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1513 Battle of Flodden

1533 Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

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16 Sep 1513. Queen Catherine (age 27) to King Henry VIII (age 22)th, after the Battle of Flodden Field. A. D. 1513.

[MS. COTTON. VESP. F. in. fol. 15. Orig.]

Sir

MY Lord Howard (age 70) hath sent me a Lettre open to your Grace, within oon of myn, by the whiche ye shal see at length the grete Victorye that our Lord hath sent your subgetts in your absence; and for this cause it is noo nede herin to trouble your Grace with long writing, but, to my thinking, this batell hath bee to your Grace and al your reame the grettest honor that coude bee, and more than ye shuld wyn al the crown of Fraunce; thankend bee God of it: and I am suer your Grace forgetteth not to doo this, which shal be cause to send you many moo suche grete victoryes, as I trust he shal doo. My husband, for hastynesse, wt Rogecrosse I coude not sende your Grace the pece of the King of Scotts (deceased) cote [coat] whiche John Glyn now bringeth. In this your grace shal see how I can kepe my premys, sending you for your baners a Kings cote. I thought to sende hymself (deceased) unto you, but our Englishemens herts wold not suffre it. It shuld have been better for hym to have been in peax than have this rewards. Al that God sendeth is for the best.

My Lord of Surrey (age 40), my Henry, wold fayne knowe your pleasur in the buryeng of the King of Scotts (deceased) body, for he hath writen to me soo. With the next messanger your grace pleasur may bee herin knowen. And with this I make an ende: prayng God to sende you home shortly, for without this noo joye here can bee accomplisshed; and for the same I pray, and now goo to our Lady at Walsyngham [Map] that I promised soo long agoo to see. At Woborne [Map] the xvj. day of Septembre.

I sende your grace herin a bille founde in a Scottisshemans purse of suche things as the Frenshe King sent to the said King of Scotts to make warre against you, beseching your a to sende Mathewe hider assone this messanger commeth to bringe me tydings from your Grace.

Your humble wif and true servant

KATHERINE (age 27).

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12 Oct 1514. Mary Queen of France (age 18) to King Henry the Eighth (age 23).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vi. fol. 253. Orig.]

MY good Brother (age 23) as hertly as I can I recomaund me unto your Grace, mervelynge moch that I never herd from you syns ... re depertynge, so often as I have sent and wrytten to you. And now am I left post a lone in effect; for on the morn next after . . e maryage my chambirlayn with all other men servants wer dischargd and in lyke wyse my mother Guldeford (age 51) with other my women and maydyns, except such as never had experiens nor knowlech how to advertyse or gyfe me counsell yn any tyme of nede, which is to be fered more schortly then your Grace thought at the tyme of my depertynge, as my mother Guldeford (age 51) can more playnly schew your Grace then I cann wryt; to whom I beseche you to gyve credens. And yf hit may be by eny meane possible, I humbly requyr you to cause my seyd mother Guldeford (age 51) to repayr hither once agayn. For ells if any chauns happe other then weale I schall not knowe wher nor of whom to aske any good counsell to your pleasur, nor yet to myn own proffit. I merveill moche that my Lord of Northfolke (age 41) wold at all tymes so lyghtly graunt every thynge at ther reqwests here. I am weale assured that when ze know the trouth of every thyng as my mother Guideford can schew you, ze wold full lyttyll have thowght I schold have ben thus intreated: that wold God my Lord of Zorke (age 41) had com with me yn the rome of Northfolke (age 41): for then am I sure I schuld have bene left moch more at my herti .... then I am now.

And thus I byd your Grace fare weale with .... as ever had Prince; and more herds ease then I have now ... a Abvile [Map] the xijth . day of October.

.... gef gredens to my mowder Geldeford.

Note B. your lowyng syster MARY QUENE OF FRANCE.

Note a. From.

Henry the Eighth and his Court accompanied the young Queen to Dover, whence on the second of October she sailed to Boulogne. She reached Abbeville on the 8th and was married on the 9th of that month. The original List of the persons who went in her retinue, signed by Louis himself, is still preserved among the Cottonian Manuscriptsb; though strange as it may seem, almost the whole were dismissed the morning after her marriage. "The Tewesdaye, being the x. daye of October," says Hall, "all th'Englishmen except a fewe that were officers with the sayde Quene, were discharged; whiche was a great sorowe for theim, for some had served her long in hope of prefermente, and some, that had honest romes, lefte them to serve her; and now they were with out service; which caused them to take thought, in so much that some dyed by the way returning, and some fell mad; but ther was no remedy." The Queen's own account of this Transaction will be found in this, and the following Letter. Mother Guldeford (age 51) who is so particularly mentioned in these Letters, was apparently the Governess, or, as she was sometimes called, the Mother to the Maids of Honor.

Note b. It was as follows:

"Premierement

Mons. le Conte de Nrushere.

Maistre docteur Denton aumosmer.

Messe. Richard Blounte escuyer de scuierie.

Enffans d'onneur: Le filz de Mons. Roos, Le filz de Mons. Cobham, Le filz de Messe. Seymor,

Evrard frere du Marquis.

Arthus Polle (age 12), frere de Monsr. de Montagu.

Le Poulayn.

Francoye Buddis, huissier de Chambre.

Maistre Guille, Medicin.

Henry Calays varler des robes.

Robert Wast.

Madamoyselle Grey, seur du Marquis. [Note. Possibly Elizabeth Grey Countess Kildare (age 17)]

Madamoyselle Marie finis fille de Monsr. Dacres. [Note. Possibly Mary Dacre (age 12)]

Madamoyselle Elizabet seur de Monsr. Grey.

Madamoyselle BOLEYNE. [Note. Unclear as to whether this is Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 13) or Mary Boleyn (age 15)]

Maistres Anne Jenyngham (age 10). femme de Chambre.

Johanue Daruossc, chamberiere."

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12 Oct 1514. Mary Queen of France (age 18) to Thomas Wolsey (age 41), then Archbishop of York.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vi. fol. 143. Orig.]

... I recomaund me un to you as hertly as I can, and as schoth .... intreated as the kynge (age 23) and you thought I schuld have ben, for .... the morn next after the maryage, all my servants, both men and women . . a dyscharged. Insomoch that my mother Guldeford (age 51) was also dischargyd, whom as ze knowe the kynge and zou willed me in eny wyse to be cowncelled. But for eny thynge I myght do, yn no wyse myght I have any graunt for her abode here, which I assure you my lord is moch to my discomffort; besyd meny other discomffortis that ze wold full lyttyll have thought. I have not zet seen yn Fraunce eny lady or jentill woman so necessary for me as sche ys nor zet so mete to do the kynge my brother service as sche ys. And for my part my lord, as ze love the kynge my broder and me, fynd the meanes that sche may yn all hast com hither agayn, for I had as lefe lose the wynnynge I schall have yn France as to lose her counsell when I schall lacke it, which is not like long to be required, as I am sure the nobill men and jentillmen can schew you more then becometh me to wryte yn this matter. I pray you my Lord gyf credens forther to my moder Guldeford (age 51) yn every thyng concernynge thys matter. And albehit my Lord of Northfollke (age 41) h .. b nethyr deled best with me nor zet with her at thys tyme: zet I pray you allwayes to be good lord unto her. And wold to God my had ben so good o have had zou with me hither when I ha . . rd c of Northfolke. And thus fare ze weale

My Lord. Wryt ile a the xij the . daye of Octobr.

My Lord I pray you gyve credens to my .... ord yn my sorows she have delyve ... Yowr on whyl I lefe

MARY

To my lovynge frend Th'archebischop of Zorke.

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Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 42) to King Henry the Eighth (age 27), reporting the audience in which Francis the First received the promise of Henry's interest for the Empire. March 14 1519

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. VII. fol. 100. Orig.]

Henry the Eighth, when the Imperial throne fell vacant, seems not to have known how to manage the power of which he was really possessed. He clearly promised his support to Francis the First as early as the month of March, as will be seen in the following Letter from his own ambassador: and the assertion is pretty strong in the succeeding Letter that he also promised his support to Charles of Castile; the Letter containing it was referred to by the French ambassador in Spain as in the hands of the bishop of Burgos. Subsequently, Henry sent Pace to the Electors to announce his own pretensions; but finding the Electors pre-engaged, and perhaps being unwilling to vie with his competitors in the distribution of treasure, he soothed his ambition with the reflection that he had solicited too late, and became altogether the dupe of his own duplicity. Pace's Commission to the Electors bears so late a date as May 19 ht 1519.

Unfortunately for the English Historian a large portion of the correspondence which relates to this Election suffered in the fire which has been so /often mentioned; but many a curious scrap remains; nor will even fragments be despised when they relate to an event which formed as it were an aera in the general system of Europe.

The Emperor Maximilian died January the 22 d . 1519. William Knight, writing to Cardinal Wolsey from Wells in Austria, January the 14th , and noticing an audience which he had had, says " but syth that tyme of communication his Grace is so vanquished with sicknesse, which was at first a catarre, and sythens a flux and fever contynuel, that now every man feryth, and almost despayreth of any recovery. I abyde th'ende."

Upon the Emperor's death, Henry directed Sir Thomas Boleyn, his ambassador at Paris, to sound the intentions of Francis. Sir Thomas saw him in his chamber as he returned from mass, where, having read a letter delivered to him from Henry, he took Sir Thomas to a window, who urged that the two Kings should " take a resolution by common assent." " Whereunto," says Sir Thomas, " he bad me lene out at the window with him, and he would tell me what he had done in it, and his hole mynde what further he intended to doo." This appears in a Letter dated February the 9th.a

In another Letter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, to Wolsey, dated from Paris Feb. 28 th . detailing a farther conversation with Francis, he says, " I was so famyliar with hym, that I asked hym in ernest if he were Emperour whether he wold make a voyage agenst the Infidels in his proper person, as the voyce went. He tooke me hard by the wryst with the oon hand, and layed the other hand upon his brest, and sware to me by his feyth yf he atteyn to be Emperour, that within three yeares after he wold bee in Constantynople, or he would dye by the way." In talking still further of the enterprise, Francis told him that "his realme was to hym six millions yerely and over that in value;" and "that he wold spend three millions of gold" but he would succeedb. In another Letter to "Wolsey dated March the 14 th . Sir Thomas represents Francis to have said that now, since Henry and he were of a mind, neither Emperor nor Pope should be made but such as pleased them. This, it is probable, was a speech more especially intended for the ear of Wolsey.

From these notices of conversations, it will be seen that althojigh the promise of Henry's interest for the Empire in favor of Francis, was not formally given till March the 14*. it had been verbally promised from the very time of the arrival of the first news of Maximilian's death.

Pleaseth it your Highnesse to understand that yesterday I delyvered your lettre to the Kyng here with as harty and affectuous recommendacions from your Grace as I cowlde devise. And after he had at lenght and with good laysure read over your said lettre, I declared to hym for my credence, according to the Instructions which your Grace late sent me. First the effecte of your said Lettre. And after I shewed hym how great desire your Grace hath for the increase of his honnor, and what pleasure and consolation your Highnes taketh in the same, consideryng the unfeyned amytie and aliance that is established betwixt you, both which your Grace belevith to bee soo rooted in your hartys that what high honnor or advauncement shall fortune to come to hym, the fructe thereof shuld redonde to your Highnesse, wherfore to advaunce hym to the preferment of this Imperiall dignitie, your Grace, uppon knowledge of his further intent and mynd shalbe glad to employe your self as well by worde and writing as by acts and dedes to the best of your power, wheruppon he may assuredly trust. Whereunto, he, taking of his bonett thanked hartely your Highnesse, and sayd that the great love and favour which he well perceyveth that your Grace beryth towardes him is the greatest comfort that he hath upon erth. And for the great honnor that your Grace shewith to hym in advauncyng hym to th'imperiall dignitie which is his most desire, he sayth he knoweth nat how nor by what meanes he may recompence your Highnesse in doing any thing so moch for your Grace, but he sayeth as long as he lyveth, in any thing that he may doo that shalbe to your pleasure, he shall always bee as redy and as glad to doo vt as he wold be to doo for hvmself, and desireth no thyng moore than to have knowledge wherein he might employe hymself to doo your Highnesse some pleasure. Rehersyng to me that by the reason of the perfecte love and aliaunce betwixt you both he rekeneth your Highnesse to bee of great mygth and power, sayeng that what with your owne puissance and with his help, which he sayeth your Grace shall alwayes have redy at your commaundement, there is nother honnor, dignytie, nor other thing in Crystendome but that your Highnesse shall y . . and ordre yt at your own pleasure, and tolde me that he cowlde not expresse to me with his tonge the due thanks that he t .... c to your Grace in his hart for the loving kindnesse that he fyndeth in your Highnesse : *and sayd that, whan ye both mete, which he trusteth shalbe shortly, your Grace shall knowe his hart, no man lyving soner. Whereunto I sayd that your Highnesse thanked hym, specially consideryng that amongs all his other things and great affaires, he is so moch desirous to mete, visite, and see your Grace; and toolde hym of your conformable mynd therunto, shewing to hym the tyme, place, fourme, and maner as is at lenght expressed in th'instructions that I have. Wherunto he sayed that he is determyned to see your Grace though he shuld come but hymself, his page, and his lakaye: and that noo buysenesse shall lette yt : how be it, for the tyme, place, and order of the Meeting he said he wold common with the Great Master, and within ij. or iij. dayes he wold send hym to Parys, wher he shuld make me aunswer of every article concernyng the said Entreview and Meting. And bicause that the Quene here hath been very sycke thies ij. dayes, and in great daunger, as I have more at large wryten of the same to my lord Legat and Cardinall of England, which I am sure woll shewe your Grace thereof, I can as yet have no aunswer what order shalbe taken for the Marchaunts matiers. Beseching the holy Trynyte long to preserve your Highnesse. From Parys this xiiijl h day of March.

[The signature burnt off.]

Note a. MS. Cotton. Calig. D. vin. fol. 8S.

Note b. Ibid. fol. 93.

Note c. f. thinketh.

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Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 42) to Cardinal Wolsey (age 46) reporting an Audience from, the Duchess of Angoulesme, March 25th 1519.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. VII. fol. 105.]

[Pleasyth it youre] Grace to understand that the xxj th day of this moneth I wrote my last Lettres to your Grace, and as yesterday, which was our Lady's day, I was at Seynt Germayns, where the Quene and my Lady lyeth; but the King roode on our Ladye's even viij. leges hens, and as my Lady tellyth me it is in a dowte whether he cormyth ageyn before the Quene here be brought in bedde or nay; for she lookyth her tyme every howre. Also my Lady hath commaunded me, now while the great Master is away, that I shuld resorte to her for any thing that I shuld have to doo for the King my Master. And she hath, promysed me that she woll make me pryve of such newes as she shall here of from any place : and toold me that the King her sonne whan he departed willed her to shew me a Lettre that came now streyt out of Spayn from his Ambassadour there, and therewithall she called to her the tresourer Robertet and bad hym shewe me that Lettre, wherein was wrytten by the said Ambassador whose name is de la Roche Beauconot, that the King's Highnesse had late sent a Lettre to the King Catholique advertysyng hym how the King here had desired the King's Highnesse by his lettres to wryte to th'Ellectowrs of th'Empire in his favour, the rather to atteyn the dygnyte of th'Empire; the which the King's Highness hath refused bicause of the Amytie betwixt the Kings Grace and the King Catholique, and how the Kings Highnesse had rather that the King Catholique wer Emperowr than the King here; which Lettre he wryteth is in th'andes of the Bishop of Bourgesa oon of the great Counsell of Spayn. Whan I had redde this clawse in the Lettre sent out of Spayn, I prayed my Lady that she wold gyve noo credence to yt, and shewed her how I thought that the said Ambassador wrote this by Informacion of some maliciouse personne that wold sett discord bitwixt Princes; and that I assured her it was not trew. She toold me that she had soo perfecte trust in the Kyng my Master's honnor that she beleved, nor wold beleve, noo such thing; and no more she sayeth woll the King her sonne: sayeng that whan the King here redde the same clause in the Lettre wrytten to hym by his Ambassadour in Spayn he did but lawgh at it, and gave no credence thereto. And she saied it cowlde nat be trew, for the ... the Kyng's Highnesse desyring him to wryte to th ... th'Empire for hym. So that as farre as I can perceyve neyther my Lady nor the King her sonne gyve noo credence to yt. And as moch as I cowld instaunce her I have desired her not to beleve this nor noo such thing that shuld be contrary to any thing that the Kings Highnesse hath promysed or wrytten to the King her sonne. My Lady also desireth that likewise as I woll make me pryve of every thing that shall touch or arr ... to the Kings Grace to th'intent I shuld advertise the Kings Highnesse and your Grace. She likewise desireth to bee advertised of any thing apperteynyng to the King her sonne. She talked with me also of the Meeting of the Kings Highnesse and the King her sonne (which she moch desireth) wherein I shewed her according to myn Instructions that if it pleased her to m ... the King her sonne that he wold be content after they had mett a horsbak to repaire streyt to Calais where they myght be honourably receyved, well and easely lodged, it shuld be convenient for their estates. Whereto she aunswered that when they had oones mett, she putt noo dowtes but they shuld . . well enough, sayeng that after they had ones seen togyther his Highnesse shuld desire hym to nothing but he wold gyve thereto assent. She sayeng allwaies that it shalbe more .... and triumphant to be lodged in sommer in the fields in tents and pavilions than it shuld be in any Towne. She often ... b me of my Lady Princesse and of hir helth, if she hath been syck lately or not. Also Madame la Duchesse the Kings syster, the Duke of Alaunson's wief, lately hath been and yet is very sycke. When I shall have knowledge of any other Newes I shall ... to your Grace of them : beseching the holy Trinite long to preserve your Grace. From Poyssy a leege from Saint Germains this xxvjth day of March.

Yowres m ...

Th ...

Note a. Burgos.

Note b. asked

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Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 42) to King Henry the Eighth (age 28), announcing the Election of the Emperor Charles the Fifth. 04 Jul 1519.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vii. fol. 140. Orig.]

Pleasith yt your Grace to understand that the first day of this moneth I wrote my last Lettres to your Grace, and as yet the King is nat retomed from Melun, there as he hath been almost thes fortenyght a huntyng. But hither is come Lettres with great dylygence to the King Catholiques Ambassadour from Frankford, and from my lady of Savoye, specefieng how the King his master the xxviij. day of the last moneth, at x. of the clocke afore noon, by th'assent and hoole voyce of all the Electours was chosen Emperor. And bicause there is yet noo lettres commen out of Almayn to the King nor my Lady here of this matier my Lady marvayleth moch, and sayth she feryth that Monsr. L'admiral is letted or evyll intreatyd bicause she hath no word from hym, or elles their Post with lettres is taken or stopped by the way. Neverthelesse my Lady sayth yf this be trew seyng the King her sonne may nat be Emperor she is ryght glad that the King Catholique is chosen. Sayeng that though the Kyng her sonne is nat Emperor, yet it is a comfort to her that the King her sonnes son in lawe is Emperor. How be it the trouth is that both the King and my Lady, and all this Contre had rather any other had been chosen Emperor than the King Catholique. My Lady tellyth me that she is assured it hath cost hym a greyt good to atteyn to this Empire; in so moch she sayth she knoweth for a trouth oon of the Electours hath had of hym two hundreth thowsand crownes, and namyng hym of Coloigne. She sayth also that the Electours amongs them all hath not had of the King her sonne past a hundreth thowsand Crownes, and moch she ma ... and fereth lest the Admirall be nat well, and sayth that the Letter that she had from hym was wrytten the xx vj. day of the last moneth, wherein by his wryting he had as great trust that the King here shuld be Emperor as ever he had. And now Monsr. le Bastard and they of the Counsell here say yt is a good torne for the King here, and a great weale for his reaulme that he is not Emperor, for they say yf he had been it shuld have putt hym to an infante busyness, and impoverychyd and undoone his subgietts. Here is also of late a new Ordenaunce made by the King and his Counsell, and gyven to all them that have any horses for Posts or Currorsa, both here at the Cort and at Parys, that payn of their lyves they delyver no horse nor horses to any man, ambassador or other, except at the Court he have a bill from Robertet in Parys from the first President there. I have been, too, assuryd by my Lady that this is nat doon for any Lett of L .... that goyth in to England, but as farre as I can knowe that resortyth in and owt of Spayn, and my lady hath . . whan so ever I woll depeche any lettres by Post. I shall stre . a Bill of Robertett and of the first President of Parys . . whan I woll.

Besechyng the holy Trinite long to preserve your Grace from Poyssy this iiij th day of July.

Yours

T ....

Note a. Couriers.

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Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 42) to Cardinal Wolsey (age 46) upon the Christening of the Duke of Orleans, afterwards King Henry the Second of France. June 7th 1519.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. VII. fol. 121. Orig.]

In a Letter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, dated Poissy, April 9th 1519, he says, he inquired of Francis the First when the Christening of his son should be, who answered " after Easter," because the child had a disease in his eyes: " and he sayeth, all his children have, shortly after they be borne; sayeng also yt was my lady his Mother's mynd, that the chyld shuld bee clene hole of any dysease afore the crystenyng; whos advyse he seyd ht should folow therein."a

In a succeeding Letter, Sir Thomas Boleyn gives an Account of a solempne procession at Court on April 15th "where went in the same the King, the Lady his Mother, with all the lords and ladys of the Court. The cause of this procession was, for to honnour the holy cordon or coorde that Our Lord was bounde to the Pyller with, and many other relyques, which wer sent to the Quene here from an Abbey in Poytow, and from dyvers other places, now when she was last delyuered of chyld."b

Pleasith yt youre .Grace to understand that the first day of this moneth I wrote my last lettres to your Grace; and on Sonday last past about x. of the clocke at nyght, the Kings yong sonne whos title is Henry of Seynt Germayn Duke of Orleans, was crystened, the Duke of Alaunson was the second godfather, and the duchesse of Denamours the god mother. And bicause York, this berar, was there present who can shewe your Grace all the maner and order of the crystenyng I leve to wry te to your Grace of the same; saving that according as your Grace hath here a fore tyme wryten to me I presented to the Quene here in the name of the Kings Highnesse the Salt, the Cuppe, and Layar of gold, which was very much praysed; and also the Quene and my Lady gave to the Kings Highnesse for the same their loving and harty thanks. And after all was doon the King came to me and sayd he thanked the King's Highnesse of the great honnor that he had doon hym in crystenyng of his chyld, sayeng that when so ever yt shall fortune the Kings Highnesse to have a Prince he shalbe glad to doo for hym in lyke maner, and that he is mynded after his said sonne shall come to age and be able to ... he purposyth to send hym to the Kings Grace into Englande to doo hym service.

And the hundreth pounde that your Grace sent to gyve in reward, is bistowed as folowith. First the Noryce, oon hundreth crownes; to iiij. rockers of the yong Dukes chamber, ij. hundreth crownes; to iij. gentlewomen of the Quenes Pryve Chamber called femmes de Ret . a hundreth and fyfty crownes; and at the Offryng xx nobils, which amounteth in all to the some of oone hundreth pounds sterling and xv. crownes over. All which money was paid and delyvered by the hands of York this berar and Richmount, which can shewe your Grace well inough therof.

Furthermore, as this berar can shewe your Grace, there hath been with me at my lodging the Kings Porters, the T ... and Officers of Arrays which with importune manner asked reward saying that the Duke of Urbyn at the crystenyng of the Dolphyn rewarded them, and wyth the best answer that I could make them nothyng given they went away miscontent. Neverthelesse it is ... by honorabull folks here that the gyftes to the Quene, and the money that is gyven in rewardes was sufficiently honorable, and largely inough for the Kings honnor.

I have also laid out xjli. xijs. in sendyng dyvers tymes myn own folks and other that I have hired to your Grace in to England, and to Calais, with Lettres in post and otherwise, the which xjli xijs. and xv. crownes that I have layd out now more than hundreth poundes that your Grace sent me by York to gyve in reward, is owing me. And forasmoch as the last money that your Grace sent me for a hundreth dayes ended the xxviijth. day of May last past I besech your Grace both to send me such dyett money as shall best please your Grace, and that the said xjli xijs. and xv. crownes that is owing me may be also delivered to my prest which shall attend upon your Grace for yt.

Also I receyved yester evyn from your Grace, a Letter dated the xxviijth. day of May, concernyng the Marchaunts matiers and divers other things, whereof after I have spoken with the King, my Lady, or the Counsell here I shall wryte to your Grace such answer as I shall have of them with diligence.

Here is moch speking in the Court and more at Parys of many straunge bouts, whereof this berar can shewe your Grace by mowth as he hath hard, and as I have shewed hym. Besechyng the Holy Trinite long to preserve your Grace. From Poyssy this vijV 1 day of June

Youre ....

To my moste especial and singular Lord; my Lord Legat Cardinall, Chauncellar of England.

Note a. MS. Cotton. Calig. D. vn. fol. 108.

Note b. Ibid. fol. 110.

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02 Jun 1520. Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 43) to Cardinal Wolsey (age 47) respecting the Interview with Francis the First. A. D.

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vii. fol. 104. Orig.]

This Letter, and the three which immediately follow it, relate to the preparations for the Interview between Henry the Eighth and Francis the First, which at last took place, within the English pale, between Guisnes and Ardres, on June 7th 1520. The manner of meeting, and the regulation of the ceremonial were confided by both Monarchs to Wolsey ; to whom three of these Letters are addressed.

Hall's account of this Interview in his Chronicle, and he was personally present at it, was drawn up by Henry's command. Another Journal of the Occurrences was also drawn up by order of Francis. This last was pub. lished by Montfaucon in his Monumens de la Monarchic Frangoise; together with a third Narrative by Robert de la Mark Mareschal de Florenges.

Francis was so gratified with the splendor of this Interview, that he ordered the cavalcade of the Monarchs at their first meeting on horseback, to be carved in Basso Relievo on five marble tables, and to be placed in front of the house of the procureur general at Rouen, where they still remain.

Henry directed the Interview, with its attendant circumstances, to be represented in a Picture, formerly at Windsor, but which by the munificence of his late Majesty now ornaments the Meeting Room of the Society of Antiquaries.

Barklay the black monk, who wrote "The Ship of Fools," was engaged by Wolsey to supply the mottoes and devices on the occasion.

The manner in which the nobility of the two countries vied with each other in this scene of grandeur, is described in warm colours. It appears to have been by far the most costly ceremonial known to our History. The English were said to have carried their manors, the French their forests, upon their backs : and the very plain on which the monarchs met, from the richness of the tents and pavilions, was thenceforward called Le Champ De Drap D'or.

Hall's description of the person of Francis the First, as he left the tent in which the monarchs had embraced, is worth transcribing. He was " a goodly Prince, stately of countenance, merry of chere, brown coloured, great eyes, high nosed, big-lipped, fair brested and shoulders, small legges, and long feet."

Pleasith it your Grace to understond that the xixth. day of this Moneth I wrote my last Lettres to your Grace. And as yestereven the Great Master supped here with me at my Lodging ; and this day he is ryden out of this Towne onward on his journay to Mount pelyer ward ; and this day or he tooke his hors, he sent for me to dyne with hym, and after dynner at my taking leve of hym, he first willed me, till he commyth ageyn, for all matiers that I shuld have to doo for the Kings Highnesse that I shuld resort all way to the King hym self, or els to my Lady, or to Robertet, and to non other. He also prayed me that I wold humbly and hartely recommend hym to your Grace, and willed me to wryte to you that as touching th'Entrevieu and Meting betwixt the King's Highnesse and the King here, though the King here commeth nat to Calais at the first, accordyng to the Kings Grace desire, wherin I have often spoken to hym according to myn Instruccions, he besechith your Grace that ye woll soo shew it to the King's Highnesse that it may be takyn in good part, and that it is for no mystrust nor diffidence that the King here hath to come to Calais, but he thinketh it is convenyent that they both (tyll the tyme of their meting) kepe somwhat to theymselfs, beyond and further, than that is agreed by there Counsells, to shewe more love, trust, and kindnesse ech to other, sayeng to me that he thinketh veryly after that both the Kings have mett and spoken to gyther, that the King here, within a day or two woll come secretly to Calais to doo the King's Grace more pleasure, or forther into England if the Kings Highnesse will desyre hym. He willed me also to wryt to your Grace of the great love, favour, and confidence that the King his master hath in your Grace, and the great desire that he hath to doo you pleasure ; and toold me it had not bee seen nor hard of oon man, being a Cardinall, to bee in soo great estime, trust, and reputacion of both the Kings of Englond and of France, as your Grace is. Wherfor he thinketh it is in your Grace to employe them both, after your wisdome, in any thing at your owne pleasure. He shewed me also for his part, that, if ther wer any thing that he may doo your Grace pleasure or service in, he will as gladly doo it, and with as good will and diligence as for any brother he hath : and that ye shuld well perceyve and know by th'experience whan so ever it shuld please your Grace to prove hym. He toold me furthermore that in any thing that shalbe owther treated or concluded ther as he goyth now, your Grace shalbe advertised of it, sayeng also that if their matiers framyd well betwixt Mons r . de Chieuvres and hym, he thought he shuld goo and see the King Catholique at Parpinyan. He hath with hym a great Trayn, so that he maketh his rekenyng to bee above a thowsand horsys : and hath with hym a garde of xxx li . archers in goldsyths work uppon their cootes both before and behind.

I send your Grace herein inclosed a Papir in French of his devis ...b the Meting and Entrevieu which Robertet hath delivered me by the ... c Master's commaundement ; and an other papir signed with Monsr. de F ... hand conteynyng the Articles of th'order for the redresse of the ma ... according to the forme of them your Grace wrote to me in Inglyshe : Whereto all the Counsell here is fully agreed as your Grace shall presently perceyve by the same Paper in French. Also where your Grace hath deputed the Master of the Holies and the Vice Admirall to examyn the Inglysh marchaunts robbed and spoyled in September and October ... they have deputed alonly Monsr. de Frayn here for thexaminacion of French men robbed within the said ij. monethes.

Also the Great Master hath advised me that incontinent, after his departure, I shuld make myn abode at a Vyllage called Poyssy, half a league from the Court. And so I purpose to goo thider to-morrow ; beseching the holy Trinitie long to preserve your Grace. From Parys this xxi l . h day of March.

Youres most bounden

Thomas.

Note a. Hall, edit. 1809. p. 610.

Note b. devise for.

Note c. Great.

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Nov 1522. Lord Surrey (age 49) to King Henry the Eighth (age 31).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. B. VI. fol. 304. Orig.]

Plesith it your Highnes to be advertised that upon Satirdaye at night the Duke of Albany (age 38) with a greate puysance brought his ordynaunce unto Werk [Map], on the fer side of Twede, upon Scotland side, and began to shote right sore upon Sondaye by the breke of daye, and So contynued all that daye and Mondaye. At whiche tyme I being at Holy Island, vij. myles from Berwike, was advertised of the same at seven a clok at night the said Sondaye; and incontynente sent Lettres to my lord Cardynalls company, my lord of Northumberland, my lord of Westmoreland at Sainte Cutberts baner lying at Anwike and thereabouts, and in likewise to my lord Dacre and other lords and gentilmen lying abrode in the countre, too mete me at Barmer wood, fyve myles from Werk on Mondaye, who so ded. And the seid Monday at iij, a cloke at aftir none, the water of Twede being soo high that it could not be riden the Duke sent over ij M. Frenche men in bootisa to gif assault to the place, who with force entred the bas courte, and by Sir William Lizle (age 35) captain of the Castell with a hundred with him were right manfully defended by the space of one houre and an half, without suffring theym t'entre the Inner Ward ; but fynally the seid Frenchemen entred the Inner warde, whiche perceived by the seid Sir William and his company frely set upon theym, and not onely drove theym oute of the Inner warde, but alsoo oute of the Uttir warde, and slewe of the seid Frenche men x. personys. And so the seid Frenche men wente over the water ; and incontynent the seid Sir William advertised me of the said assaulte, desiering too have reskue this daye, or els the place wold be no lenger kepte : whereof I being advertised by thre a clok this mornyng, avaunced foreward with the hole army by the breke of daye. And the Duke hering that I cam towards hym toke away his ordynance, and in likewise departed hymself with his hoole company, but as yet I cannot advertise your Grace of trouth howe fer he is goon, but tomorrowe I doubte not I shall knowe the certentie. Sir I doubte moche that if he here that I breke this army that he woll retorne with his ordynance unto Werk, whiche I feare woll not hold long againste hym ; for and if I had not made newe fortifications of bulwerks of erthe, it had not be tenable one half daye. I wold it were in the See, for I knowe not how to get men to remayne in it. Sir undoubtedly ther was never man departed with more shame nor with more feare than the Duke hath doon this daye : and notwithstanding the greate Assemble that he hath made in Scotland he hath not doon x s . worth of hurte within your Grace's realme, nor never durste hymself entre the same. Sir I feare me it shall not be possible for me to kepe this Army no longer togidder ; for suche as come oute of the bisshopriche, this contre, and other places, at their own costs, have spent all that they have; and with moche difficulte and faire words have kepte theym here thus long. Notwithstanding I shall doo my beste to kepe theym togidder unto the tyme that I shall knowe the Duks army bee perspoiled. Assuering your Grace that maister Magnus hath but iij. M. marks lefte; and if th'army shuld be discharged tomorrowe next, I think x M. marks woll not paye that is owing and conduyte money home. And considering howe paynefully and with howe good will they have served, it were pitie they shuld departe withoute having that was promysed theym, wherfore mooste humble I beseche your Highnes that convenyent money maye be sente hither with diligence. And if it come not bifore the departing hens of th'army, to tlVentente they shuld not goo hens groudging and speking shrodly, I shall delyver theym asmoche as is here with asmoche more as I maye borowe. And also I shall bynd myself by my bill signed with myn hand to paye theym asmoche as shalbe due for the reste; mooste humble besechyng your Highnes to see me dischardged of the same with convenyente diligence, or els I shalbe uttirly undoon for ever. Also I beseche your Grace to send thankfull lettres to suche as have doon good servyce at this tyme, whos names be conteyned in a bill herein closed : also Ix. iiij x . x blanks to be written here to suche as I doo not remembre the names of : assuering your Grace that in all my lif I never sawe somany Englishmen in none army nor so well willed as thees were fro the higheste to the loweste, nor never was gentilman so moche bounde as I have been this Jorney to all noblemen, gentilmen, and souldiors ; whiche favor they have shewed me for the greate love they bere to your Highnes, and the desierous myende they have to doo your Grace service. Written in the Campe ij. myles from Wark this Tuysday at night.

Your most humble subject and servant

T. SURREY.

To the Kings most noble Grace.

Note a. boats.

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12 Nov 1522.King Henry the Eighth (age 31) to the Earl of Surrey (age 49).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. B. i. fol. 30?. Grig.]

Henry R. By the King.

RIGHT trusty and right welbiloved Cousin we grete you wel; and have receyved your Lettres bearing date the iija and iiijth dayes of this instant moneth, the first mencyonyng the siege laide by the Duke of Albany (age 38) unto the Castel of Werke [Map] with the assaulte geven unto the same, and the valiant defence therof by Sir William Lisle (age 35) capitain of that place ; and how, upon knowlege geven to the said Duke that ye with our hole armye was coming to the rescue, he shamefully and cowardly removed his siege and fled, but to what place ye then knewe not. By the ijde Lettre apperith upon the reaporte of the Priores of Calstreme howe that on Tuesday at nyght last past about mydnyzt the said Duke being then at Eccles informed that our armye passed the Ryver after hym, removed from thens, toke his ordenance away, and is clerely departed ; the truthe wherof ye doubted not to be advertised from diverse wayes by the next daye: at whiche tyme uppon the more knowlege had, ye wolde assemble al the noble men to divise and determyne what ye and they sholde further do, desiring that after the Duks army skaled, we in consideration of your desease and seknes wolde discharge you, geving you licence to retourne: and thinking the lord Dacres aswel for his strenght as experience in those parties most mete to take the charge of offyce of wardyn til suche tyme as that we shal appoint som other therunto; and finally requiryng that bothe money and our lettres of Thanks may be sent, as in the said lettres is conteyned more at large. As herunto we signifie unto you, like as thancked be almyzty God, thise newes be right good, comfortable, and honorable unto us and this our Realme ; so they be and shalbe unto the said Duke of Albany's perpetual reproche, shame, and losse of reputacion bothe in Fraunce, Scotland, and elliswhere, and to the no little abashement and discorage of the Frenche King, besids the alienation percace of the mynds of the Lords of Scotland more facily then afore from the faction of France unto our devotion. And for the grete travaile, labor, studie, payn, and diligence by you with al effect right actively, valiauntly, and with perfite corage, discrecion, and good conduyte taken and used by many substancial, discrete, and politique wayes for resistence of the said Duke of Albany, with deliberation and intent to have geven hym bataile in cace he durst have abyden the same we geve unto you our most cordial and herty thanks; assuring you that amongs many your high and notable^ service done unto us, we shal have this in our contynual and perfite remembrance to your weale, exaltation, honor, and profite as your merits and deserts condignely and worthely do requyre. Praying you also to geve on our behalf special thanks unto all the lords, capitains, and other whiche to their grete payn and travaile have right towardly, benivolently, and conformably served us under you in this Jorney, for whose more corage and comforte, we at this tyme sende suche lettres of thanks as ye desire.

Over this we having tendre respect unto your helthe and comfort, have resolved and determyned that upon advertisement receyved from you of skalinga of the said duks armye, and aunswer therupon geven unto you, with ordre for establishing of suche garnisons and other direction to be taken there as for the suretie and weale of that countrey slialbe thought expedient, ye shal then have our Lettres of discharge of your office there and retorne unto us accordingly ; being myndyd according to your advice and opynyon that our right trusty counsaillor the Lorde Dacres whom we thinke most mete and able therfor, shal exercise also th'office of Wardeyn of our Est and Myddel Marches for a season, to whom we shall then with our lettres sende sufficient commyssion accordingly. Having no doubte but that by suche direction as our most entierly welbeloved counsaillour the Lord Legate Cardinal Archebisshop of Yorke and our Chauncelor hathe advertised you, ye be before this tyme sufficiently furnished of money for defraying of that our Armye as shal appertayn.

Yeven under our Signet at our manor of Woodstok the xijth day of November.

To our right trusty and right welbeloved Cousin and Counsaillor th'Erle of Surrey our Treasorer and Admiralle of England.

Note a. dispersing.

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Around Oct 1528. Anne Boleyn (age 27) to Cardinal Wolsey (age 55).

[MS. COTTON. OTHO. C. X. fol. 218. Orig.]

Fiddes, at the end of his Life of Wolsey, has printed this and another Letter to the Cardinal from Anne Boleyn previous to her marriage. He has indeed printed three Lettersa; but the second of the three, as appears from its contents, must have been addressed to archbishop Cranmer.

The mention of the Sweating Sickness in the Letter immediately before the Reader, as well as the anxiety it expresses for the coming of Campegius and the hastening of his decision, show that it must have been written in the autumn of 1528. It is here introduced to prepare the Reader more regularly for the perusal of those Letters which describe Anne Boleyn's advancement to the Throne and her Catastrophe.

This Letter, since Fiddes saw it, has suffered materially in the fire which injured the Cottonian Library in 1731. The words in brackets have been supplied from Fiddes's copy.

MY Lord, in my most, humblyst wyse that my powuer hart can thynke I do thanke your Grace for your kynd Letter, and for youer rych and goodly present, the whyche I shall never be able to desarve wyth owt your gret helpe, of the whyche I have hetherto hade so grete plente that all the dayes of my lyfe I am moaste bownd [of] all creators next the Kyngs Grace to love and serve your Grace, of the whyclie I besyche yo[u never] to dowte that ever I shalle vary fromc this thought as long a[s ony bre]the is in my body. And as tochyng your Graces troble with the Swet [I thanke o]wer Lorde that them that I desyerd and prayed for ar sca[pyd, and th]at is the Kyng and you. Not doughthyng bot that God [has preserjvyd you bothe for grete cawsys knowen allonly of his hy[gh wysdom]e. And as for the commyng of the Legate, I desyer that moche; [and yf it be Godds] pleasor I pray hym to send this matter shortly to [a good ende]: and then I trust my Lord to recompence part of your grfete panys the whych] I must requyer you in the meane tyme to excepte [my good wyll in t]he stede of the power, the whyche must prosede partly f[rom you as ower Lo]urd knoweth to whom I be syche to sende you lon[ge lyfe with continew]ance in honor. Wrytten wyth the hande of her th[at is most bound to be]

You[r humble and] obed[yent servante]

[Anne Boleyn (age 27).]

Note a. Fiddes's Life of Card. Wolsey, fol. Loud. 1726. Collect, p. 204, 205.

The other Letter which Fiddes has printed, and which is still preserved in the Cottonian Volume Vcspas. F. XIII. fol. 55, is stronger in expressions of thankfulness toward Wolsey than this.

Both Letters indeed contain such assurances of regard, that Anne Boleyn has heen charged with ingratitude for not aiding Wolsey in his declining fortune. Though with how little propriety the reflecting reader will determine for himself, who remembers that Wolsey, after separating Lord Percy from Anne Boleyn's affections, would have married Henry to a foreign Princess.

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Cardinal Wolsey (age 55) in his distress to Thomas Cromwell (age 43). [Around Nov 1528]

WnBMRjQeMS. COTTON. VESP. F. xiii. foL J6. Orig.

The Letter here presented to the reader was printed some years ago, by the Editor of the present Volumes, in the Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries.

Wolsey, who knew the talents of Cromwell, seems to have placed great reliance on his integrity and affection. Cromwell, according to Cavendish in his life of Wolsey, became a member of the lower House of Parliament in the month of November 1529, within a short time from which the present Letter must have been written. He appears to have protected his master in the Lower House with great dexterity and address.

Fox, in his Acts and Monuments, has related an anecdote of Cromwell which may be worth introducing here. It occurred in 1540, at the table of Archbishop Cranmer, when certain guests were making a comparison of the qualities of the two prelates Cranmer and Wolsey. " The Lord Cromwell being somewhat touched to hear the Cardinal's service cast in his teeth," said " that he could not deny but he was servant sometime to Cardinal Wolsey, neither did repent the same, for he received of him both fee, meate, and drinke, and other commodities : but yet he was never so farre in love with him as to have waited on him to Rome if he had been chosen Pope."

Myn owne enterly belouyd Cromwell, I beseche yow, as ye loue me and wyl euyr do any thyng for me, repare hyther thys day as sone as the Parlement ys brokyn vp, leyng aparte all thyngs for that tyme; for I wold nut onely commynycat thyngs vnto yow wherin for my comfort and relief I wold haue your good, sad, dyscret aduyse and counsell, but also opon the same commytt sertyng thyngs requyryng expedicion to yow, on my behalf to be solycy tyd : this, I pray yow therfor, to hast your commyng hyther assafore, with owt omyttyng so to do as ye tendyr my socor, reliff, and comfort, and quyetnes of mynde. And thus fare ye wel : from Asher, in hast, thys Satyrday, in the mornyng, with the rude hande and sorowfull hert of your assuryd louer

T. CARLIS EBOR.

I haue also serteyn thyngs consernyng yowr sylf wych I am suere ye wolbe glad to here and knowe : fayle not therfor to be here thys nygth, ye may retorne early in the mornyng ageyn yf nede shul so requyre. Et iterum vale.

Mr. Agtlsteyna shewyd me how ye had wryttyn onto me a Lettre wherin ye shuld adu'tyse me of the commyng hyther of the Duke of Norfolke: I assure yow ther cam to my hands no suche Lettre.

Note a. Augustinus de Augustinis, or Mr. Augustine as he is more usually called, was the Cardinal's Physician. In the Cottonian Manuscript Titus B. I. fol. 365. there is a Letter of his, to Thomas Cromwell, in Italian, requiring speedy medical assistance. apparently tor Cardinal Wolsey. It it dated Asher, Jan. 19th 1529-30.

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Cardinal Wolsey (age 55) to Dr. Stephen Gardener (age 45), afterwards Bishop of Winchester.

[MS. LANSDOWNE BRIT. Mus. 1296. art 12. Orig.] [Around Nov 1528]

Wolsey, in the fatal reverse of his fortunes was entirely deserted by the Nobility. In his elevation he had treated them with scorn and rudeness; and the consciousness of this added much to his dejection. When the blow of adversity first fell upon him he seems to have believed that no friends were left to him in the world but CROMWELL and GARDENER.

Skelton has enlarged upon his treatment of the Nobility in his "Why come ye not to Courte :"

The Erie of Northumberland

Dare take nothing on hand.

Our barons be so bolde,

Into a mouse hole they wold

Runne away and creep,

Like a mainy of sheep:

Dare not loke out a dur

For drede of the maystife cur,

!For drede of the boucher's dog.

"For and this curre do gnar,

They must stande all afar

To holde up their hand at the bar.

For all their noble bloude

He pluckes them by the hood,

And shakes them by the eare,

And bryngs them in such feare;

He bayteth them lyke a beare,

Like an Ox or a Bul;

Their wittes he sayth are dul;

He sayth they have no brayne

Their estate to maintaine:

And make to bowe the knee

Before his Majestie."

But Wolsey carried his hauteur even further than this; as another extract from Skelton will show, respecting the waiting of persons who attended him on business:

"My Lord is not at layser.

Syr ye must tary a stound

Tyl better layser be found;

And Syr ye must daunce attendance.

And take patient sufferaunce,

For my Lords Grace

Hath now no time nor space

To speak with you as yet,

And thus they shal syt,

Chuse them syt or flit,

Stand, walke, or ride

And his laiser abide

Parchaunce half a yere,

And yet never the nere."

And that this Picture is not overcharged appears from a letter of Thomas Allen chaplain to the Earl of Shrewsbury, a copy of which has been preserved by bishop Kennett in one of the Volumes of his Manuscripts now in the Lansdowne Collectiona . The original was written about the month of April 1517.

"Pleseth your Lordship to understande upon Monday was sennight last past I delivered your Letter with the examinacyon to my Lord Cardynall at Guilford, whence he commanded me to wait on him to the Court; I followed him, and there gave attendance, and could have no aunswer. Upon Friday last he came from thence to Hampton Court, where he lyeth. The morrow after I besought his Grace I might know his plesure; I could have no answer. Upon Mondaye last as he walked in the parke at Hampton Court, I besought his Grace I might knowe if he wolde command me anye service. He was not content with me that I spoke to hym. So that who shall be a suitour to him may have no other busynesse but give attendance upon his plesure. He that shall so doe, it is nedefull should be a wyser man then I am. I sawe no remedy, but came without answere, excepte I wolde have done as my Lord Dacre's servaunt doth, who came with Letters for the Kynges service five moneihs since and yet h?.th no answere : and another Servaunt of the Deputy of Calais likewyse who came before the other to Walsingham I heard, when he aunswered them, If ye be not contente to tary my leysure, departe when ye wille." This is truthe. I had rather your Lordship commaunded me to Rome then deliver him letters, and bring aunswers to the same. When he walketh in the parke he will suffer no servaunt to come nyghe him, but commands them awaye as farre as one might shoote an arrowe."

After this statement, no one will wonder that Wolsey should have been forsaken by the nobility and courtiers. Even Cavendish says, " I assure you. in his time he was the haughtiest man in all his proceedings alive,"

The bishoprick of Winchester, which is more than once mentioned in these Letters, and which the King suffered him nominally to retain, was one of the last of the numerous preferments which Wolsey accumulated before his fall. The temporalities were restored to him as late as the 6th and he was installed in it on the 11th. of April 1529.

My owne goode Mastyr Secretary, aftyr my moste herty recommendacions, with lycke thanks for your goodness towards me, thes shalbe to advirtyse yow that I have beyn informyd by my trusty frende Thomas Crowmuell (age 43) that ye have sygnyfied unto hym to my synguler consolacions howe that the Kyngs Hyghnes (age 37), mouyd with pity and compassyon, and of his excellent goodnes and cheryti consyderyng the lamentable condicion and stat that I stand yn, hath wyllyd yow with other lords and mastyrs of hys honorable Cownsell to intende to the perfygttyng and absolvyng, without further tract or delay, of myn end and appoyntment, and that my pardon shulde be made in the most ample forme that my cownsell cowde devyse; for thys the Kyngs moste gracyous remembraunce, procedyng of hymsylf, I accompte my sylf not onely moste bowndyn to serve and pray for the preservation of hys moste Royal Majeste, but also thancke God that ye have occasyon govyn unto you to be a sollycyter and setter forth of such thyngs as do and shall conserve my said ende, in the makyng and compownyng whereof myn assuryd trust ys that ye wele shewe the love and affeccion wych ye have and bere towards me your old lover and frende. So declaryng your sylf therin that the world may perceive that by your good meanys the Kyng ys the better goode Lorde unto me; and that, nowe, newly in miiner commyng to the world, ther may be such respect had to my poore degre, olde age, and longe contyrtuyd servys, as shal be to the Kyngs hygh honor and your gret prayse and laude, wych undowttydly shal folowe vf ye extende yowr beny volence towards me and mine, perceiving that by your wysdom and dexteryte I shalbe releuyd and in this my calamyte holpyn. At the reverens therfor of God, myn owne goode M. Secretary and refuge, nowe set to your hande that I may come to a laudable ende and reposse; seyng that I may be furnyshyd aftyr suche a sorte and maner as I may ende my short tyme and lyff to the honor of Cryst's Churche and the Prince. And, besydys my dayly prayer and true hert, I shal so requyte your kyndnes as ye shal haue cause to thyncke the same to be wel imployed, lycke as my seyde trusty frende shal more amply shewe unto yow to whom yt may please yow to give for me credens and loving audience : and I shall pray for the increase of your honor. Wryttyn at Asher with the tremylling hand and hevy hart of your assuryd lover and bedysman.

T. CARLIS EBOR.

To the rygth honorable and my synguler goode frende Master Secretary.

Note 1. MS, Lansd. Brit. Mus. 978. fol. 213.

Books, Ellis' Original Letters Illustrative of English History, Ellis' Letters Series 1 Volume 2, Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CIV

Cardinal Wolsey to Dr. Stephen Gardener. [Around Nov 1528]

[MS. MUS. ASHMOL. oxoN. Orig.]

MY owne goode mastyr Secretary aftyr my moste herty commendacons I pray you at the reverens of God to help, that exspedicion be usyd in my presents, the delay wherof so replenyssheth my herte with hevynes, that I can take no reste; nat for any vayne fere, but onely for the miserabli condycion that I am presently yn, and lyclyhod to contynue in the same onles that ye, in whom ys myn assuryd truste, do help and releve me therein; for fyrst contynuyng here in thys mowestea and corrupt eyer, beyng enteryd in to the passyon of the dropsy, cum prostratione appetitus, et continuo insompnusb, I cannat lyve; wherfor of necessyte I muste be removyd to summe other dryer eyer and place, wher I may have comodyte of Physycyans. Secondly havyng but Yorke, wych ys now decayd by viijC.' 1 by the yeere I can nat tell how to lyve and kepe the poore nombyr of folks wych I novve have; my howsys ther be in decay, and of every thyng mete for howsold onprovidyd and furnyshyd. I have non apparell for my howsys ther, nor money to bryng me thether, nor to lyve with tyl the propyssec tyme of the year shal come to remove thither. Thes thyngs consyderyd, Mr. Secretary, must nedys make me in agony and hevynes; myn age therwith and sycknes consyderyd. Alas Mr. Secretary, ye with other my lordys shewyd me that I shuld otherwyse be furnyshyd, and seyn unto. Ye knowe in your lernyng and consyens whether I shuld forfit my spiritualties of Wynchester or no. Alas the qualytes of myn offencys consyderyd, with the gret punisshement and losse of goodes that I have sustignyd, owt to move petyfull hertys. And the moste nobyl Kyng, to whom yf yt wold please yow of your cherytabli goodnes to shew the premyses aftyr your accustomable wysdom and dexteryte, yt ys nat to be dowettyd but hys Hyhnes wold have consyderacon and compassion, aggmentyng my lyvyng, and appoyntyng such thyngs as shuld be convenyent for my furniture; wych to do shalbe to the Kyngs high honer, meryte, and dyscharge of consyens; and to yow gret praysse for the bryngyng of the same to passe for your olde brynger up and lovyng frende. Thys kyndnes exibite from the Kyngs Hyghnes shal prolong my lyff for sum lytyl whyl, thow yt shall nat be long; by the meane wherof hys Grace shal take profygtt, and by my deth non. What ys yt to hys Hyhnes to geve summe convenyent porcion owt of Wynchester and Seynt Albons, hys Grace takyng with my herty good wyl the resydued. Remembyr, good Mr. Secretary, my poore degre and what servys I have done: and how nowe approchyng to deth I must begyn the world ageyn. I beseche yow therfor, movyd with pity and compassyon, soker me in thys my calamyti, and to your power, wych I do knowe ys gret, releve me: and I with all myn shall not onely ascrybe thys my relef unto yow, but also pray to God for the increase of your honor. And as my pooree shal increase, so I shal not fayle to acquyte yor kyndnes. Wryttyn hastely at Asher with the rude and shackyng hand of your dayly bedysman and assuryd frende.

T. CARLIS EBOR.

To the rygth honorable And ray assuryd frende Mastyr Secretary.

Note a. moist.

Note b. cum prostratione appetitus, et continuo insompnus ie with prostration of the appetite, and continuous sleeplessness.

Note c. propitious.

Note d.

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17 Jun 1533. Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury, to Mr Hawkyns the Ambassador at the Emperors Court; upon the divorce of Queen Catherine, and the Coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn. A. D. 1533.

[MS. HARL. BRIT. MUS. 6148.]

The following Letter from Cranmer (age 43) to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, is taken from the archbishop's rough copy-book of his own Letters.

The passage in it which concerns the secret marriage of Henry (age 41) and Anne Boleyn (age 32) is, perhaps, the most important of the whole; as tending to throw light upon the real time of a transaction on which our historians have differed.

Hall and Hollinshed both name ST. ERKENWALD's day for the marriage, November the fourteenth; the very day on which Henry and Anne arrived at Dover from the Interview with Francisa. But this was a time ill-adapted to concealment; and was probably fixed upon at a later moment, only that the world might believe that the fruit of the marriage was conceived in wedlockb

Stow fixes the twenty-fifth of January following, that is ST. PAUL'S day, for the time; and says the ceremony was performed by Dr . Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop of Chesterc. Cranmer merely says it was much about ST. PAUL'S day.

At all events the marriage was celebrated before even Cranmer's divorce had been pronounced. Lord Herbert asserts, with what truth the present Letter will declare, that Cranmer himself was at the marriaged.

Whether the following Account of this transaction came from the fictions of Sanders, or from the manuscript History of the Divorce presented to Queen Mary thirty years before the work of Sanders was published, matters not: it is to be regretted that, uncorroborated, it should have found its way into a work, in many points of view so valuable as Lingard's History of England.

"On the 25th of January at an early hour, Dr. Rowland Lee, one of the royal chaplains, received an order to celebrate mass in a garret at the western end of the palace at Whitehall. There he found the King attended by Norris and Heneage, two of the grooms of chamber, and Anne Boleyn accompanied by her train-bearer Anne Savage, afterwards Lady Berkeley. We are told that Lee, when he discovered the object for which he had been called, made some opposition: but Henry calmed his scruples with the assurance that Clement had pronounced in his favour, and that the Papal instrument was safely deposited in his closet. As soon as the marriage ceremony had been performed, the parties separated in silence before it was light"e.

Note a. Hall, Chron. edit. 1809. p. 794. Hollinsh. edit. 1808; vol. ili.-p. 777

Note b. Queen Elizabeth was born on September the 7th 1533.

Note c. Stow, Ann. edit 1631. p. 562.

Note d. Herb. Life of Hen. VIII. edit. 1649. p. 341. Burnet in his History of the Reformation has likewise fallen into this error.

Note e. Linguard Hist Engl. 1st edit vol. iv. p. 196.

IN my most hartie wise I commende me unto you and even so woulde be right gladd to here of your welfare, &c. Thes be to advertise you that inasmoche as you nowe and than take some paynes in writyng vnto me, I woulde be lothe you shuld thynke your Labour utterly lost and forgotten for lake of wrytyng agayne; therefore and by cause I reken you be somedele desirous of suche newis as hathe byn here with us of late in the Kyngis Graces matters, I entend to enforme you a parte therof accordyng to the tenure and purporte vsyd in that behalf.

Ande fyrste as towchyng the small determynacion and concludyng of the matter of devorse betwene my Lady Kateren and the Kyngs Grace, whiche said matter after the Convocacion in that behalf hadde determyned and aggreed accordyng to the former consent of the Vniversites, yt was thowght convenient by the Kyng and his lernyd Councell that I shuld repayre unto Dunstable, which ys within iiij. myles vnto Amptell [Map], where the said Lady Kateren (age 47) kepeth her howse, and there to call her before me, to here the fynall Sentance in this said mateir. Notwithstandyng she would not att all obey therunto, for whan she was by doctour Lee cited to appear by a daye, she utterly refused the same, sayinge that inasmoche as her cause was before the Pope she would have none other judge; and therfore woulde not take me for her judge.

08 May 1533. Nevertheless the viij th daye of Maye, accordyng to the said appoyntment, I came vnto Dunstable, my Lorde of Lyncoln (age 60) beyng assistante vnto me, and my Lorde of Wyncehester (age 50), Doctour Bell, Doctour Claybroke, Doctour Trygonnel, Doctour Hewis, Doctour Olyver, Doctour Brytten, Mr. Bedell, with diuerse other lernyd in the Lawe beyng councellours in the Lawe for the King's parte: and soo there at our commyng kepte a Courte for the apperance of the said Lady Kateren (age 47), where were examyned certeyn witnes whiche testified that she was lawfully cited and called to appere, whome for fawte of apperance was declared contumax; procedyng in the said cause agaynste her in pænam contumaciam as the processe of the Lawe thereunto belongeth; whiche contynewed xv. dayes after our cummyng thither. And the morow after Assension daye I gave finall Sentance therin, howe that it was indispensable for the Pope to lycense any suche marieges.

This donne, and after our reiornynga1 home agayne, the Kings Highnes prepared al thyngs convenient for the Coronacion of the Queene, whiche also was after suche a maner as foloweth.

29 May 1533. The Thursdaye nexte before the feaste of Pentecost, the Kyng (age 41) and the Queene (age 32) beyng at Grenewyche, all the Craftes of London thereunto well appoynted, in severall bargis deckyd after the most gorgiouse and sumptuous maner, with dyverse pagiantes thereunto belongyng, repayred and wayted all together upon the Mayre of London; and so, well furnysshed, cam all vnto Grenewiche, where they taryed and wayted for the Queenes commyng to her barge: which so done, they brought her unto the Tower, tromppets, shambesa2 and other dyverse instrumentes all the wayes playng and makyng greate melodic, which, as ys reported, was as combly donne as neuer was lyke in any tyme nyghe to our rememberaunce. And so her Grace cam to the Tower on Thursdaye at nyghte, abowte v. of the clocke, where also was suche a pele of gonnes as hathe not byn harde lyke a great while before.

30 May 1533. And the same nyghte, and Frydaye aldayeb2 , the Kyng (age 41) and Queene (age 32) taryed there; and on Frydaye at nyght the Kyngs Grace made xviij knyghts of the Bathe, whose creacion was not alonly so strange to here of, as also their garmentes stranger to beholde or loke on; whiche said Knightes, the nexte daye, whiche was Saturday, rydde before the Queene's grace thorowte the Citie of London towards Westminster palice, over and besyds the moste parte of the nobles of the Realme, whiche lyke accompanied her grace thorowe owte the said citie; she syttyng in her heere, upon a Horse Lytter, rychely appareled, and iiij knyghtes of the v. ports beryng a Canapye over her hedd. And after her cam iiij. riche charettes, one of them emptie, and iij. other furnysshed with diuerse auncient old lades; and after them cam a great trayne of other Ladies and gyntillwomen: whyche said Progresse, from the begynnyng to thendyng, extendid half a myle in leyngthe by estimacion or thereabout. To whome also, as she came alongeste the Citie, was shewid many costely pagiants, with diverse other encomyes spoken of chyldren to her; wyne also runyng at certeyne Condits plentiously. And so procedyng thorowte the streats, passid furthe vnto Westminster Hall, where was a certeyn banket prepared for her, which donne, she was conveyd owte of the bake syde of the palice into a Barge and so vnto Yorke Place, where the Kyng's grace was before her comyng, for this you muste ever presuppose that his Grace came allwayes before her secretlye in a Barge aswell frome Grenewyche to the Tower as from the Tower to Yorke place.

01 Jun 1533. Nowe than on Soundaye was the Coronacion, which allso was of such a maner.

In the mornynge ther assembled withe me at Westminster Churche the bysshop of Yorke, the Bishop of London (age 58), the Bishop of Wynchester (age 50), the Bishop of Lyncoln (age 60), the Bishop of Bathe, and the Bishop of Saint Asse (age 58), the Abbote of Westminstre with x or xij moo Abbottes, whiche all revestred ourselfs in our pontificalibus, and, soo furnysshed, withe our Crosses and Crossiers, procedid oute of th' Abbey in a procession unto Westminstre Hall, where we receyved the Queene (age 32) apareled in a Robe of purple velvet, and all the ladyes and gentillwomen in robes and gownes of scarlet accordyng to the maner vsed before tyme in such besynes: and so her Grace sustayned of eche syde with ij to bysshops, the Bysshope of London (age 58) ande the Bysshop of Wynchester (age 50), came furthe in processyon unto the Churche of Westminster, she in her here, my Lord of Suffolke (age 49) berying before herr the Crowne, and ij to other Lords beryng also before her a Ceptur and a white Rodde, and so entred up into the highe Alter, where diverse Ceremoneys used aboute her, I did sett the Crowne on her hedde, and then was songe Te Deum, &c. And after that was song a solempne Masse, all which while her grace sjatt crowned upon a scaffold whiche was made betwene the Highe Alter and the Qwyer in Westminstre Churche; which Masse and ceremonyes donne and fynysshed, all the Assemble of noble men broughte her into Westminstre Hall agayne, where was kepte a great solempne feaste all that daye; the good ordre therof were to longe to wrytte at this tyme to you. But nowe Sir you may nott ymagyn that this Coronacion was before her mariege, for she was maried muche about sainte Paules daye last, as the condicion therof dothe well appere by reason she ys nowe sumwhat bygg with chylde. Notwithstandyng yt hath byn reported thorowte a greate parte of the realme that I (age 43) maried her; whiche was playnly false, for I myself knewe not therof a fortenyght after yt was donne. And many other thyngs be also reported of me, whiche be mere lyes and tales.

Other newys have we none notable, but that one Fryth, whiche was in the Tower in pryson, was appoynted by the Kyngs grace to be examyned befor me, my Lorde of London, my lorde of Wynchestre, my Lorde of Suffolke, my Lorde Channcelour, and my Lorde of Wylteshere, whose opynion was so notably erroniouse, that we culde not dyspache hym but was fayne to leve hym to the determynacion of his Ordinarye, whiche ys the bishop of London. His said opynyon ys of suche nature that he thoughte it nat necessary to be beleved as an Article of our faythe, that ther ys the very corporall presence of Christe within the Oste and Sacramente of the Alter, and holdethe of this poynte muste after the Opynion of Oecolampadious. And suerly I myself sent for hym iij or iiij tymes to perswade hym to leve that his Imaginacion, but for all that we could do therin he woulde not applye to any counsaile, notwithstandyng nowe he ys at a fynall ende with all examinacions, for my Lorde of London hathe gyven sentance and delyuerd hym to the secular power, where he loketh every daye to goo unto the fyer. And ther ys also condempned with hym one Andrewe a taylour of London for the said self same opynion.

And thus farr you well, from my manor of Croydon the xvij. daye of June.

Note a. Hall, Chron. edit. 1809. p. 794. Holinsh. edit. 1808. vol. iii. p. 777.

Note b. Queen Elizabeth was born on September the 7th. 1533.

Note c. Stow, Ann. edit. 1631. p. 562.

Note d. Herb. Life of Hen. VIII. edit. 1649. p. 341. Bumet in his History of the Reformation has likewise fallen into this error.

Note e. Lingard's Hist Engl. 1st. edit. vol. iv. p. 190.

a1. re-journying.

a2. shaums.

b2. all day.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 01 Jun 1533. Memorandum, the first dale of June,d Queene Anne (age 32) was brought from Westminster Hall to the Abbey of Sainct Peeter's [Map] with procession, all the monkes of Westminster going in rytch copes of golde with 13 abbotts mitred; and after them all the Kinges Chappell in rych copes with fower bushopps and tow archbishopps mittred, and all the Lordes going in their Perliament roabes,e and the crowne borne afore her by the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and her tow scepters by tow Earles, and she herself going under a rytch canapie of cloath of golde, apparailed in a kirtell of crymson velvett powdred with ermyns, and a robe of purple velvett furred with powdred ermines over that, and a rich cronett with a calla of pearles and stones on her hedde, and the olde Dutches of Norfolke (age 56)b bearing upp her traine in a robe of scarlett with a cronett of golde on her bonett, and the Lorde Boroughe,c the Queenes Chamberlaine, staying the traine in the middes; and after her tenne ladies following in robes of scarlett furred with ermins and rounde cronettes of golde on their heades; and next after theim all the Queenes maides in gownes of scarlett edged with white lettushe furre; and so was shee brought to Sainct Peeters Church [Map] at Westminster, and their sett in her seate riall, which was made on a high scaffolde before the highe aulter; and their shee was anoynted and crowned Queene of Englande by the Archbishopp of Canterberied1 and the Archbishoppe of Yorke, and so sate crowned in her seate riall all the masse, and offred also at the said masse; and the masse donne, they departed everie man in their degrees to Westminster Hall [Map], she going still under the cannapie crowned with towe septers in hir handes, my Lorde of Wilshire, her father,e1 and the Lorde Talbottf leadinge her, and so theire dynned; wheras was made the most honorable feast that hath beene seene.

The great hall at Westminster was rytchlie hanged with rych cloath of Arras, and a table sett at the upper ende of the hall, going upp twelve greeses,a2 where the Queene dyned; and a rytch cloath of estate hanged over her heade; and also fower other tables alongest the hall; and it was rayled on everie side, from the highe deasse in Westminster Hall to the scaffold in the church in the Abbaj.

And when she went to church to her coronation their was a raye cloath,b2 blew, spreed from the highe dessesc of the Kinges Benche unto the high alter of Westminster, wheron she wente.

Note B. the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 23), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

And when the Queenes grace had washed her handes, then came the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), High Constable that daie and stewarde of the feast, ryding on horsebacke rytchlie apparailed and trapped, and with him, also ridinge on horsebacke, the Lorde William (age 23) Howarde as deputie for the Duke of Norfolke (age 60) in the romthd2 of the Marshall of Englande, and the Queenes servicee2 following them with the Archbishopps, a certaine space betwene which was bornef2 all by knightes, the Archbishopp sitting at the Queenes borde, at the ende, on her left hande.g2 The Earle of Sussex (age 50) was sewer, the Earle of Essex carver, the Earle of Darbie (age 24) cuppbearer, the Earle of Arrondell (age 57) butler, the Viscount Lisle (age 69) pantler, the Lord Gray almoner.

Att one of the fower tables sate all the noble ladies all on one side of the hall, at the second table the noble men, at the thirde table the Major of Londonh2 with the Aldermen, att the fowerth table the Barons of the Fortes with the Masters of the Chauncerie. The goodlie dishes with the delicate meates and the settles which were all gilt, with the noble service that daie done by great men of the realme, the goodlie sweete armonie of minstrells with other thinges were to long to expresse, which was a goodlie sight to see and beholde.

And when shee had dined and washed her handes she stoode a while under the canopie of estate, and behelde throwghe the hall, and then were spices brought with other delicates, which were borne all in great high plates of gold, wherof shee tooke a litle refection, and the residue geavinge among the lordes and ladies; and that donne she departed up to the White Hall, and their changed her apparell, and so departed secreetlie by water to Yorke Place [Map], which is called White Hall, and their laie all night.

Note d. Whitsanday. Compare this with the account of the receiving and coronation of Anne Boleyn in MS. Harleian. Cod. 41, arts. 2-5, and MS. Harleian. 543, fol. 119.

Note e. Henry's (age 41) first wife, Katharine of Aragon (age 47), was crowned with him, and a magnificent ceremony was ordained for her successful rival Anne Boleyn, but none of the other wives of Henry were honoured with a coronation.

Note a. A caul was a kind of net in which women inclosed their hair.

Note b. Grandmother (age 56) of Anne Boleyn, being widow of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, whose daughter Elizabeth (age 53) married Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 56), afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, the father of Anne.

Note. b, immediately above, appears to be a mistake? The grandmother of Anne Boleyn was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey, first wife of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He, Thomas, married secondly his first wife's first cousin Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) who must be the old Duchess of Norfolk referred to since Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey died in Apr 1497.

Note c. Thomas, Lord Bnrgh of Gainsboroogh (age 45).

d1. In Sir Henry Ellis's Collection of Original Letters occurs a very interesting letter written by Cranmer to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, giving his own account of the pronouncing of sentence on Katharine and of the coronation of Anne Boleyn (age 32).

e1. Anne Boleyn's father (age 56) had been created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond on the 8th December, 1529.

a2. Steps or stain, Latin gressus.

b2. Striped cloth.

Note c. Desks.

d2. Room.

e2. Suite.

f2. Occupied.

g2. Stow expressly states that Archbishop Cranmer sat on the right hand of the Queen at the table's end. Ed. 1631, p. 567.

h2. Sir Stephen Pecocke.

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Queen Anne Boleyn to Thomas Cromwell.

[MS. Cotton. Cleop. E. V. Fol. 330 b. Orig.]

From the following Letter, if from no other source, it may be gathered that Anne Boleyn favoured the dissemination of the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue. Her own copy of Tyndal's translation of The Newe Testament, imprinted at Antwerp by Marten Emperowr, Anno M. D. xxxiiij." is still extant among the Books bequeathed, in 1799, to the British Museum, by the rev. Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode. It is upon vellum, illuminated. Upon the gilding of the leaves, in a red letter, are the words ANNA REGINA ANGLIC.

[14 May 15] Anne The Quene. By the Quene.

Trustie and right welbiloued we grete you well. And where as we be crediblie enformed that the berer hereof Richard Herman marchaunte and citizen of Antwerpe in Brabant was in the tyme of the late lorde Cardynall put and expelled frome his fredome and felowshipe of and in the Englishe house there, for nothing ells (as he affermethe) but oonly for that that hea dyd bothe with his gooddis and pollicie, to his greate hurte and hynderans in this Worlde, helpe to the settyng forthe of the Newe Testamente in Englisshe. We therefore desire and instantly praye you that with all spede and favoure convenient ye woll cause this good and honeste marchaunt, being my Lordis true faithfull and loving subjecte, restored to his pristine fredome, libertie, and felowshipe aforesaid, and the soner at this cure requeste, and at your good leyser to here hym in suche thinges as he hathe to make further relacion unto you in this behalf. Yeven undir our Signete at my Lordis manoure of Grenewiche the xiiijV 1 daye of May.

To our trustie and right welbeloved

Thomas Crumwell squyer Chief Secretary unto my Lorde the Kings Highnes.

Note a. The words still like a good crystal man" are here obliterated : the pen having been drawn across them.

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Sir William Kingston to Secretary Cromwell, upon Queen Anne's committal to the Tower.

[MS. COTTON. OTHO c. x. fol. 225. Orig.]

Six Letters are now presented to the Reader, relating to the Arrest and Behaviour In Prison of Queen Anne Boleyn. They are given as they exist at present; in part mutilated by the ravages of the fire of 1731. Of Anne Boleyn's conviction we know nothing beyond the fact. The judicial documents relating to her Trial are stated to have perished : but whether destroyed by Henry the Eighth or Elizabeth is not known.

Anne Boleyn's last memorable Letter to King Henry the Eighth, " from her doleful prison in the Tower," is omitted in this Collection. It is universally known as one of the finest compositions in the English Language, and is only mentioned here, to obviate a notion which has gone abroad against it as a forgery.

The Original, it is believed, is not remaining now : but the Copy of it preserved among Lord Cromwell's papers together with Sir William Kyngston's Letters, is certainly in a hand- writing of the time of Henry the Eighth : and Sir William Kyngston's evidence will show that Anne was too closely guarded to allow of any one concerting such a Letter with her. That it rises in style above Anne Boleyn's other compositions cannot be disputed, but her situation was one which was likely to rouse a cultivated mind ; and there is a character of nature in the Letter, a simplicity of expression, and a unity of feeling, which it may be doubted whether Genius itself could have feigned. The pity of posterity has been more fixed upon Anne Boleyn by that Letter, than by all the cruel circumstances related in her Story.

Who was Sir William Kyngston ? is a question, which they who peruse the Letters immediately before the reader, will in all probability indignantly ask.

SIR WILLIAM KYNGSTON, as the Letters will show, was the Lieutenant of the Tower ; he was also Captain of the King's Guard ; and at one time treasurer of his Household. He was in the confidence of the King, and his office of Lieutenant of the Tower gave him access to the royal person at any hour, even of the night. He was evidently a man of a stern unfeeling character. When the Earl of Northumberland had arrested Wolsey upon his last journey, Cavendish named to the Cardinal that the King had sent Mr. Kyngston and twenty four of the guard, to conduct Wolsey to his Highness. " Mr. Kyngston, quoth he, rehersing his name once or twice ; and with that clapped his hand on his thigh and gave a deep sigh."

Wolsey was not unacquainted with this man, nor with the secrets of his Office. When Kyngston made all those professions of homage and respect which Wolsey had been used to in his better days ; he simply said, " Mr. Kingston, all the comfortable words ye have spoken to me, be spoken but for a purpose to bring me into a fool's Paradise : / know what is provided for me"a

Note a. Cavend. Life of Wolsey, Wordsv. edi.t p. 531.

Thys ys to advertyse you apon my Lord of Norfolk and the Kyngs Counsell depart .... from the Towre I went before the Quene in to hyr lodgyng, & .... a sayd unto me M. Kyngston shall I go in to adungyn. Now Madam y .... b shall go into your logyng that you lay in at your Coronacion. It ys to gu .... c for me, she sayd, Jesu have mrcy on me : and kneled downe wepyng a pace, and in the same sorow fell in to agret lawyng, and she hathe done .... d mony tymes syns. And then she desyred me to move the Kyngs Hynes that she .... e have the sacarment in the closet by hyr chambr, that she my for mercy, for I am as clere from the company of man, as for s .... am clere from you, and am the Kyngs trew Avedded wyf ; and then sh .... M. Kyngston do you know wher for I am here, and I sayd nay, and then when saw you the Kyng and I sayd I saw hym not syns I saw the Tylte yerde and then M. K. I pray you to tell me wher my .... ford f ys, and I told hyr I saw hym afore dyner in the cort. O my swet brod'er. I sayd I left hym at York place, and so I dyd I d she that I shuld be accused with iij men and I can say nay withyowt I shuld oppen my body and ther with opynd .... res Hast thow accused me thow ar in the towre with me, & .... I dy to gether and marke thou art here to O my mother .... for sorow and meche lamented my lady of Worcet' for by ca .... dyd not store in hyr body, and my wyf sayd what shuld .... sayd for the sorow she toke for me : and then she sayd M. K with yowt justs ; & I sayd the porest sugett the Kyng .... ther with she lawed. All thys sayings was yester .... ny & thys moryng dyd talke with mestrys Cofy .... resg dyd say on Sunday last unto the Quenes amn ... ere for the Quene that she was a gud woman .... Cofyn, Madam why shuld ther be hony seche maters .... sayd she I bad hym do so for I asked hym why he hys maryage and he made ansur he wold tary .... loke for ded mens showys, for yf owth can .... you wold loke to have mo; and he sayd yf he .... he wold hys hed war of, and then she sayd .... and ther with thay fell yowt bot on Wysson monday [Tuesday] last r that Nores cam mode u .... age and further .... Wher I was commaunded to charge the gentelwemen that y gyf thaye atende apon the Quene that ys to say thay shuld have now commynycaseon with hyr in leseh my wyf ware present, and so I dyd hit, notwithstaundyng it canot be : for my lady Bolen and mestrys Cofyn lyes on the Quenes palet, and I and my wyf at the dore with yowt so atj thay most nedes talke at a be without; bot I have every thyng told me by mestrys Cofyn that she thynks met for mee to knowe, and tother ij gentelwemen lyes with yowt me and as I may knowe .... Kyngs plesur in the premysses I shall folow. From the Towre this mo ......

Note a. she. b. you. c. gide. d. so. e. might. f. my lord Rochford.

Note g. Norres. See Lord Herbert, p. 382.

Note h. unless.

Note j. that.

Sr. syns the makyng of thys letter the Quene spake of Westa .... had spoke to hym by cause he dyd love hyr kynswoma .... he sayd he loved not hys wyf and he made anser to hyr .... loved won in hyr howse bettr then them bothe .... that it ys your self and then she defyed hym.

William King ....

Note a. Sir Francis Weston .

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Sir William Kyngston to Secretary Cromwell, on Queen Anne's behiaviour in Prison.

[MS. COTTON. OTHO c. x. foL 222. Orig.]

After your departyng yesterday, Greneway gentilman ysshar cam to me, & .... M. Caro and Mast' Bryan commanded hym in the Kyngs name to my .... a Ratchfort from my lady hys wyf, and the message was now more se how he dyd; and also she wold humly sut unto the Kyngs Hy .... for hyr husband; and so he gaf hyr thanks, and desyred me to know .... tyme he shuld cum affore the Kyngs counsell, for I thynk I s .... cum forthe tyll I cum to my Jogement, wepyng very .... I departed from hym, and when I cam to the chambr the .... b of me and sent for me, and sayde I here say my lord my .... c here ; it y s trowth sayd I ; I am very glad, sayd sh .... bothe be so ny together ; and I showed hyr here wase .... Weston and Brerton, and she made very gud countenans .... I also sayd M. Page and Wyet wase mo, then she sayd he ha .... on hys fyst tother day and ye here now bot ma .... I shall desyre you to bayre a Letter from me .... Secretory; and then I sayd madam tell it me by .... will do it, and so gaf me thanks saying I ha .... that the Kyng's Counsell comes not to me and thys .... sayd we shuld have now rayne tyll she ware .... of the Towre. I pray you it may beshortly by fayre wether. You know what I mayne the Quen nyght .... that the Kyng wyst what he dyd wh .... ij abowt hyr as my lady Boleyn and Mestres .... Thay cowd tell hyr now thyng of my .... nothyng ellys bot she defyed them all b .... sayd to hyr seche desyre as you heve ha .... base browthe you to thys and then sayd .... ys the worst cherysshe of heny m .... wayres yernes she sayd that was .... gentelman bot he wase never in m .... ther she sent for hym to ple .... logyng was .... for I never spake with hym syns, bot apon Saterday before May day, and then I fond hym standyng in the ronde wyndo in my Chambr of presens, and I asked why he wase so sad and he ansured and sayd it was now mater, and then she sayd you may not loke to have me speke to you as I shuld do to anobull man by cause you be aninferer persson. No no Madam aloke sufficed me; and thus far you well . he hathe asked my wyf whether heny body maks thayr bed .... y wyf ansured and sayd nay I warant you, then she say .... y myght make baletts Well now bot ther ys non bet .... d that can do it, yese sayd my wyf master Wyett by .... sayed trew. .... my lord my brod' will dy. .... ne I am sur thys was as .... tt downe to den' thys day. .... thys day at diner I sent M. Nores hys diner & sent hym aknave to hys .... prest that wayted apon hym withe .... t unto hym and he ansured him agayn .... ny thyng of my confession he ys worthye to have .... hyt I defy hym; and also he desyreth to hav .... If anowre yf it may be the Kyngs plesur.

Willm Kyng ....

Note a. Lord of.

Note b. Quene heard of me.

Note c. brother is.

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Sir William Kyngston to Secretary Cromwell, with further details of the Queen's conduct.

[MS. COTTON. OTHO c. x. fol. 224 b. Orig.]

Sr the Quene hathe meche desyred to have here in the closet the sacarments, & also hyr Amner who she supposeth to be Devet; for won owre she ys determyned to dy, and the next owre meche contrary to that. Yesterday after your departyng I sent for my wyf, & also for mestrys Coffyn to know how thea had done that day, thay sayd she had bene very mery and made agret dyner, and yet sone after she called for hyr supper, havyng marvell wher I was all day; and after supper she sent for me, and at my commyng she sayd "Wher have you bene all day," and I mad ansure I had bene with prysoners, "so" she sayd "I thowth I hard M. tresur ...." I ansured he was not here; then she be gan talke and sayd I was crevely handeled .... agreweche with the Kyngs Counsell with my lord of Norfolke that he sayd .... and shakyng hyr hed iij or iiij tymes, and as for Master Tresurer he was in the T .... You know what she meynes by that, and named Mr. Controler to be avery go .... she to be a Quene and crevely handeled as was never sene ; bot I .... dose it to prove me, and dyd lawth with all and was very mery and th ists and then I sayde have now dowt ther .... then she sayd yf hony man ay & thay can bring now wytnes, and she had talked with the gentell .... sayd I knew at Marks commyng to the Towre that nyght I reysayved .... at it was x. of the cloke or he ware well loged and then she sayd .... knew of Nores goyng to the towre and then she sayd I had .... next yf it had bene leyd she had wone, and then she sayd I w .... y bysshoppys for thay wold all go to the Kyng for me for I thy .... Yngland prays for me and yf I dy you shall se the grette .... e withyn thys vij yere that ever cam to Yngland, & then sh .... I have done mony gud dedys in my days bot zit I thynke .... Kyng to put seche abowt me as I never loved: I showed .... to be honest and gud wemen bot I wold have had .... br weche I favor most &c

Willm Kyngst.

To Mastr. Secretory.

Note a. they.

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Edward Baynton to the Treasurer: declaring that only one person named Mark, will confess any thing against Queen Anne.

[MS. Cotton. Otho C. C. Fol. 209. b. Orig.]

Mr Thesaurer this shalbe to advertyse yow that here is myche communycacion that noman will confesse any thyng agaynst her, but allonly Marke of any actuell thynge. Wherfore (in my folishe conceyte) it shulde myche toche the Kings hono r if it shulde no farther appeere. And I cannot beleve but that the other two bee as f .... culpapull as ever was hee. And I thynke assur .... the on kepith the others councell. As many .... conjectures in my my nde causeth me to thynk ..a. specially of the communycacion that was last bet .... the Quene and Master Norres. M. Aumener .... me as I wolde I myght speke with Mr. S and yow together more playnely expresse my .... yf case be that they have confessyd like wret .... all thyngs as they shulde do than my n .... at apoynte. I have mewsed myche at .... of mastres Margery whiche hath used her .... strangely toward me of late being her fry .... a as I have ben. But no dowte it cann .... but that she must be of councell therewith .... hath ben great fryndeship betwene the Q .... her of late. I herefarther that the Que .... standlith styfly in her opynyon that she wo .... whiche I thynke is in the trust that she .... ther two. But if yor busynes be suche .... not com I wolde gladly com and wayte ke it requysyte. From Grenewy .... mornyng.

Edward

Note a. frynd.

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16 May 1536. Sir William Kingston (age 60) to Secretary Cromwell (age 51), May 16th 1536, upon the preparations for the execution of my Lord Rochford and Queen Anne.

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Sir William Kingston (age 60) to Lord Cromwell (age 51), apparently May 18th 1536.

[MS. COTTON. OTHO c. x. foL 223. Orig.]

Syr thys shalbe to advertyse you I have resayved your Lett' wherin yo ...aa have strangerys conveyed yowt of the Towre and so thay be by the ... of Richard Gressum, & Will-m Loke, & Wythepoll, bot the umbrb of stra ... not xxx. and not mony; Hothe and the inbassit'of the emperor had a ... ther and honestly put yowt. Sr yf we have not anowrec serten ... d be knowen in London, I thynke hee wilbe bot few and I thynk ...f humburg ware bes: for I suppose she wyll declare hyr self to b ... h woman for all men bot for the Kyng at the or of hyr dei ... mornyngk she sent for me that I myght be with hyr at ... asshe reysayved the gud lord to the in tent I shuld here hy ... towchyng hyr innosensy alway to be clere & in the writy ... she sent for me, and at my commyng she sayd M. Kyngston I he ... l not dy affore none, & I am very sory ther fore; for I thowth ... be dede ... d past my payne. I told hyr it shuld be now payne it w ... m hard say the executr was very gud and I have a lyt ... rn hand abowt it lawyng hartely.

I have sen also wemen executed and atp they have bene in gre ... ige. Thys Lady hasse meche joy and plesur in dethe ... newaly with hyr and hasse bene syns ij of the co ... the effect of hony thyng that ys here at t ... well.

Your ....

Willm Ky

To Mastr. Secretory.

Note a. f. you would have. b. number. c. an hour. d. as it may be. L. Herb. e. here. f. a reasonable. g. L. Herb. h. be a. L. Herb. i. death. k. for this morning. L. Herb. l. I heard say I shall not. L. Herb. m. was so sotell. Herb. n. a lyttel neck and put her hand. Herb. p. that,

The names of those who were called Anne Boleyn's accusers have occurred in the preceding Letters.

The close of her catastrophe shall be detailed in the words of Burnet :

"A little before noon, being the 19th. of May, she was brought to the Scaffold, where she made a short speech to a great company that came to look on the last scene of this fatal Tragedy : the chief of whom were the Dukes of Suffolk (age 52) and Richmond (age 16), the Lord Chancellor, and Secretary Cromwell (age 51), with the Lord Mayor, the Sheriffs, and Aldermen of London. She said she was come to die, as she was judged by the Law ; she would accuse none, nor say any thing of the ground upon which she was judged. She prayed heartily for the King ; and called him a most merciful and gentle Prince, and that he had been always to her a good, gentle, sovereign lord : and if any would meddle with her cause, she required them to judge the best. And so she took her leave of them and of the world ; and heartily desired they would pray for her. After she had been some time in her devotions, being her last words 'to Christ I commend my Soul,' her head was cut off by the hangman of Calais, who was brought over as more expert at beheading than any in England : her eyes and lips were observed to move after her head was cut off, as Spelman writes ; but her body was thrown into a common chest of elm tree, that was made to put arrows in, and was buried in the chapel within the Tower [Map] before twelve o'clock.

"Her brother (deceased) with the other four did also suffer. None of them were quartered, but they were all beheaded, except Smeton, who was hanged. It was generally said, that he was corrupted into that confession, and had his life promised him ; but it was not fit to let him live to tell tales. Norris had been much in the King's favour, and an offer was made him of his life, if he would confess his guilt, and accuse the Queen. But he generously rejected that unhandsome proposition, and said that in his consciiaice he thought her innocent of these things laid to her charge ; but whether she was or not, he would not accuse her of any thing, and he would die a thousand times rather than ruin an innocent person."a

On the day of the execution, Henry the Eighth put on white for mourning, as though he would have said, "I am innocent of this deed:" and the next day was married to Jane Seymour (age 27).

The good Melanchton, whose visit to England was prevented by the afflicting news of the Queen's execution, has elegantly expressed his opinion of her innocence, in a letter to Joachim Camerarius, dated on the fifth of the ides of June 1536:

"Anglicas profectionis cura prorsus liberatus sum. Postquam enim tarn tragic! casus in Anglia acciderunt, magna consiliorum mutatio secuta est. Posterior Regina, Magis Accusata quam Convicta Adulterii, ultimo supplicio affecta est. Quam mirabiles sunt rerum vices, mi Joachime, quantam Dei iram omnibus hominibus denunciant, in quantas calamitates etiam ex summo fastigio potentissimi homines hoc tempore decidunt Haec cum cogito, etiam nobis aerumnas nostras et nostra pericula asquiore animo ferenda esse dispute."b

To some it has been a cause of surprize, that Anne Boleyn should have passed an encomium upon Henry the Eighth at her death. Indeed it is remarkable that at almost every execution hi that sanguinary period, the praise of the Sovereign was pronounced by those who fell upon the scaffold. It seems to have been so directed by the Government. Tyndale, from whose "Practice of Prelates" we have already made an extract respecting the disclosure of Confessions, has another passage upon this point, too important not to be given here:

"When any Great Man is put to death, how his Confessore entreateth him ; and what penance is enjoyned him concerning what he shall say when he cometh unto the place of execution. I coude gesse at a practyse that might make mennes eares glowe."e

In Anne Boleyn's case, however, it may be in part ascribed to anxiety for the safety of her daughter.

Anne Boleyn's execution was a fatal precedent for succeeding times. Henry having beheaded one Queen, proceeded fearlessly to the beheading of another. Elizabeth familiarized the application of the axe to royalty one step farther ; for she beheaded a foreign Queen who had taken shelter in her dominions. Half a Century later, and the people beheaded their Sovereign.

Note a. Burnet, Hist. Reform, vol. i. p. 205.

Note b. Melancht. Epist. 8 Lips. 1569.

Note c. Pract. of Prelates, 12" Marborch, 1530.

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After 17 May 1536. Lady Rocheford (age 31) to Secretary Cromwell (age 51).

[MS. COTTON. VESP. F. xin. foL 109 b. Orig.]

The profligate woman whose smooth Letter now presents itself, was the wife of the viscount Rochford (deceased), the brother of Anne Boleyn (age 35)a. Her calumnies against that injured Queen were equally void of truth and humanity. She even pretended that her own husband was engaged in a criminal correspondence with his sister.

Her career, however, was not of long duration. She entangled herself with the real amours of Queen Catherine Howard (age 13), and, as will be seen hereafter, fell with her upon the scaffold in 1542, unpitied.

The Bill of Attainder of Queen Catherine Howard, stat. 33 Hen. VIII. ch. XXI states that the Queen had met Culpeper "in a secret and vyle place, and that, at an undue hower of xi. a clocke in the night, and so remayned there with him till three of the clocke in the morninge, none being with them but that Bawde the Lady Jane Rochford (age 31), by whose meanes Culpeper came thither."

Mayster Secretory, as a power desolat wydow wythoute comffort, as to my specyall trust under God and my Pryns, I have me most humbly recommendyd unto youe; prayng youe, after your accustemyd gentyll maner to all them that be in suche lamentabull case as I ame in, to be meane to the Kyngs gracyous Hyghnes for me for suche power stuffe and plate as my husbonde (deceased) had, whome God pardon; that of hys gracyous and mere lyberalyte I may have hyt to helpe me to my power lyvyng, whiche to his Hyghnes ys nothynge to be regardyd, and to me schuld be a most hygh helpe and souccor. And farther more, where that the Kyngs Hyghnes and my Lord my father payed great soms of money for my Joynter to the Errell of Wyltchere to the some off too thowsand Marks, and I not assuryd of no more duryng the sayd Errells naturall lyff then one hundreth Marke ; whyche ys veary hard for me to schyffte the worldd wythall. That youe wyfl so specyally tender me in thys behalff as to enforme the Kyngs Hyghnes of these premysses, wherby I may the more tenderly be regardyd of hys gracyous persone, youre Worde in thys schall be to me a sure helpe : and God schall be to youe therfore a sure reward, whyche dothe promes good to them that dothe helpe powere forsaken Wydos. And bothe my prayer and servys schall helpe to thys duryng my naturall lyff, as most bounden so to doo, God my wyttnes ; whoo ever more preserve you.

Jane Rocheford.

Note a. She was daughter of Henry Parker (age 55), son of Henry Parker Lord Morley and Montegle, who died in his father's lifetime. See Dugd. Baron, torn. ii. p. 301. [Note. This appears to be a mistake? She was the daughter of Henry Parker Lord Motley and Montegle?]

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[21 Jun 1484.] King Richard the Third (age 31) to his Chancellor, to prepare a Proclamation against Henry Tudor and other rebels his followers.

[MS. Donat. Mus. Brit. 4616. art. 98. ex bund, infra turr. LOND. temp. ric. hi. n. 28.]

R. R.

Right reverend fader in God, right trusty and right welbeloved, we grete yow wele, and wol and charge yow that under oure Greate Seale, being in your warde, ye do make in all haist our lettres of Proclamation, severally to be directed unto the shirrefs of everie Coun tie within this oure Royaume, according to the tenure hereafter ensueing.

"Forasmoche as the King oure Soverain Lorde hathe certaine knowledge that Piers Bisshop of Excestre, Jasper Tidder sone of Owen Tidder calling himself Erie of Pembroke, John late Erie of Oxon, and Sir Edward Widevile, with other diverse his rebells and traitours disabled and attayntedby authoritie of high Courte of Parliament, of whom many been knowon for open niiirtlrors, advowtcrs, and extortioners, contrarie to the pleasure of God and against all treuthe, honour, and nature, have forsaken thair naturall countrev, takin^j theim furst to be vuider the obeissaunce of the Due of Britaigne, and to him promised certain things which by hym and his Counseill were thought thinges to gretly unnaturall and abominable for theim to graunte, observe, kepe, and perfourme ; and therfor the same utterly refused. The said Traitours seeing that the said Due and his Counseill would not aide and succour theim, nor folow their weyes, prively departed out of his countrey into Fraunce1, there taking theim to be undre th''obbeisance of the Kings auncient ennemie Charles, calling himself King of Fraunce ; and to abuse and blynde the Commones of this said Koyaume, the said Rebeles and Traitours have chosen to be their Capitayne oon Henry Tidder son of Edmond Tidder son of Owen Tidder, whiche of his ambitious and insatiable covetise incrocheth and usurpeth hym the name and title of royal estate of this Roialme of Englande, wherunto he hath no maner interest, right, title, or colour, as every man wel knoweth ; for he is descended of bastard blode both of the fader side and moder side ; for the said Owen, the grandfader, was a bastard borne, and his moder was doughter unto John Duc of Somerset, sone unto John Erie of Somerset, son unto dame Kateryne Swynford, and of her in double advoutrow goten ; wherby it evidently appereth that noo title can or may be in hym, whiche fulley entendeth to entre this Royaume purposing a conquest : and if he should atcheve this false entent and purpose, every mannys lif, livelood, and goods shuld be in his hands, libertie, and disposition : wherby shuld ensue the disheriting and distruction of all the noble and worshipfull blode of this Royalme for ever. And to the resistence and withstanding wherof, every true and naturall Englisheman born must lay to his handes for his own suertie, and well, and to the entent that the said Henry Tidder might the rather eschewe his said fals entent and pourpous by the aide, supporte, and assistence of the Kings said auncient ennemye of Fraunce, hath covenaunted and bargayned with hym and with all the Counseill of Fraunce to geve . and relesse in perpetuyte alle the right, title, and clayme that the Kings of England have had and mighte to have to the Corone and Royaume of Fraunce, togidder with the Duchies of Normandye, Angeoye and IVIaygne, Gascoygne and Guyenne, the Castelles and Townes of Caleys, Guisnes, Hammes, with the merches apperteignyng to the same, and to dessever and exclude the armes of Fraunce out of the armes of England for ever. And in more prove and sheweing of his said pourpose of conquest, the said Henry Tidder hath geven aswele to divers of the Kings said eiRMnycs as to Iiis said rebelles and traitoures, the Aichbisshoprekes, Bissliopriches, and other dignities spirituel, and also the Diiehies, Earledomes, Baronies, and otlu-e possessions and inheritaunces of Knights, Esquires, Gentlemen, and othre the Kings true subgets within this Roialnie ; and entendeth also to chaunge and subvert the lawes of the same, and to enduce and establisshe newe lawes and ordinaunces amongs the Kings said subjiettes. And over this and besids the alienations of all the premisses into the possession of the Kings said ancient enemyes, to the gretest augeutisement, shame, and rebuke that ever might falle to this lande, the said Henry Tider and othre the Kings rebells and traietours aforesaid, have entended at thair cummyng, if theye can be of powair, to doo the moost cruell murdres, slaghters, robberies, and disherisons that ever wer seen in any Cristen Royaume. For the whiche and othre inestimable daungieres to be eschew'ed, and to the entent that the Kings said rebells, traitours, and enemyes may be utterly putt from their said malicious and fals pourpose, and soon disconfitcd of their enforce to lande, the King oure soverayn Lorde desireth, willeth, and commaundeth all and everych of the naturel and true subgiets of this his Royaume, to call the premisses into their myndes, and like good and true Enghsshemen to ... thaym self with all their powairs for the defense of theini, thair wifs, children, goocles, and hereditaments, agenst the said malicious purposes and conspirations whiche the said auncient ennemyes have made with the Kings said rebelles and traitours for the fynal destruction of this lande as is aforesaid. And oure sayde soverayn Lord, as awelewilled, diligent, and couragious Prince wol put his royal persone to all .... and payne necessarie in this behalve for the resistence and subdueing of his said ennemyes, rebelles and traitours to the moost comfort, wele, and suertie of all his true and feithfull liegemen and subgiettes; and over this cure said soverayn Lorde willeth and comaundeth all his said subgietts to be redy in their moost defensible arraye, to doo his Highnesse service of Werre, whan they by open proclamation or otherwise shall be commanded so to do for the resistence of the Kings said rebells, traitours, and enemyes" And thise oure Lettres shall be your sufficient warrant in that behalve.

Yeven under oure Signet, at oure Castell of Notyngham, the xxi day of Juyn the secund yere of our reigne.

To the right reverend fader in God our right trusty and right welbeloved the Bisshop of Lincoln our Chauncellour of England.

Note 1. For a comment upon this passage of the Letter, the reader may refer to Hall's Chronicle, edit. 1548. foll. xlv. b. xlvi.

Another Letter to the Bishop, directing a similar Proclamation to be prepared, dated December 3d m the same year, occurs in the Harleian Manuscript 433. fol. 273 b.

Books, Ellis' Original Letters Illustrative of English History, Ellis' Letters Series 2 Volume 2

Books, Ellis' Original Letters Illustrative of English History, Ellis' Letters Series 2 Volume 2, Ellis' Letters S2 V2 Letter XCVIII

Anne Boleyn to her father Sir Thomas Boleyn, upon her coming to Court.

MS. COLL. CORP. CHRISTI . CANTABR. CXIX. 9. Orig.

The reader is here presented with what it is believed will prove to be the earliest of all Anne Boleyn's Letters now remaining, written to her father immediately before her appointment as one of the Maids of Honor to Mary Queen of France, the sister of King Henry the Eighth. By the report of our Historians, ANNE must have been at this time in her eighth year. It is the first Letter of her own composition in French, and is preserved among archbishop Parker's Manuscripts at Cambridge. The present Copy is from a Tracing, kindly supplied to the Editor by his friend the rev. Thomas Shelford. For the emendations and Transla- tion in the margin, the reader's thanks are due to Charles Konig, Esq. who, in this instance, has loosened a knot which was tied too tight for the Editor to unravel without assistance.

Hever Castle in Kent, whence this Letter appears to have been dated, was Sir Thomas Boleyn's residence ; where tradition still pretends to be full of the recollection of the loves of Henry and Anne.

In the signature to this Letter, Anne Boleyn appears purposely to have Frenchified her name.

It is here placed out of chronological order: but, in truth, the Editor had at one time determined to omit it from the Collection, believing that the attempt to decipher it would be in vain. The Ejusdem Epistolæ Versio Latina" which follows the original in Nasmith's Catalogue, is an unsuccessful attempt at a Latin translation, somewhat later in point of time, by a hand unknown.

Monssr. Je1 antandue par vr̃e lettre que a ves envy2 que touf ..3 onnette fame4 quan je vindre5 a la courte6 et ma vertisses7 que la Rene prendra la pein de devisscr8 a vecc9 moy de quoy me regoy10 bien' fort de pensser parler a vecc ung perssone tante sage et onnete cela me ferra a voyr11 plus grante anvy12 de continuer a parler bene franssais et aussy espel13 especiale man pour suc que mellaves tant recomende14 et de meman15 vous a versty16 que les gardere la meux que je poure17 monssr. Je vous suplye descusser18 sy malettre et19 male escripte car je vous asure quele et ettografie20 de monantandemant sule p la ou q les auttres ne sont faits que escript de ma main et Semmonet me dit la lettre mes demeurea fan je lafi21 moy meme de peur que lone ne saces sanon que22 je vous mande et je vous pry que la loumirea23 de votre vue liet libertte de separe24 la voullonte25 que dites aves de me edere26 car hile27 me samble quettes ascure on .... la ou vous poves sy vous plet me vere28 de clarasion de vr̃e paroile et de moy soues sertene que miara seoffice de peres29 ne din gratitude30 que sut en passer ne et fasera mon a vecsion queste31 ede libere32 devivre autant sainte que vous plera me commander et vous prommes que mon amour et vondue33 par ung si grant fermette quele nara james pover de sane34 deminuer et feresn fin a mon pourpon35 a pres mettre recommande bine humblamante a vr̃e bone grace et scripte a Uevre de

Ur̃e treshumble et tresobiessante fille

Anna De Boullan.

Sir, I find by your letter that you wish me to appear at court in a manner becoming a respectable female, and likewise that the Queen will condescend to enter into conversation with me. At this I rejoice, as I do to think that conversing with so sensible and elegant a princess will make me ever more desirous of continuing to speak and to write good French; the more so as it is by your earnest advice, which, I acquaint you by this present writing, I shall follow to the best of my ability. Sir, I entreat you to excuse me if this letter is badly written : I can assure you the spelling proceeds entirely from my own head, while the other letters were the work of my hands alone ; and Semmonet tells me he has left the letter to be composed by myself that nobody else may know what I am writing to you. I therefore pray you not to suffer your superior knowledge to conquer the inclination which you say you have to be of service to me; for it seems to me you are certain .... where, if you please, you may fulfil your promise. As to myself, rest assured that I shall not, ungratefully, look upon this office of a father as one that might be dispensed with ; nor will it tend to diminish the affection you are in quest of (?), resolved as I am to lead as holy a life as you may please to desire of me : indeed my love for you is founded on so firm a base that it can never be impaired. I put an end to this my lucubration after having very humbly craved your good-will and affection. Written at Hever by

Your very humble and obedient daughter

Anne Boleyn.

Note 1. j'ai.

Note 2. avez envoyé, or, avez envie: the latter sense has been adopted in the translation.

Note 3. toujours.

Note 4. femme.

Note 5. viendrai.

Note 6. cour.