-builder's art.

Naturally Deene has a ghost. The story goes that when it was a Religious House, monks and nuns lived there together, an arrangement that was naturally rather dangerous to the morals of the community. A young nun is said to have loved and been loved in return by one of the monks; they both met with a tragic end, and her spirit appears at times in the Great Hall as a young and lovely woman dressed in the white robes of her Order. A curious discovery was made when the house was drained that perhaps is a silent record of dark doings in monkish days. Quantities of young children's bones were found under the floorings, and I often wonder whether the horrible practices of Gilles de Retz ever took place at Deene long ago, or if the tiny bones were those of unwanted and unwelcome babies at the Religious House !
My friend, Walter Seymour, wrote the following verses, which I set to music, about the phantom nun : ...

For fifty years I have been chatelaine at Deene. There is no place I love so much. I saw it first as a mere child and even then it seemed to welcome me. It was the home of my married life; and I am never lonely there. Memory opens wide her gates, and from them issue the beloved dead who loved Deene. Husband, relatives, and friends surround me again, and the dream is so real that I am always happy with my dear ones who people it. The peace of the old house envelops and soothes me, and I always hope that when the time comes for me to lie by my husband's side, my spirit will be sometimes allowed to revisit the place that has always been " sweet home " to me.