Biography of Bishop Stephen Gardiner 1483-1555

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1533 Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1553 Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

1554 Consecration of new Bishops

1554 Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Around 1483 Bishop Stephen Gardiner was born at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [Map].

Around 1501 Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 18) educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge University.

Around 1520 John Frith (age 17) was educated at Eton College [Map] and after at Queen's College, Cambridge University [Map] where his tutor was Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 37) who was subsequently involved in his trial. At Cambridge he met Thomas Bilney (age 25).

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jun 1528. R. O. St. P. VII. 77. 4355. Gardiner (age 45) to Henry VIII (age 36).

Has at last conduced to the setting forward of Campeggio (age 53), as will appear by the Cardinal's letters sent to Fox. Thinks the King will be satisfied with their services. It is a great heaviness to them to be accused of want of diligence and sincerity. After many altercations and promises made to the Pope, he has consented at last to send the commission by Campeggio (age 53). We urged the Pope to express the matter in special terms, but could not prevail with him in consequence of the difficulty. He said you would understand his meaning by the words, "inventuri sumus aliquam formam." I may be deceived, but I think the Pope means well. If I thought otherwise I would certainly tell the truth, for your Majesty is templum fidei et veritatis unicum in orbe relictum. Your Majesty will now understand how much the words spoken by you to Tuke do prick me. Apologises for his rude writing. Viterbo, 11 June.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CIII. Cardinal Wolsey (age 55) to Dr. Stephen Gardener (age 45), afterwards Bishop of Winchester.

[MS. LANSDOWNE BRIT. Mus. 1296. art 12. Orig.] [Around Nov 1528]

Wolsey, in the fatal reverse of his fortunes was entirely deserted by the Nobility. In his elevation he had treated them with scorn and rudeness; and the consciousness of this added much to his dejection. When the blow of adversity first fell upon him he seems to have believed that no friends were left to him in the world but CROMWELL and GARDENER.

Skelton has enlarged upon his treatment of the Nobility in his "Why come ye not to Courte :"

The Erie of Northumberland

Dare take nothing on hand.

Our barons be so bolde,

Into a mouse hole they wold

Runne away and creep,

Like a mainy of sheep:

Dare not loke out a dur

For drede of the maystife cur,

!For drede of the boucher's dog.

"For and this curre do gnar,

They must stande all afar

To holde up their hand at the bar.

For all their noble bloude

He pluckes them by the hood,

And shakes them by the eare,

And bryngs them in such feare;

He bayteth them lyke a beare,

Like an Ox or a Bul;

Their wittes he sayth are dul;

He sayth they have no brayne

Their estate to maintaine:

And make to bowe the knee

Before his Majestie."

But Wolsey carried his hauteur even further than this; as another extract from Skelton will show, respecting the waiting of persons who attended him on business:

"My Lord is not at layser.

Syr ye must tary a stound

Tyl better layser be found;

And Syr ye must daunce attendance.

And take patient sufferaunce,

For my Lords Grace

Hath now no time nor space

To speak with you as yet,

And thus they shal syt,

Chuse them syt or flit,

Stand, walke, or ride

And his laiser abide

Parchaunce half a yere,

And yet never the nere."

And that this Picture is not overcharged appears from a letter of Thomas Allen chaplain to the Earl of Shrewsbury, a copy of which has been preserved by bishop Kennett in one of the Volumes of his Manuscripts now in the Lansdowne Collectiona . The original was written about the month of April 1517.

"Pleseth your Lordship to understande upon Monday was sennight last past I delivered your Letter with the examinacyon to my Lord Cardynall at Guilford, whence he commanded me to wait on him to the Court; I followed him, and there gave attendance, and could have no aunswer. Upon Friday last he came from thence to Hampton Court, where he lyeth. The morrow after I besought his Grace I might know his plesure; I could have no answer. Upon Mondaye last as he walked in the parke at Hampton Court, I besought his Grace I might knowe if he wolde command me anye service. He was not content with me that I spoke to hym. So that who shall be a suitour to him may have no other busynesse but give attendance upon his plesure. He that shall so doe, it is nedefull should be a wyser man then I am. I sawe no remedy, but came without answere, excepte I wolde have done as my Lord Dacre's servaunt doth, who came with Letters for the Kynges service five moneihs since and yet h?.th no answere : and another Servaunt of the Deputy of Calais likewyse who came before the other to Walsingham I heard, when he aunswered them, If ye be not contente to tary my leysure, departe when ye wille." This is truthe. I had rather your Lordship commaunded me to Rome then deliver him letters, and bring aunswers to the same. When he walketh in the parke he will suffer no servaunt to come nyghe him, but commands them awaye as farre as one might shoote an arrowe."

After this statement, no one will wonder that Wolsey should have been forsaken by the nobility and courtiers. Even Cavendish says, " I assure you. in his time he was the haughtiest man in all his proceedings alive,"

The bishoprick of Winchester, which is more than once mentioned in these Letters, and which the King suffered him nominally to retain, was one of the last of the numerous preferments which Wolsey accumulated before his fall. The temporalities were restored to him as late as the 6th and he was installed in it on the 11th. of April 1529.

My owne goode Mastyr Secretary, aftyr my moste herty recommendacions, with lycke thanks for your goodness towards me, thes shalbe to advirtyse yow that I have beyn informyd by my trusty frende Thomas Crowmuell (age 43) that ye have sygnyfied unto hym to my synguler consolacions howe that the Kyngs Hyghnes (age 37), mouyd with pity and compassyon, and of his excellent goodnes and cheryti consyderyng the lamentable condicion and stat that I stand yn, hath wyllyd yow with other lords and mastyrs of hys honorable Cownsell to intende to the perfygttyng and absolvyng, without further tract or delay, of myn end and appoyntment, and that my pardon shulde be made in the most ample forme that my cownsell cowde devyse; for thys the Kyngs moste gracyous remembraunce, procedyng of hymsylf, I accompte my sylf not onely moste bowndyn to serve and pray for the preservation of hys moste Royal Majeste, but also thancke God that ye have occasyon govyn unto you to be a sollycyter and setter forth of such thyngs as do and shall conserve my said ende, in the makyng and compownyng whereof myn assuryd trust ys that ye wele shewe the love and affeccion wych ye have and bere towards me your old lover and frende. So declaryng your sylf therin that the world may perceive that by your good meanys the Kyng ys the better goode Lorde unto me; and that, nowe, newly in miiner commyng to the world, ther may be such respect had to my poore degre, olde age, and longe contyrtuyd servys, as shal be to the Kyngs hygh honor and your gret prayse and laude, wych undowttydly shal folowe vf ye extende yowr beny volence towards me and mine, perceiving that by your wysdom and dexteryte I shalbe releuyd and in this my calamyte holpyn. At the reverens therfor of God, myn owne goode M. Secretary and refuge, nowe set to your hande that I may come to a laudable ende and reposse; seyng that I may be furnyshyd aftyr suche a sorte and maner as I may ende my short tyme and lyff to the honor of Cryst's Churche and the Prince. And, besydys my dayly prayer and true hert, I shal so requyte your kyndnes as ye shal haue cause to thyncke the same to be wel imployed, lycke as my seyde trusty frende shal more amply shewe unto yow to whom yt may please yow to give for me credens and loving audience : and I shall pray for the increase of your honor. Wryttyn at Asher with the tremylling hand and hevy hart of your assuryd lover and bedysman.

T. CARLIS EBOR.

To the rygth honorable and my synguler goode frende Master Secretary.

Note 1. MS, Lansd. Brit. Mus. 978. fol. 213.

Letters and Papers 1529. 04 Apr 1529. R. O. Burnet, v. 444. 5422. Anne Boleyn (age 28) to Gardiner (age 46).

Thanks him for his letter, showing his willing and faithful mind. Trusts he will not repent it, and that the end of this journey will be more pleasant to her than his first, "for that was but a rejoysyng hope, whiche causyng [the like] of it dose put me to the more payn, and they that ar parta[kers] with me, as you do knowe; and therefore I do trust that this herd begynn[ing] shall make the better endyng." Sends cramp-rings for him, Master Gregory, and Master Peter, to whom she desires to be recommended. Greenwich, 4 April. Signed.

1529 Oct Wolsey surrenders the Great Seal

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Rym. XIV. 349. 6025. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Memorandum of the surrender of the Great Seal by Cardinal Wolsey, on 17 Oct., to the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), in his gallery at his house at Westminster, at 6 o'clock p.m., in the presence of Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 39), John Tayler, and Stephen Gardiner (age 46). The same was delivered by Tayler to the King (age 38) at Windsor [Map], on the 20 Oct., by whom it was taken out and attached to certain documents, in the presence of Tayler and Gardiner, Henry Norris (age 47), Thomas Heneage (age 49), Ralph Pexsall, clerk of the Crown, John Croke, John Judd, and Thomas Hall, of the Hanaper.

On the 25th Oct. the seal was delivered by the King at East Greenwich to Sir Thomas More (age 51), in the presence of Henry Norres (age 47) and Chr. Hales, Attorney General, in the King's privy chamber; and on the next day, Tuesday, 26 Oct., More took his oath as Chancellor in the Great Hall [Map] at Westminster, in presence of the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45), Th. marquis of Dorset (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter (age 33), John Earl of Oxford (age 58), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 27), George Earl of Shrewsbury (age 61), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 31), John Bishop of  Lincoln (age 56), Cuthbert Bishop of  London (age 55), John Bishop of  Bath and Wells, Sir Rob. Radclyf, Viscount Fitzwater (age 46), Sir Tho. Boleyn, Viscount Rocheforde (age 52), Sir WilliamSandys, Lord (age 52) and others.

Close Roll, 21 Henry VIII. m. 19d.

In 1531 Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 48) was appointed Bishop of Winchester.

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

In 1533 Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 50) was appointed Lord Chancellor.

Calendars. April 12. [1533] Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 81.

On the Monday in Passion week1 Parliament (il Parlamento) [and Convocation ?] assembled. They decided that the marriage of Queen Catharine to the King is null, and that he may marry (poter prender moter); and they have abolished (lecato) the appeal to the Pope. Henceforth, no one may contract marriage by dispensation, but solely as conceded by holy writ, and the sacred canons; so that the dispensation of Pope Julius is void. They have also abrogated the dispensation for holding a plurality of benefices with cure of souls, and for nonage, and other things. They have prohibited obedience to papal monitions and interdicts. The Bishop of Rochester [John Fisher] having publicly opposed these measures, on Palm Sunday [6th April], he was arrested, and given in custody to the Bishop of Winchester [Stephen Gardiner (age 50)]; and three days ago he was sent to reside at a place of his (ad uno locho suo) and is not to go more than a mile beyond it.

Parliament has been prorogued (si levò) until Whitsuntide, which will be on the 6th of June.

Three days ago, the King; sent the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk and the Marquis of Exeter (il Marcheze di Anal sic) to notify to the Queen the decision made in Parliament about the divorce, and the new marriage; exhorting her to yield, and secede (rinmorersi) from the judgment of the “Rota.” She replied that she knew not, and was unable to imagine, how such a matter could have been terminated, the decision not having been made by a legitimate judge; and with regard to a new marriage, she believed nothing whatever, knowing the King her husband to be most sage and holy supientissimo et suntissimo. As to yielding to the sentence, she said that although it was her wish to satisfy his Majesty in everything, yet is it beyond her power to do so on this occasion not choosing to peril the salvation of her soul, and disobey the law of God who united her to his Majesty; and that recourse must be had to the true judge and vicar of the Lord. Subsequently the Imperial Ambassador went to the King, and spoke to him molto altamente.

This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne (age 32) went with the King to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament [Convocation ?].

I hear on good authority that the conclusion of the peace with Scotland is expected.

I am assured that some months ago, his Majesty espoused her, and that she bore him a son who is several months old. (Mivien afirmato za più mezi questa Mta averla sposata, e aver uno fiol di qualche meze con lei).

Four days ago, Mons. de Beove [Beauvoir] arrived here with the son (age 30) of the Earl of Wiltshire (age 56), and he told me he hoped the affairs between his Majesty and Scotland will be adjusted; and Dom. Silvestro Dario, the papal nuncio late in Scotland, tells me King James will be satisfied with fair terms, without which he will do nothing, and the Scots would rather die than submit; they plunder the English daily, and their King is dependent on the Emperor.

On the 5th a gentleman came hither to the King from the Duke of Saxony his cousin (germano suo), with letters from Frederick Count Palatine—who last year commanded the troops sent in favour of the Emperor by the Free Towns and other potentates of Germany—to request his Majesty to join their League; and they are holding a Diet, in which, should his Majesty choose, he will have great authority. This envoy went first to France, and he has not yet been despatched.

London, 12th April. Registered by Sanuto 8th May.

[Italian.]

Note 1. In the year 1533 the 13th of April was Easter day, so the case was decided by the “Convocation” or Parliament on the 7th April 1533.”

Cranmer declares Henry and Catherine's Marriage Invalid

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 08 May 1533. Nevertheless the viij th daye of Maye, accordyng to the said appoyntment, I came vnto Dunstable, my Lorde of Lyncoln (age 60) beyng assistante vnto me, and my Lorde of Wyncehester (age 50), Doctour Bell, Doctour Claybroke, Doctour Trygonnel, Doctour Hewis, Doctour Olyver, Doctour Brytten, Mr. Bedell, with diuerse other lernyd in the Lawe beyng councellours in the Lawe for the King's parte: and soo there at our commyng kepte a Courte for the apperance of the said Lady Kateren (age 47), where were examyned certeyn witnes whiche testified that she was lawfully cited and called to appere, whome for fawte of apperance was declared contumax; procedyng in the said cause agaynste her in pænam contumaciam as the processe of the Lawe thereunto belongeth; whiche contynewed xv. dayes after our cummyng thither. And the morow after Assension daye I gave finall Sentance therin, howe that it was indispensable for the Pope to lycense any suche marieges.

This donne, and after our reiornynga1 home agayne, the Kings Highnes prepared al thyngs convenient for the Coronacion of the Queene, whiche also was after suche a maner as foloweth.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 01 Jun 1533. Nowe than on Soundaye was the Coronacion, which allso was of such a maner.

In the mornynge ther assembled withe me at Westminster Churche the bysshop of Yorke, the Bishop of London (age 58), the Bishop of Wynchester (age 50), the Bishop of Lyncoln (age 60), the Bishop of Bathe, and the Bishop of Saint Asse (age 58), the Abbote of Westminstre with x or xij moo Abbottes, whiche all revestred ourselfs in our pontificalibus, and, soo furnysshed, withe our Crosses and Crossiers, procedid oute of th' Abbey in a procession unto Westminstre Hall, where we receyved the Queene (age 32) apareled in a Robe of purple velvet, and all the ladyes and gentillwomen in robes and gownes of scarlet accordyng to the maner vsed before tyme in such besynes: and so her Grace sustayned of eche syde with ij to bysshops, the Bysshope of London (age 58) ande the Bysshop of Wynchester (age 50), came furthe in processyon unto the Churche of Westminster, she in her here, my Lord of Suffolke (age 49) berying before herr the Crowne, and ij to other Lords beryng also before her a Ceptur and a white Rodde, and so entred up into the highe Alter, where diverse Ceremoneys used aboute her, I did sett the Crowne on her hedde, and then was songe Te Deum, &c. And after that was song a solempne Masse, all which while her grace sjatt crowned upon a scaffold whiche was made betwene the Highe Alter and the Qwyer in Westminstre Churche; which Masse and ceremonyes donne and fynysshed, all the Assemble of noble men broughte her into Westminstre Hall agayne, where was kepte a great solempne feaste all that daye; the good ordre therof were to longe to wrytte at this tyme to you. But nowe Sir you may nott ymagyn that this Coronacion was before her mariege, for she was maried muche about sainte Paules daye last, as the condicion therof dothe well appere by reason she ys nowe sumwhat bygg with chylde. Notwithstandyng yt hath byn reported thorowte a greate parte of the realme that I (age 43) maried her; whiche was playnly false, for I myself knewe not therof a fortenyght after yt was donne. And many other thyngs be also reported of me, whiche be mere lyes and tales.

Other newys have we none notable, but that one Fryth, whiche was in the Tower in pryson, was appoynted by the Kyngs grace to be examyned befor me, my Lorde of London, my lorde of Wynchestre, my Lorde of Suffolke, my Lorde Channcelour, and my Lorde of Wylteshere, whose opynion was so notably erroniouse, that we culde not dyspache hym but was fayne to leve hym to the determynacion of his Ordinarye, whiche ys the bishop of London. His said opynyon ys of suche nature that he thoughte it nat necessary to be beleved as an Article of our faythe, that ther ys the very corporall presence of Christe within the Oste and Sacramente of the Alter, and holdethe of this poynte muste after the Opynion of Oecolampadious. And suerly I myself sent for hym iij or iiij tymes to perswade hym to leve that his Imaginacion, but for all that we could do therin he woulde not applye to any counsaile, notwithstandyng nowe he ys at a fynall ende with all examinacions, for my Lorde of London hathe gyven sentance and delyuerd hym to the secular power, where he loketh every daye to goo unto the fyer. And ther ys also condempned with hym one Andrewe a taylour of London for the said self same opynion.

And thus farr you well, from my manor of Croydon the xvij. daye of June.

Note a. Hall, Chron. edit. 1809. p. 794. Holinsh. edit. 1808. vol. iii. p. 777.

Note b. Queen Elizabeth was born on September the 7th. 1533.

Note c. Stow, Ann. edit. 1631. p. 562.

Note d. Herb. Life of Hen. VIII. edit. 1649. p. 341. Bumet in his History of the Reformation has likewise fallen into this error.

Note e. Lingard's Hist Engl. 1st. edit. vol. iv. p. 190.

a1. re-journying.

a2. shaums.

b2. all day.

Hall's Chronicle 1535. Oct 1535. And in October following Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 52) was sent Ambassador into France where he remained three years after.

Letters and Papers 1535. 13 Oct 1535. 594. Cromwell having several times written to me that on his return from Court we should discuss matters of the Queen and Princess, I have waited two days since his return to see what show he would make of doing so, and finding none, I sent to him to ask at what hour I might speak with him. He excused himself for two days on account of business, and did so again yesterday, the third day, saying, however, to my messenger, that he would be here this morning; as he really was. After congratulation of the Emperor on his glorious victory and his arrival in Sicily, and thanking me on the part of the King and himself for the news I had sent them from time to time he replied about the Princess according to what he had written to me, which was to the effect that the King, his master, was good and wise, and that he would take good care, and better than any other, to treat his daughter well; that it was unnecessary to remind him of his duty, whether it were to change her gouvernante (age 59), to get her better companions, or to place her again with the Queen (age 49), her mother. As to the arrears due to the Queen, it was true he had several times promised to get her prompt payment, and if it was only a question of presenting her with the sum due he would do it at once very willingly; but he knew the disposition of the King, his master, was such that if he meddled with it he fell under suspicion of taking the Queen's part, which might cost him his head, and said the King might well give the Queen any sum she could demand, if she would undertake to maintain her own household; and on doing so, he would give her perfect liberty to keep what servants she pleased. This bargain, I think, she will never accept, as it would in some degree prejudice her position; moreover, I think Cromwell threw out the suggestion more by way of compliment than otherwise. After this, Cromwell mentioned that the King was informed from France, Italy, and elsewhere, that your Majesty intended to prepare an army against him and his countries in favour of the Pope, whom he sometimes called bishop of Rome and sometimes idol, but not without begging me to pardon him, and that to stir the fire, some bishop and legate had already come to Flanders; and that the King, his master, notwithstanding the said rumours, which might have been propagated by ill-disposed people, could not well believe that your Majesty, considering the great friendship and repeated alliances between you so solemnly ratified and sworn, would attempt any such thing, especially when there was no cause; for, as regards disobedience to the Pope, the King did not think he had said or done anything to any Christian prince inconsistent with the law of God, and he believed that the Christian religion was not better regulated and reformed in any country in the world than in this kingdom; and the King requested that I would add to the other good offices I had done by notifying this to your Majesty. Cromwell added that, perhaps the King might send you a very honorable embassy, provided he thought that you would give favorable audience to it, both to represent these and other matters, and to promote amities and confederations; on which subject the King wished to have my advice. I replied that I was not so rash as to put myself forward in giving counsel to such a Prince lest I should give him occasion justly to reproach me, as was done without occasion when the earl of Wiltshire was at Bologna with your Majesty; but I fully believed that if such an embassy were sent to your Majesty it would not only be kindly received and heard, but would obtain what it asked for, provided it were a thing that your Majesty could rightly grant according to reason and conscience; and otherwise I would neither advise nor dissuade its despatch, for the above reason. He made no reply to this, and I think, from the way he spoke of the said embassy, there has been no suggestion of it among them, and that he spoke only of himself. He then said I must be already informed that the bishop of Winchester (age 52) was going to France, and the bishop of Atfort (Hereford), formerly the King's almoner, into Germany. He told me nothing more, and I asked if he, who was going into Germany, was to go further than Saxony? He said he did not know where he was going to; and he said the same to a merchant of whom he desired a letter of exchange of 1,000 crs. for the said Bishop, in case he should have need of them, which he did not expect, because he was taking plenty of money with him, and Cromwell wished the said letters to be general for the principal cities of Germany. Cromwell has confessed that the bailly of Troyes had made request for the marriage of the Princess with the Dauphin, and also that he brought the brief of which I before wrote.

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1535. 24 Oct 1535. R. O. 676. Stephen Bishop of Winchester (age 52) to Cromwell.

After a good passage, and the loss today of my servant Wodal by the great sickness, wherewith he was infected at his late being in London longer than I would he should, tomorrow I leave for the French court. My journey, though slow, is, I fear me, "more speedy than my horse, by reason of their travail on the seas, will maintain." The bailly of Troyes left me word to make no haste. If you think greater speed necessary, I shall use the post. I write you this that you may explain to the King the delay in my journey, which, in the "strange watery weather" in France, is more cumbrous than wont. Calays, 24 Oct. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Chief Secretary. Endd.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 Henry VIII (age 44) and Jane Seymour (age 27) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map] by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 53). She by marriage Queen Consort England. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41) and Margaret Dymoke (age 36) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Jane Seymour (age 27).

In 1538 James Bassett (age 12) entered the household of Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 55).

Diary of Edward VI. 26 Jun 1548. Besides this examination, or confession as it may be termed, there are also extant, under Edward's own hand, three other proofs of his having held communication with the lord admiral through John Fowler, one of his privy chamber. One consists in the two following lines prefixed to a letter of Fowler, dated from St. Jameses on the 26th June 1548.

[Burghley Papers, edited by Haynes, 1740, fol. p. 75: from the MSS. at Hatfield House.]

I commende me to you, my lord, and praie you to credit this writer. Edward.

Note. Fowler wrote to the lord admiral as follows:

After most humble recommendations to your good lordship. This shalbe to sertefy you that the King's majesty is in good healthe, thankes be gyvin to God, and has him1 hartely recommended to the Quines grace and to your good lordship. And his grace wyllid me to wrytt to your lordship, declaring to me that his mynd and love, notwithstanding your absens, is towards your lordship as mouche as to any man within Ingland. Also his grace willid me to wrytt to your lordship dissierring yow, as your lordship has willid him to do, if he lak any monny, to send to your lordship. His grace dessiers you, if you conveniently may, to let him have summ monny; I askid his grace, whatt summ I shuld wrytt to your lordship for; his grace wold name no summ, but as it pleasid your lord- ship to send him, for he determins to gjve it away, but to home he wooll not tell me as yet. I am not abull to send your lordship no newes, but that my lord of Winchester (age 65)2 prechis afore the King upon sainct Peter's day at Westmyster. His grace is now at St. James's, and my lord protector lies ther every night, but he dines at Westminster; I will send your lordship the bishop's sermon, God willing, the next time I wrytt to your lordship; and if anny newes cumm then I woU sartify your lordship. The King's majesty dessiers

Note 1. Misprinted bin by Haynes,

Note 2. This was the sermon which Gardiner was enjoined to preach in order to test his principles. Certain "points" upon which he was to be explicit were dictated to him by the council; but as he did not give satisfaction he was arrested two days afler. See the full particulars under the head of the 7th Article charged against him, in Foxe's Acts and Monuments: also the protector's letter to him, requiring his attention to the "points," dated Sion, the 28th June, in Burnetts History of the Reformation. Notes of the sermon itself arc preserved in the MSS. of Corpus Christi Coll. Camb. Misc. viii. 15.

Diary of Edward VI. 29 Jun 1548. Upon S. Peter's day the bishop of Winchester (age 65) was committed to the Toure.Inserted.

Note 1. Bishop Gardiner (age 65) preached the sermon which was made the test of his religious faith and policy on St. Peter's day (June 29), as already noticed in p. 59. He was sent to the Tower two days after.

Diary of Edward VI. 09 Jun 1550. The duke of Somerset (age 50), marquis Northampton (age 38), lord tresorer (age 67) (St. John, the earl of) Bedford, and the secretary Petre (age 45), went to the bishope of Winchester (age 67)2, to know to what he wold stike. He mad(e) answer that he wold obey, and set furth al thinges set furth by me and my parliement; and if he were troubled in conscience he wold revele it to the counsel, and not reason openly against it.3

Note 2. Gardiner (age 67) was now a prisoner in the Tower. The King paid great attention to the course of the proceedings directed by the council against the bishop, in relation to which several passages will occur in the succeeding pages. Foxe, in the first edition of his Actes and Monuments, inserted the record of these proceedings at very great length; which in subsequent editions was materially abridged, but in the last, by the Rev. S. E. Cattley, it is restored to its place, and occupies pp. 24-267 of the sixth volume. The depositions of many of the principal nobility and courtiers who had been present at Gardiner's (age 67) trial sermon (already noticed in p. 59), contain many remarkable statements and biographical particulars.

Note 3. See the report made by the duke of Somerset and the rest, in Foxe, (edit. Cattley,) iv. 79, and Gardiner's own more particular account of this conference at p. 113.

Diary of Edward VI. 09 Jun 1550. The erle of Warwick (age 46), the lord treasorer (age 67), sir Wiliam Herbert (age 49), and the secretari Petre (age 45) went to the bishop of Winchester (age 67) with certain articles signed by me and the counsel, conteining the confessing of his faut, the supremici, the establissing of holy dayes, the abolishing of sixe articles, and divers other, wherof the copie is in the counsel chest1, wherunto he put his hand, saving to the confes(sion).

Diary of Edward VI. 10 Jun 1550. The bokis of my procedings4 was sent to the bishop of Winchester (age 67), to see whether he wold set his hand to it, or promes to set it forth to the peple.

Note 4. The book so designated by the King was the Book of Common Prayer. Gardiner was also required to give his opinion upon "another book, for the making of priests."

Diary of Edward VI. 14 Jun 1550. The duke of Somerset, with 5 other of the counsel, went to the bishop of Winchester (age 67), to whom he made this answer:— "I, having deliberatly seen the book of common praier, although I wold not have made it so my self, yet I find such thinges in it as satisfieth my conscience, and therefor both I wil execut it myself, and also see other my parishoners to doe it." This was subscribed by the foresaid counsailurs, that they herd him saing thies wordes.2

Note 2. "Parish, in the dialect of a bishop, is notoriously known to be his diocese. Yet I deny not but that the numerous parishioners of St. Mary Ovary's (wherein Winchester house) are herein particularly intended." Note on this passage of the Journal by Dr. Fuller, in his Church History.

Diary of Edward VI. 10 Jul 1550. Sir Wiliam Herbert (age 49) and the secretary Petre (age 45) were sent unto him, to tell him I marvailed that he wold not putt his hand to the confession: to whom he made answere that he wold not put his hand to the confession forbicaus he was innocent; and also the confession was but the preface of th' articles.

Diary of Edward VI. 14 Jul 1550. The bishop of Winchestir (age 67) did deny the articles that the bishop of London (age 50) and the other had made.3

Note 3. See the report of the master of the horses and master secretary Petre (age 45) in Foxe (edit. Cattley), iv. 84; in p. 75, Gardiner's own account of the interview in his answer to the 14th article subsequently objected against him; and also, in p. 116, his farther account in paragraph Ixxiv. of his justificatory narrative.

Diary of Edward VI. 19 Jul 1550. The bishop of Winchester (age 67) was sequestred from his frutes for 3 monthes.2

Note 2. This took place "at the time of even-song, in the chapel of the court of Westminster," whither the bishop was brought before the lords of the council: see his answer to the 15th article objected against him, in Foxe (edit. Cattley), iv. 75, and paragraph Ixxvi. of his justificatory narrative, at p. 116.

Diary of Edward VI. 13 Feb 1551. The bishop of Winchester (age 68), after a longe triall, was deposed of his bishoprike.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Feb 1551. The xiiij day of Feybruarii was dysposyd of ys bysshoppr [icke] of Wynchestur, the old bysshope M. Stevyn Gardener (age 68), and cared in to the Towre-the v yer K. E. vjth.... and the compyny of the Clarkes ... cheyffe mornar was sir Garves Clyfftun (age 34) and M.... dyd pryche ther, and after they whent to dener unto the [earl of] Ruttland plasse in Wyttyngton Colege parryche.

Note. Funeral of sir Richard Manners (deceased). The paragraph of the diary partly defaced belongs to the funeral of an uncle of the earl of Rutland, whom we find thus noticed in another place: "Sir Rychard Manners knight dyed the ixth of February a°. r. E. vj. vto. and was beryed at Kateren Cryst churche the 14. of the same mounth; and the right honorable Henry erl of Rutland (age 24) was his hole executer and over-syer of his last wyll, to whom he gave all his goodes and landes." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 14.) Sir Richard Manners was twice married, as may be seen in the peerages.

In 1553 Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 70) was appointed Bishop of Winchester.

In 1553 James Bassett (age 27) was elected MP Taunton. Nominated by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 70).

Arrival of Queen Mary I in London

On 03 Aug 1553 Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) made her formal entrance into London.

Strype's Complete History of England describes Mary's entrance to the Tower:

There met her as humble supplicants the Duke of Norfolk (age 80), who had been a prisoner ever since his son the Earl of Surrey (age 80) was put to death by King Henry the ; Edward Courtenay (age 26), son of the Marquis of Exeter who was executed in the year 1538; Gardiner (age 70), deprived of his Bishopric of Winchester about two years before; and the Dowager Duchess of Somerset (age 56). They presented themselves on their knees, and Gardiner in the name of them all, made a congratulatory speech to the Queen, who kindly raised them one after another, saluted them, saying they were her own proper prisoners and ordered their immediate discharge. The next day she restored Courtenay (age 26) to the honor of his family. Gardiner (age 70) not only obtained his bishopric again but on the 23rd of August following was made Lord Chancellor, even though he had formerly subscribed to the Sentence of Divorce against the Queen's mother and had written in defense of King Henry's proceedings.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 Aug 1553. The ix day of August cam the bysshope of Wyncheaster (age 70) owt of the Towre (conducted) by the yerle of Arundell (age 41) to ys owen parish of sant Mare Overeys [Map], and from thens with my lord of Arundell to dener to Bayth plasse.

1554 Consecration of new Bishops

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 01 Apr 1554. The first day of Aprill was consecrated at St. Marye Overies churche [Map] in Southwerke vi new Bishopps after the olde sorte, the Lord Chauncellor (age 54) and Bishop of Winchester (age 71) singinge the masse, the Bishop of London (age 54) and the Bishop of Durham (age 80) assistinge him.

On 01 Apr 1554 the Lord Chancellor Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London (age 54), assisted by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71), Bishop Nicholas Ridley (age 54) and Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall (age 80), consecrated seven bishops at Southwark Cathedral [Map]:

Bishop George Cotes was consecrated Bishop of Chester.

Bishop Gilbert Bourne was consecrated Bishop of Bath and Wells.

Bishop James Brooks (age 41) was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester.

Bishop Maurice Griffiths (age 47) was consecrated Bishop of Rochester.

Bishop Henry Morgan was consecrated Bishop of St David's.

Bishop John White (age 44) was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln.

Bishop Robert Parfew aka Warton was consecrated Bishop of Hereford.

Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 23 Jul 1554. The 23 of Julie the Prince of Spayne (age 27) came to Winchesterd about vi of the clock at night, accompanied with noblemen as well of England as of his owne countriea, with trumpetts blowinge and bells ringinge, and came to the Cathedrall [Map] churche, where he alighted. And there the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Chauncellor (age 71), with 4 bishops more, with the priests, singinge-men, and children, receaved him with procession in riche copes and with iii crosses up into the quiere, where was a riche traves richlye hanged for him; and there he kneeled downe before the sacrament; and then the Lord Chauncellor began Te Deum, the organs playinge and the quier singinge the rest. This done he was brought out with torche light to his lodginge throughe the cloyster to the Deanes howsse, all the Queens garde standinge in their riche cotes all the waye. He was apparelled in a riche cote richlie imbroydered with goulde, and an hatt much like the same with a feather in it. The same night after he had supped, which was about x of the clock, certeyne of the Councell brought him to the Queen (age 38) by a secrett waye, where she receaved him right lovinglye and kissed him, and after halfe an howre they tooke their leave, eche kissinge the other, and so departed that night to his lodginge.

Note d. Philip lingered a few days at Southampton, where he disembarked, as if in order to ascertain the humour of the nation, as one of his ambassadors, the Count of Egmont (age 31), had been recently violently assaulted by the populace, who mistook him for his master.

Note a. He came well attended with a bodyguard and troops.

On 25 Jul 1554 Prince Philip of Spain (age 27) and Queen Mary (age 38) were married by Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 71) at Winchester Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland and Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England. He the son of Charles V Holy Roman Emperor (age 54) and Isabel Aviz Queen Consort Spain. They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

John Gage (age 74) bore the queen's train.

Magdalen Dacre Viscountess Montague (age 16) took part in the Bridal Procession.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. The 25 of Julie [1554], beinge Weddensdaye and St. James dayea, about xi of the clocke the Kinge (age 27) and Queene (age 38) came from their lodgings towardes the churche all the way on foote, verie richelye apparelled in gownes of cloth of golde sett with riche stones, he with his gentle-men and garde and she with hers, eche of them havinge a sworde borne before them, the Earle of Darbye (age 45) bearinge the sworde before her Maiestie, and the Earle of Pembroke (age 53) before the Kinge; and when they were come into the churche he went into one traveys and the Queen to another richlye hunge, where they were shriven. This done they came forth of their traveys to the place appoynted for the marriage, where the Lord Chauncellor (age 71), beinge before with 5 other bishops assistinge him, used all thinges, both in the banes-byddinge and otherwise, as hath bene in all marriages of olde tyme, and spake it both in Latin and in Englishe, her Grace on the right syde standinge and the King on the left syde. Her marriage ringe was a rownd hoope of gould without anye stone, which was her desire, for she sayde she would be married as maydens were in the olde tyme, and so she was.

After the marriage knott thus knitt the King and Queen came hand in hand under a riche canopie, beinge borne over them with 6 knightes and 2 swordes before them, all the lordes both Englishe and strangers richelye apparelled goeinge afore them, the trumpetts then blowinge tyll they came into the quier, where all the priestes and singinge men all in riche copes began to singe a psalme used in marriages, the King and Queen kneelinge awhile before the aulter, eche of them havinge a taper afore them; then after her Majestic went into her traveys on the right syde, and the King into another on the left syde; after the gospell they came owt and kneeled before the alter openlye all the masse tyme, and the care-cloth was holden ouer them; and he kissed the bishopp at the Agnus and then her Majestie. The masse done the Kinge of Herroldes openlye in the churche, and in presence of the King, the Queen, the lordes and ladies, and all the people, solemnlye proclay'med their Maiesties Kinge and Queene, with their title and style, in manner as followeth:

Philippe and Marie, by the grace of God Kinge and Queene of The Kinge and Englande, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Irelande, Defenders of the Faythe, Princes of Spayne and Sicilie, Archdukes of Austriche, Dukes of Mylane, Burgundye, and Brabant, Countes of Aspurge,b Flaunders, and Tyrrole. Which proclamation ended, the trumpetts blue and other noyses playde. And then the Kinge and Queene came furthe hand in hand, with their lordes, ladies, and gentlemen way tinge on them, and 2 swordes borne afore them in manner aforesayde; and so went on foote to the courte, and there dined openlye in the hall, both together at one table.

Note a. The feast of St. James, the titular saint of Spain.Marriage of Queen Mary with Philip II of Spain

Note b. Haspurgi, Hapsburg.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 17 Aug 1554. The 17 of Augusta the King (age 27) and Queen (age 38) came by water from Richmond in the after noone, and landed at my Lord Chancellors stayers in St. Marye Overies, and there had a banquett in the Lord Chauncellors (age 71) howsse [Map], and then passed throughe the parke to the howse at St. Georges, of which Sir John Gage, Lord Chamberlayne to the Queene (age 74), had the keepinge, and there lay that night and dyned there the next daye.

Note a. The authorities differ widely as to this date. The Grey Friars' Chronicle (p. 91 ) says: "They came not unto London tyll it was the 18th day of Angnst, and then came hothe unto the place in Sothwarke, and lay there that nyght, and the 19th day came into London." And Stow (p. 625): "The 11 of August, the King and Queene remooued to Richmond, from thence by water to Southwarke, &c. And the next day, heing the 12 of August, they rode through Southwarke oner the bridge, and so through London, &c." While Baker's Chronicle reads: "The eleventh of August they remoued to Richmond, the seven-and-twentieth to Suffolk Place in Southwark, and the next day to London," &c. (p. 342).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Sep 1554. The xxx day of September dyd pryche at Powlles crosse [Map] my lord Chansseler the bysshope of Wynchester (age 71), and he mad a goodly sermon; and ther wher as grett a audyensse as ever I saw in my lyff.

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 30 Sep 1554. Sunday the xxxth of Septembre 1554 Dr. Steven Gardiner (age 71), Bishop of Winton [Winchester] and Lord Chauncellor of England, preached at Paules Crosse [Map], divers Lordes of the Queens Councell beinge present at his sermon, and goeinge afterward to dynner to the Lord Mayres howsse.

The first Sundaye after Michaellmas daye was kept the dedication of the churche throughe all England, accordinge to the olde costome.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1554. The v day of October was the obsequy of the duke of Northfoke at sant Mare Overes [Map]; a hers [hearse] mad with tymber, and hangyd with blake, and with ys armes, and iiij goodly candlestyks gyldyd, and iiij grett tapurs, and with ys armes, and alle the qwyre hangyd with blake and armes; and durge and masse on the morowe. And my lord chanseler (age 71) cheffe morner, and next master [controller,] and master Gorge Haward; at the durge my lord Montyguw (age 25), my lord admerell (age 44), and my lord Brugys, and divers others; and a xl in gownes and cotes in blake; and after to my lord['s place], and gret ryngyng ij days.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1554. The xxix day of October the nuw lord mayre of London, master Lyons (age 40) groser, toke ys hoathe at Westmynster; and alle the craftes of London in ther barges, and with stremars; and ther was a grett penoys decked with ij topes and stremars and .... gones and drumes and trumpetes, rohyng to Westmynster up and don; and when thay cam hom thay landyd at Powlles warff, and ther mett the mayr lx in rosett gownes and with targetts and gyffelyns and blue hattes; and then a goodly pagant, a gryffen with a chyld lyung in harnes, and sant John Baptyst with a lyon, and ij vodys [woods aka wild men] and a dulle [devil] with squybes bornyng, and trumpetes blohyng, and drum(s) and flute(s), and then the bachelers with cremesun damaske hedes [hoods], and then trumpeters, and the wettes [waists] of the cete; and so to yeld-hall to dener, for ther dynyd my lord chanseler (age 71) and all the nobuls, and the Spaneardes, and the juges and lernyd men.

Note. P. 73. Sir John Lyons lord mayor. Son of Thomas Lyons of Perivale, co. Middlesex; a member of the Grocers' company: and sheriff 1550. "He dwelled in Bucklersbury, and was buried in St. Syth's church, which toucheth on the south syde of his house." Arms, Azure, on a fess engrailed between three plates each charged with an eagle's head erased sable, a lion passant between two cinquefoils gules. (List of Lord Mayors, &c. by Wm. Smith, Rouge-Dragon.) Sir John Lyons bequeathed 100l. towards building a garner for corn at Queen Hithe, which was enlarged at the charges of the city in 1565. (Stowe.) See a notice of his widow hereafter, p. 346.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1554. The xij day of November the Kyng (age 27) and the Quen (age 38) rod unto Westmynster chyrche to the masse of the Holy-gost, and after masse to the parlement-howsse; and all the bysshopes and the lordes in ther parlement robes, with trompeters blohyng, and all the harolds in ther cote armurs, and the juges in ther robes; the yerle of Penbroke (age 53) bare the kyng('s) sword, and the yerle of Comberland (age 41) bare the quen('s) sword, and the yerle of Shrowsbery (age 54) bare the kyng('s) cape of mantenance, and the yerle of Arundell (age 42) bare the quen('s) cape of mantenance; and a-for them rod to-gether my lord chansheler (age 71) and my lord tressorer (age 71) in ther parlement robes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Nov 1554. [The same day cardinal Pole (age 54) came from Gravesend [Map] by water, with the earl of Shrewsbury (age 54), the lord Montagu (age 25), the bishops of Durham (age 80) and Ely (age 48), the lord Paget (age 48), sir Edward Hastings (age 33), the lord Cobham (age 57), and diverse] knyghts and gentyllmen, in barges, and thay all [did shoot the] bryge be-twyn xij and on of the cloke, and a-g[ainst] the steleard [Map] of Temes my lord chanseler (age 71) mett [them in his] barge, and my lord of Shrousbury (age 54) [had his] barge with the [talbot, all] ys men in bluw cotes, red-hosse, skarlett capes, [and white] fethers; and so to the cort gatt, and ther the Kyng('s) (age 27) grace [met him] and inbrasyd hym, and so lad ym thrughe the kyng('s) hall;] and he had borne a-for hym a sylver crosse, and [he was arrayed in] a skarlet gowne and a sqware skarlett cape; and my lord [North] bare the swarde a-for the Kyng; and so they whent up unto the Quens chambur, and ther her grace (age 38) salutyd hym; and after he toke ys leyffe, and toke ys barge to ys plase at Lambeth [Map], that was the bysshope of Cantorberys, Crenmer (age 65), and so to dener.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1554. The ij day of Desember dyd com to Powlles all prestes and clarkes with ther copes and crosses, and all the craftes in ther leverey, and my lorde mayre and the althermen, agaynst my lord cardenall('s) (age 54) commyng; and at the bysshopes of London plase my lord chansseler and alle the bysshopes tarehyng for my lord cardenall (age 54) commyng, that was at ix of the cloke, for he landyd at Beynard Castell [Map]; and ther my lord mayre reseyvyd hym, and browgth ym to the Powllse, and so my lord chanseler (age 71) and my lord cardenall (age 54) and all the byshopes whent up in-to the[choir] ]with ther meyturs; and at x of the cloke the Kyng('s) (age 27) grace cam to Powlles to her mase with iiij C. of gaard, on C. Englys, on C. HeAlmen, on C. Spaneards, on C. of Swechenars [Switzers], and mony lords and knyghtes, and hard masse. Boyth the quen('s) chapell and the kynges and Powlles qwer [choir] song.

Note. P. 77. The cardinal's coming to St. Paul's. A fuller account of this solemnity will be found in Stowe, p. 625. Like his predecessor Wolsey, Pole went in procession "with a cross, two pillars, and two poleaxes of silver borne before him."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Jan 1555. The sam day whent to the Towre [Map] my lord chansseler (age 72), and dyvers odur lordes and of the conselle, and delyvered a nomber presonars, as ther names folowes-ser James a Croft (age 37), ser Gorge Harper, ser Gawynn Carow, ser Necolas Frogmortun (age 40), master Vaghan, ser Edward Varner, Gybbs, the bysshope of Yorke, master Rogers (age 50), and dyvers odur presonars, and after ther was a gret shottyng of gones.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. 04 Feb 1555. The fourth of February suffered the constant martyr of God, Master John Rogers (age 50), concerning whose life, examinations, and suffering, here followeth in order set forth. And first touching his life and bringing up.

John Rogers, brought up in the university of Cambridge, where he profitably travailed in good learning, at length was chosen and called by the merchant adventurers to be their chaplain at Antwerp in Brabant, whom he served to their good contentation many years. It chanced him there to fall in company with that worthy servant and martyr of God William Tyndale, and with Miles Coverdale (age 67), who both, for the hatred they bare to popish superstition and idolatry, and love to true religion, had forsaken their native country. In conferring with them the Scriptures, he came to great knowledge in the gospel of God, insomuch that he cast off the heavy yoke of popery, perceiving it to be impure and filthy idolatry, and joined himself with them two in that painful and most profitable labour of translating the Bible into the English tongue, which is entitled, The Translation of Thomas Matthewe. He, knowing by the Scriptures, that unlawful vows may lawfully be broken, and that matrimony is both honest and honourable among all men, joined himself in lawful matrimony, and so went to Wittenberg in Saxony, where he, with much soberness of living, did not only greatly increase in all good and godly learning, but also so much profited in the knowledge of the Dutch tongue, that the charge of a congregation was orderly committed to his cure.

In which ministry he diligently and faithfully served many years, until such time as it pleased God, by the faithful travail of his chosen and dear servant, King Edward the Sixth, utterly to banish all popery forth of England, and to receive in true religion, setting God's gospel at liberty. He then, being orderly called, having both a conscience, and a ready good will to help forward the work of the Lord in his native country, left such honest and certain conditions as he had in Saxony, and came into England to preach the gospel, without certainty of any condition. In which office, after he had a space diligently and faithfully travailed, Nicholas Ridley, then bishop of London, gave him a prebend in the cathedral church of Paul; and the dean and the chapter chose him to be the reader of the divinity-lesson there; wherein he diligently travailed, until such time, as Queen Mary, obtaining the crown, banished the gospel and true religion, and brought in the antichrist of Rome, with his idolatry and superstition

After the queen was come to the Tower of London, he, being orderly called thereunto, made a godly and vehement sermon at Paul's Cross, confirming such true doctrine as he and others had there taught in King Edward's days, exhorting the people constantly to remain in the same, and to beware of all pestilent popery, idolatry, and superstition. The council, being then overmatched with popish and bloody bishops, called him to account for his sermon: to whom he made a stout, witty, and godly answer; and yet in such sort handled himself, that at that time he was clearly dismissed. But after that proclamation was set forth by the queen to prohibit true preaching, he was called again before the council; for the bishops thirsted after his blood. The council quarrelled with him concerning his doctrine, and in conclusion commanded him as prisoner to keep his own house; and so he did; although by flying, he might easily have escaped their cruel hands, and many things there were which might have moved him thereunto. He did see the recovery of religion in England, for that present, desperate; he knew he could not want a living in Germany; and he could not forget his wife and ten children, and to seek means to succour them. But all these things set apart, after he was called to answer in Christ's cause, he would not depart, but stoutly stood in defence of the same, and for the trial of that truth, was content to hazard his life.

Thus he remained in his own house as prisoner a long time, till at length, through the uncharitable procurement of Bonner (age 55), bishop of London, who could not abide such honest neighbours to dwell by him, he was removed from his own house to the prison called Newgate, where he was lodged among thieves and murderers for a great space; during which time, what business he had with the adversaries of Christ, all is not known, neither yet any certainty of his examinations, further than he himself did leave in writing; which God would not to be lost, but to remain for a perpetual testimony in the cause of God's truth, as here followeth recorded and testified by his own writing.

Description of the examination by Lord Chancellor Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 72).

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. 04 Feb 1555. The fourth day of February, the year above mentioned, in the chapel in Newgate [Map], the bishop of London (age 55) there sitting with his notary and certain other witnesses, came Alexander Andrew, the gaoler, bringing with him Master Hooper (age 60) and Master Rogers (age 50), being condemned before by the chancellor (age 72); where the said bishop of London (age 55), at the request of the aforesaid Winchester (age 72), proceeded to the degradation of the parties above mentioned, Master Hooper and Master Rogers, after this form and manner: first, he put upon him all the vestures and ornaments belonging to a priest, with all other things to the same order appertaining, as though (being revested) they should solemnly execute their office. Thus they, being apparelled and invested, the bishop beginneth to pluck off, first the uttermost vesture; and so, by degree and order, coming down to the lowest vesture, which they had only in taking Benet and Collet; and so, being stript and deposed, he deprived them of all order, benefit, and privilege belonging to the clergy; and consequently, that being done, pronounced, decreed, and declared the said parties so degraded, to be given personally to the secular power, as the sheriffs being for that year, Master Davy Woodroofe, and Master William Chester; who, receiving first the said Master Rogers at the hands of the bishop, had him away with them, bringing him to the place of execution where he suffered. The witnesses there present were Master Harpsfield, archdeacon of London; Robert Cosin, and Robert Willerton, canons of Paul's; Thomas Mountague, and George How, clerks; Tristram Swadock, and Richard Cloney, the sumner, &c.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Aug 1555. The xxvj day of August cam from Westmynster, rydyng thrugh London unto Towrs-warff, the Kyng (age 28) and the Quen (age 39), and ther thay toke ther barge unto Grenwyche [Map], and landyd at the long bryge, and reseyvyd by my lord chanseler (age 72), and my lord of Ely (age 49), and my lord vycont Montyguw (age 26), master comtroller, master Sowthwell (age 52), and dyvers mo, and the gard, and dyvers holdyn torchys bornynge, and up to the Frers, and ther thare graces mad ther praers, and at her grace('s) landyng received ix or x suplycasyon(s), and so bake agayn to the court with a c. torchys bornyng.

On 12 Nov 1555 Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 72) died at Westminster [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Nov 1555. [The xiij day of November doctor Gardiner (deceased), bishop of Winchester, and lord chancellor of England, died in the morning, between twelve and one of the clock, at the King's] plasse, the wyche ys callyd Whyt-hall; [and by] iij of the cloke he was browt by water [to his own] plasse by sant Mary Overes [Map]; and by v of the [clock his bow]elles was taken owt, and bered a-fore the he [high] [altar; and] at vj the knyll begane ther, and at durge and masse contenuyd ryngyng alle the belles till vij at nyght.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1555. The xiiij day of November be-gane the knyll for the most ryght reverent father in God my lord chaunseler of England, doctur Sthevyn Gardener (deceased), byshope of Wynchastur, and of the preve consell with kyng Henry the viijth and unto quen Mare quen of England (age 39); and with a hersse of iiij branchys, with gylt candyllstykes, and ij whytt branchys and iij dosen of stayffes-torchys, and all the qwyre hangyd with blake and armes, and a durge songe; and the morow masse of requiem, and alle bysshoppes and lordes and knyghtes and gentyllmen; and my lord bysshope Bonar (age 55) of London did syng masse of requiem, and doctur Whyt (age 45) bysshope of Lynkolne dyd pryche at the sam masse; and after all they whent to his plasse to dener.

Note. P. 97. Funeral of lord chancellor Gardiner. The ceremonial of this is preserved in the Coll. Arm. I. 11. 121–124, and a second copy in pp. 127–133.—Machyn's extraordinary word "inowlle" is converted by Strype into "jewels:" and in my marginal note I have suggested "enamel." Both explanations are wrong: as no doubt our painter meant that the banners were painted with images of saints in oil and "with fine gold."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Nov 1555. The xxj day of November at none be-gane the knyll for my lord chanseler (deceased), for then was the body browt to the chyrche of sant Mare Overes [Map], with grett compene of prestes and clarkes, and alle the bysshopes; and my lord of London (age 55) dyd exsecute the offes, and ware ys myter; and ther wher ij goodly whyt branchys bornyng, and the harsse with armes and (tapers) bornyng, and iiij dosen of stayffes; and all the qwyre with blake, and ys armes; and afor the corse the kyng of haroldes with ys cot, and with v baners of ys armes, and iiij of emages wrothe with fyne gold and inowlle [enamel]; and the morowe-masse iij masse, one of the Trenete, on of owre Lade, and (the) iij of requiem for ys solle; and after to dener; and so he was put in a hersse tyll a day that he shall be taken up and cared unto Wynchaster to be bered ther.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Feb 1556. The xxiiij day of Feybruary was the obsequies of the most reverentt father in God, Sthevyn Gardener, docthur and bysshope of Wynchastur, prelett of the gartter, and latte chansseler of England, and on of the preve consell unto Kyng Henry the viij and unto quen Mare (age 39), tyll he ded; and so the after-none be-gane the knyll at sant Mare Overes [Map] with ryngyng, and after be-gane the durge; with a palle of cloth of gold, and with ij whytt branchys, and ij dosen of stayffe-torchys bornyng, and iiij grett tapurs; and my lord Montyguw (age 27) the cheyffe mornar, and my lord bysshope of Lynkolne (age 46) and ser Robart Rochaster (age 62), comtroller, and with dyvers odur in blake, and mony blake gownes and cotes; and the morow masse of requeem and offeryng done, be-gane the sarmon; and so masse done, and so to dener to my lord Montyguw('s); and at ys gatt the corse was putt in-to a wagon with iiij welles, all covered with blake, and ower the corsse ys pyctur mad with ys myter on ys hed, with ys and ys armes, and v gentyll men bayryng ys v banars in gownes and hods, then ij harolds in ther cote armur, master Garter and Ruge-crosse; then cam the men rydyng, carehyng of torchys a lx bornyng, at bowt the corsse all the way; and then cam the mornars in gownes and cotes, to the nombur unto ij C. a-for and be-hynd, and so at sant Gorges cam prestes and clarkes with crosse and sensyng, and ther thay had a grett torche gyffyn them, and so to ever parryche tyll they cam to Wynchaster, and had money as money as cam to mett them, and durge and masse at evere logyng.

On 28 Feb 1556 Bishop Stephen Gardiner was buried at Winchester Cathedral [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. So I landed them at Greenwich, Kent [Map], and there to a garden, and gave them fruit and wine, and so to boat again, and finally, in the cool of the evening, to Lyon Kee1, the tide against us, and so landed and walked to the Bridge [Map], and there took a coach by chance passing by, and so I saw them home, and there eat some cold venison with them, and drunk and bade them good night, having been mighty merry with them, and I think it is not amiss to preserve, though it cost me a little, such a friend as Mrs. Turner (age 40).

Note 1. Lion Key, Lower Thames Street, where the famous Duchess of Suffolk in the time of Bishop Gardiner's persecution took boat for the continent. James, Duke of York (age 29), also left the country from this same place on the night of April 20th, 1648, when he escaped from St. James's Palace.

Letters of Horace Walpole. 05 Aug 1752. From Sevenoaks [Map] we went to Knowle. The park is sweet, with much old beech, and an immense sycamore before the great gate, that makes me more in love than ever with sycamores. The house is not near so extensive as I expected:330 the outward court has a beautiful decent simplicity that charms one. The apartments are many, but not large. The furniture throughout, ancient magnificence; loads of portraits, not good nor curious; ebony cabinets, embossed silver in vases, dishes, etc. embroidered beds, stiff chairs, and sweet bags lying on velvet tables, richly worked in silk and gold. There are two galleries, one very small; an old hall, and a spacious great drawing-room. There is never a good staircase. The first little room you enter has sundry portraits of the times; but they seem to have been bespoke by the yard, and drawn all by the same painter; One should be happy if they were authentic; for among them there is Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, Gardiner of Winchester, the Earl of Surry, the poet, when a boy, and a Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, but I don't know which. The only fine picture is of Lord Goring and Endymion Porter by Vandyke. There is a good head of the Queen of Bohemia, a whole-length of Duc d'Espernon, and another good head of the Clifford, Countess of Dorset, who wrote that admirable haughty letter to Secretary Williamson, when he recommended a person to her for member for Appleby: "I have been bullied by an usurper, I have been neglected by a court, but I won't be dictated to by a subject: your man shan't stand. Ann Dorset, Pembroke and Montgomery." In the chapel is a piece of ancient tapestry: Saint Luke in his first profession is holding an urinal. Below stairs is a chamber of poets and players, which is proper enough in that house; for the first Earl wrote a play331, and the last Earl was a poet332, and I think married a player333 Major Mohun and Betterton are curious among the latter, Cartwright and Flatman among the former. The arcade is newly enclosed, painted in fresco, and with modern glass of all the family matches. In the gallery is a whole-length of the unfortunate Earl of Surry, with his device, a broken column, and the motto Sat superest. My father had one of them, but larger, and with more emblems, which the Duke of Norfolk bought at my brother's sale. There is one good head of henry VIII, and divers of Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, the citizen who came to be lord treasurer, and was very near coming to be hanged.334 His Countess, a bouncing kind of lady-mayoress, looks pure awkward amongst so much good company. A visto cut through the wood has a delightful effect from the front: but there are some trumpery fragments of gardens that spoil the view from the state apartments.

Note 329. Only son of Dr. Richard Bentley, the celebrated Divine and classical scholar. He was educated at Trinity College, under his father. Cumberland, who was his nephew, describes him as a man of various and considerable accomplishments; possessing a fine genius, great wit, and a brilliant imagination; "but there was," he adds, "a certain eccentricity and want of prudence in his character, that involved him in distresses, and reduced him to situations uncongenial with his feelings, and unpropitious to the cultivation and encouragement of his talents."-E.

Note 330. Evelyn in his Diary for July 25, 1673, says, "In my way I visited my Lord of Dorset's house at Knowle, near Sevenoaks, a greate old-fashion'd house."-E.

Note 331. Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst, while a student in the Temple, wrote his tragedy of Gordobuc, which was played before Queen Elizabeth, at Whitehall, in 1561. He was created Earl of Dorset by James the First, in 1604.-E.

Note 332. Charles Sackville, sixth Earl of Dorset. On the day previous to the naval engagement with the Dutch, in 1665, he is said to have composed his celebrated song, "to all you Ladies now on Land."-E.

Note 333. On the contrary, he married the Lady Frances, daughter of the Earl of Middlesex, who survived him.-E. [Note. This appears to be a mistake insofar as Richard Sackville 5th Earl Dorset married Frances Cranfield Countess Dorset who was the daughter of Lionel Cranfield 1st Earl Middlesex. Charles Sackville 6th Earl Dorset 1st Earl Middlesex married firstly Mary Bagot Countess Falmouth and Dorset and secondly Mary Compton Countess Dorset and Middlesex. There, however, references to his marrying an actress Alice Lee with whom he appear to have had a daughter Mary Sackville Countess Orrery.]

Note 334. Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex, married two wives: the first was the daughter of a London citizen; the second, the daughter of James Brett, Esq. and half-sister of Mary Beaumont, created Countess of Buckingham. To this last alliance, Lord Middlesex owed his extraordinary advancement.-E.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Winchester, after long conference with Master Hooper four or five days together, when he at length perceived that neither he could do that good which he thought to him, nor that he would take any good at his hand, according to Master Arundel's request, he sent home his servant again; right well commending his learning and wit, but yet bearing in his breast a grudging stomach against Master Hooper still.

Foxe's Book of Martyrs. Thus Master Hooper, growing more and more, by God's grace, in ripeness of spiritual understanding, and showing withal some sparkles of his fervent spirit, being then about the beginning of the six articles, in the time of King Henry the Eighth, fell eftsoons into displeasure and hatred of certain rabbins in Oxford, who, by and by, began to stir coals against him; whereby, and especially by the procurement of Dr. Smith, he was compelled to void the university; and so, removing from thence, was retained in the house of Sir Thomas Arundel, and there was his steward, till the time that Sir Thomas Arundel, having intelligence of his opinions and religion, which he in no case did favour, and yet exccedingly favouring the person and conditions of the man, found the means to send him in a message to the bishop of Winchester, writing his letter privily to the bishop, by conference of learning to do some good upon him; but in any case requiring him to send home his servant to him again.