South England Neolithic Long Barrows

South England Neolithic Long Barrows is in South England Neolithic, Neolithic Burials.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Amesbury 42 Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury 42 Long Barrow is also in Stonehenge Long Barrows.

Amesbury 42 Long Barrow [Map] is a Long Barrow at the end of the Stonehenge Greater Cursus. It was noted by William Stukeley (age 35) in 1723 and Richard Colt Hoare 2nd Baronet (age 51) in 1810. It was excavated by John Thurnam in 1810 who recovered an Ox Skull and discovered secondary inhumations. The barrow is now levelled.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Amesbury. 42 [Map].1 Close to, and parallel with, the E. end of the c' Cursus," near Stonehenge, Length 265ft. (Thurnam) S. and N. Opened by Thurnam who regarded it as a true Long Barrow, but Hoare and Stukeley seem both to have thought otherwise. Stukeley shows it merely as a bank (Stonehenge Tab. Ill.). Hoare spoke of it thus "The head (of the Cursus),which is towards the east, is marked by a mound of earth, resembling a Long Barrow, which extends across the whole Cursus." The Cursus, Hoare regarded as the "Race course of the Britons," and on the mound he suggests the spectators were seated, and a more eligible post could not have been chosen." Thurnam never seems to have published any account of his discoveries in the mound, and the only mention of it is that in the Summary List in Arch. xlii., where it is stated that secondary burials, but no primary one, were found.

The following is an entry in the MS. Cat. "No. 234:- Ancient British. From a secondary interment in the Long Barrow at the east end of the Cursus' near Stonehenge. I see no reason to doubt this mound being a true Long Barrow, though like some others it lies N. and S., with the broadest end to the S. There are still traces of the ditch at each side. It measures 265ft. long, 55ft. to 70ft. broad, and 4ft. high. It is named by Sir R. C. Hoare as a mound resembling a Long Barrow.' The skeleton from which this brachycephalic calvarium was taken was lying within a foot of the present surface, about 50ft. from the southern skirt of the barrow. It was in the contracted posture, and close to it was the skeleton of an infant. The femur measured 17in., the humerus 12in., though the bones of the skull are very thick I think it female. The skull had been smashed, probably by the plough. Though great labour was bestowed upon it, the true primary interment was not found in the barrow. There were portions however of the skeleton of an infant about 3ft. (deep) and just over the dark stratum. About 21ft. (deep) were parts of the skeletons of at least three individuals of bos longifrons, consisting of several entire carpi and tarsi, every bone, down to the sesamoids, being in situ; and parts of a pelvis and of a skull of the same animal. The greater part of these were presented by me to the Museum of Anatomy, at Oxford. I retain one carpus and two tarsi, the bones of which were perfect enough to be articulated. They had evidently been cut off from the carcases with the hoofs and probably the enteguments entire, and thrown on the incomplete funeral mound, whilst the flesh was probably cooked and eaten on the occasion of a feast and sacrifice. Exhumed by J. T. (John Thurnam) March 29 and April 6, 1866."

This mound and the whole of the eastern part of the Cursus, is now, as it seems to have been in Thurnam's time, under cultivation; the mound is much lowered and scattered about, and no sign of the ditches referred to by Thurnam can now be seen on the surface. O.M. 54 SE.; Arch. xlii., 180, 182; A. w. 1. 158; MS Cat. No. 239.

Note 1. This is the mound referred to by Thurnam as "Stonehenge, Cursus." Arch. xlii. 180.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Amesbury 59 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Amesbury. 59 [Map]. N. of Amesbury-Andover Road, between New Barn and the second milestone out of Amesbury. Length 125ft; S.S.E. by N.N.W. No recorded opening. A fine barrow with ditches still traceable, but now under cultivation. There is a large round barrow almost touching its fringe at the northern end. O.M. 55 S W. Not shown by Hoare.

For two Long barrows, now destroyed, in Amesbury parish, see end of this list.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

It is a curious fact that Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map] is, within 0.2 of a degree of longitude, north of Stonehenge [Map] - see Five Wells Chambered Tomb and Stonehenge Alignment. Moreover, this line of longitude, give or take 500m, has the highest number of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Monuments on it when compared to other lines of longitude. North to South:

Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map]

Long Low Barrow [Map]

Willersey Barrow [Map]

Farmington Long Barrow [Map]

Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]

East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]

Adam's Grave [Map]

Knap Hill [Map]

Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

Stonehenge.

Colt Hoare 1812. The tumulus [Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]] nearest that place produced the largest sepulchral urn we have ever yet found, it measures fifteen inches in diameter at the top, and is 22½ inches high; it varies also most decidedly in shape and pattern from any others in our collection; on which account we have distinguished it by the name of the Stonehenge Urn. It contained an interment of burned bones, and was not inverted; but the deposit was secured by a large triangular stone, placed over the mouth of the urn. It is engraved in Tumuli Plate XVI. Two of these barrows are superior in size to the rest; the one nearest the road is large and bowl shaped; eighty feet in base diameter, and eight and a half in elevation, though it appears to be much higher. The men made a large section, supposing the interment would be found at a considerable depth, but they met with it at eight feet and a half, in a shallow oblong cist, where the burned bones had been interred in a box of wood. The adjoining large tumulus produced an interment by cremation, which had in former times been disturbed by rabbits. Some others of this group, though scarcely elevated above the ground, produced deposits of burned bones; in one of them, just under the turf, was found a brass spear head, and two of the others had been opened before.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Amesbury. 14 [Map]. On Normanton Down, No. 165 of Hoare's Normanton Group," close to S. side of road from Stonehenge to Winterbourne Stoke. Length IOOft.; S.S.E. by N. N.W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington, who failed to find interments, and later by Thurnam,who found the primary burial of three skeletons, and some secondary burials, but beyond the reference in the summary list in Arch. xlii. no account of the discoveries seems to have been published3; in the MS. Cat. there are however, the following entries No. 240. From the small long barrow No. 165 of Hoare - this dolichocephalic skull was obtained in 1866 from the primary interment below a stratum of black earth on the natural level. The marks of cleavage on this. skull are very distinct. It is remarkable that there were no bones of upper or lower maxillæ, or any teeth."

240a. Ancient British. Part of calvarium, also with distinct marks of old cleavage found with portions of a third skull, apparently that of a child, close to No. 240. The upper and lower jaws found with it indicate an age of about 15 years. This sepulchral deposit was found nearer the centre of the mound than is usual in Long Barrows, and about 15ft. to the north of the opening made by Mr. Cunnington in 1808, and 20ft or more to the north of that made by myself in 1856. The impression made by the appearance of the deposit was that the bodies had been dismembered and the skulls more or less shattered and broken before their final interment in this place where they were found."

241. Ancient British. From the same barrow, about a foot beneath the surface and nearer to the S. end than Nos. 240 and 240a. No other part of the skeleton, nor even a trace of jaws or teeth, was found with the calvarium, which was of a dark earthy colour when found. It is probably Ancient British of the dolichocephalic Stone Age of Long Barrow type, and brought here after the partial completion of the tumulus."

242. Ancient British. From a secondary interment of a boy or girl, 12 or 15 years of age, l½ft. deep in the same barrow. The skeleton was doubled up, with head to thy south. There was no relic of art with the skeleton, but 2ft, deeper another and also brachycephalic skeleton, also doubled up. The skull was too imperfect to be preserved. There was likewise part of a tibia of Bos tongifrons, and an entire skeleton of a goose, all these above the stratum of black earth. Exhumed April 28th, 1866."

Mound and ditches in very fair condition, but both are now beginning to be attacked by rabbits. Turf. O.M. 54 SW.; A.W.I. 206; Arch. xlii. 180; MS. Cat. 240-2.

Note 3. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Stonehenge No. 165" in the list of barrows opened by himself, but is not included in his list of those opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Donhead St Andrew, Ansty 1 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Ansty. 1 [Map]. On Whitesheet Hill, at junction of Donhead St. Andrew, Ansty, and Berwick St. John parish boundaries, close to and N. of the old Shaftesbury Road, E. of the 14th milestone to Salisbury. Length 132ft. N.E. by S.W. There is no recorded opening of this barrow, but it appears to have been dug into near the centre. It is otherwise in good condition, and stands on uncultivated ground, and the ditches are well defined. O. M. 69, SE; A. W. I. Map of Fovant Station.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Warminster, Arn Hill Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Warminster. 11. [Arn Hill Long Barrow [Map]] On the down N. of Arn Hill, and close to and E. of Colloway Clump. Length 132ft; S.W. and N.E. Opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1802. " At the south end was a sarsen stone 5ft. high, terminating almost in a point, and placed in an upright position. Near it lay the bones of three skeletons, which appeared to have been deposited on the south and south-east of the stone, with heads towards the east. They were all placed on a rude pavement of marl, and over them was thrown a pile of large loose stones. There are probably other, and more ancient, interments in this tumulus " A. W. I. 65.

Hoare speaks of the barrow as "recently planted," and there are now large beech trees, evidently of considerable age, growing on it; it stands on ploughed ground, and the ditches have disappeared, but the mound itself, in spite of the trees and bushes, is still in good condition; it is of a considerable height and width at the S. end. but tapers very much, ending almost in a sharp ridge. O.M. 51 N E.; A. W. I. 65; Arch, xliii. 189.

Note 1. Thurnam refers to this barrow as "Arn Hill."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Tilshead Wiltshire, Barrow Plantation Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Tilshead. 7. [Barrow Plantation Long Barrow [Map]] In Barrow Plantation, E. of the village of Tilshead. Length 210ft. (Thurnam). S.E. and N.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1863, who states it was then covered with trees of about twenty years' growth. "Excavating near the east end, a stratum of black earth was found at the depth of about 5ft.; and in and below this a pile of human bones closely packed within a space of less than 4ft.in diameter, and about 18in. in depth. They proved to be the remains of eight skeletons, strangely cemented together, so closely as to show that if not interred after the decay or removal of the flesh, the bodies must have been packed together as closely as possible in the sitting or crouching posture. The lowest skeleton, covered by the others, and most centrally placed, was that of a woman.... The skeletons were those of three men, three women, and two infants, from one to two years of age;... nearly all (the skulls) had been extremely cleft, apparently during life.... The only skull without greater or less trace of violence is that referred to as the deepest and most centrally placed." Mem. Anthrop. Soc. I. 146.

This barrow, referred to by Thurnam as " Tilshead East," and described by Hoare as a "fine Long barrow on a hill," is now quite obscured in a plantation and covered with thick undergrowth and trees; rabbits are also playing havoc with the mound; the ditches are still distinguishable. There is said to be an artificial fox's earth with drain pipes under the mound. O.M. 46 SE.; A. W. I. 93; Arch. xlii. 180; Mem. Anthrop. Soc. I. 146; MS. Cat. 179—184.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Warminster, Imber, Boles Barrow [Map]

Boles Barrow [Map] is a Long Barrow located on Salisbury Plain. 150 feet in length, ninety-four in breadth, and ten and a half in height.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1922 V41 Pages 172-174. "Blue hard stone, ye same as at Stonehenge," found in Boles [Bowles] Barrow [Map] (Heytesbury, I.)

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1924 V42 Pages 431-437. 1924. The "Blue Stone" From Boles Barrow [Map]1 By B. Howard Cunnington (age 63), F.S.A., Scot.

Note 1. The Society is indebted to Mr. Cunnington for the kind gift of the plates illustrating this paper. - Editor

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Boyton Down Long Barrow [Map]

Archaeologia Volume 15 Section XXXIII. Archaeologia Volume 15 Plate XVI: 1. Boyton Barrow 2 [Map], 2. Boyton Down Long Barrow [Map], 3. Boyton Barrow 1 [Map], Corton Long Barrow [Map] South View,

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Sherrington. 4. [Boyton Down Long Barrow [Map]] On the Boyton — Sherrington parish boundary, S. of Boyton Church, E. of Boyton Field Barn, on a conspicuous ridge of down. Length 150ft.; E. and W. No recorded opening. It is shown on Hoare's Map of Wylye Station (S. of the village of Boyton) as opened, but there seems to be no mention of it in the text. It is not included in Thurnam's list of long barrows opened by Hoare and Cunnington, and there is only an incidental mention of it in Wm. Cunnington's account of "Barrows opened on the Manors of Corton, Boyton, and Sherrington " (Arch. xv. 338) although a sketch of the barrow is given on Pl. XVI. fig. 2. Only the fringe and a few feet at the western end of the mound remain, but it must once have been a very fine barrow, and very conspicuously situated. The mound appears to have been wide and high for its length, the width at the east end being now 64ft. It stands on cultivated ground with no trace of the ditches above ground. Labourers on the spot stated that the material of the mound had been taken away from time to time to mend the adjacent trackway. O.M. 58 NE.; Arch. xv. 340, PL VI. fig. 2; A.W. I. Map of Wylye Station.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Bratton Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Bratton. 1. [Bratton Long Barrow [Map]] In Bratton Camp. Length 230ft. (Thurnam); E. and W. Opened by Wm. Cunnington, who found a secondary burial of three skeletons near the top of the larger end, but failed to find the primary one. Thurnam, who re-opened it in 1866, seems to have found the primary burial on the floor of the barrow, consisting of "a heap of imperfectly burnt, or rather charred, human bones, apparently those of one or two adults"1 This barrow is now a rather unshapely heap and much cut about; the mound is not ploughed but it stands on cultivated ground and all trace of the ditches is obliterated. O.M. 45, NW.; A.W. I. 55; Arch. XLII. 180, 192; W.A.M. XIII. 341.

Note 1. In Gough's Camden I. 146 it is said that "many human bones mixed vith stag's horns, fragments of urns, and pieces of iron weapons, and mill-stones," have been found "under the mound."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Warminster, Kingston Deverill, Brixton Deverill 7 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Brixton Deverill. 7. [Brixton Deverill 7 Long Barrow [Map]] S.E. of Brixton Deverill, and E. of Monkton Deverill, on the down to the N.W. of Lower Pertwood Farm. Length 278ft.; nearly E. and W. There seem to be no records of this barrow; apparently unopened. A very fine barrow, in excellent condition, with unusually well defined deep ditches, standing on unploughed down in a rather remote situation. The ditches are not straight, but curve inwards towards the mound in the middle, and outwards from the mound at both ends. There is also the rather unusual feature of a distinct berm, or level platform, between the fringe of the mound and the inner edges of the ditches. For similar berms see Brixton Deverill 2 and Milston 39. O.M. 57 SE.; A. W. I. Map of Stourton Station.

For Long Barrow in Brixton Deverill parish now destroyed see end of this list.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Calne Without 1 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Calne Without. 1. [Calne Without 1 Long Barrow [Map]] About ¼ of a mile W. of Cherhill Monument. Length? E. and W. The remains of a long-shaped mound, much cut about at both ends by stone diggers; perhaps the remnant of a Long Barrow; nothing seems to be known of its history. O.M. 27 SE. For the barrow also near Cherhill Monument, referred to by Thurnam as " Oldbury," see under Cherhill.

Europe, British Isles, South-Central England, Berkshire, Blewbury Parish, Churn Barrow [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Warminster, Cold Kitchen Hill Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Brixton Deverill. 2. On Cold Kitchen Hill [Cold Kitchen Hill Long Barrow [Map]], W. of one ditch and N of another, and almost due N". of Kingston Deverill Church [Map]. Length 174ft.; S.S.E. and N.N.W. There seems to be no record of this barrow; probably unopened. A very fine barrow, in excellent condition, with ditches well defined. There are several slight sinkings in the mound, that may mark places of interment or openings. The mound does not quite fill the space between the ditches at the northern end, leaving a slight platform or berm on either side. For similar berms see below. Brixton Deverill 7. O.M. 57 NE.; A.W. I. Map of Stourton Station.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Collingbourne Kingston Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Collingbourne Kingston. 21. [Collingbourne Kingston Long Barrow [Map]]. On Fairmile Down. Length 137ft.; E. and W. There is no recorded opening of this barrow, but it appears to have been dug into in four separate places. The mound is otherwise in good condition and stands on unploughed down land. The ditches on either side are unusually deep and well defined. O.M. 42, SE.; W.A.M. viii. 156 (et passim). Not shown by Hoare.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Corton Long Barrow [Map]

Archaeologia Volume 15 Section XXXIII. Archaeologia Volume 15 Plate XVI: 1. Boyton Barrow 2 [Map], 2. Boyton Down Long Barrow [Map], 3. Boyton Barrow 1 [Map], Corton Long Barrow [Map] South View,

Archaeologia Volume 15 Section XXXIII. Corton Long Barrow [Map][a] is situated about a mile and a quarter fouth of the river Wilye, in the Tenanty field, on a hill called Barrow Hill, from the tumulus we opened. Its situation commands home pleasant, (though not extensive,) views over a great many of the villages on the banks of the Wilye.

It stands exactly east and west, having its broad end to the east; the plough has made encroachments both on the sides, and on the east end;, at this time, the extreme length is 216 feet, by 2$ feet at the east end, and its highest elevation above the adjoining ground, 9 feet. Until this week, I conceived this tumulus to have been a double barrow, and the finding a rude urn, containing, burnt human bones, on the west end marked A, strengthened this opinion. [a] However, the discoveries made in the east end, prove it to have been originally a regular long barrow, similar to several I have opened on the Wiltshire Downs; therefore, the parting in the middle must have been occasioned by the farmers having taken away the earth for agricultural or other purposes. By much the greater part of our long barrows stand nearly east and west, as this does, having the east end much wider than the other, and at this end, we generally find some skeletons. We began the second opening of this barrow, by a large section at B: but making no discoveries there, I was led to consider it as a long barrow, and therefore made another section at C; when, after clearing out the earth, &c. to the depth of about two feet, we came to a large stone which required three men to lift it out. This proved to be the top of a pyramid of loose flints, marl stones, &c. which widened as we approached, the bottom, where the base of the ridge measured more than 20 feet in length, by about, 10 feet in width. Beneath this ridge of flints, &c. we found eight skeletons lying in several directions, as though they had been thrown on a heap without any ceremony.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Boyton. 1. "Corton Long Barrow [Map]," on Barrow Hill. Length 216ft. (Hoare); E. and W. Opened by Wm. Cunnington 1804; beneath a large heap of flints, marl stones, etc., at the E. end eight skeletons were found "lying in several directions, as though they had been thrown on a heap without ceremony." Seven were those of adults, and one of a child from seven to eight years of age. A secondary burnt burial in a cinerary urn had previously (1801) been found at the W. end by the same explorer. The mound had been reduced in size by the plough even in Hoare's time, and since then it has been reduced still more, and is now only 120ft. in length. Then, as now, it appeared almost as two round barrows from earth having been taken away from about the middle of the mound for agricultural purposes. There are beech trees of considerable age growing on the barrow, but the ground round it has been until recently under cultivation and there is no trace of the ditches. 0.M. 58 NW.; A.W. I. 102; Arch. XV. 338 (Cunnington); XLII. 180.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Hampshire, Danebury Barrows, Danebury Barrow 1 [Map]

Wessex from the Air Plate 30. Reference No. 163. Geological Formation. Upper Chalk. County. Hants. 31 NW. (122: E. 12). Time and Date of Photograph. 6.4 p.m., 26th June. Parish. Nether Wallop. Height of Aeroplane. 3,300 ft. (1,006 metres), Latitude. 51° 8' 34" N. Longitude. 1° 32' 22" W. Speed of Shutter, 1/80th of a second. Height above Sea-level. A little over 300 ft. (91 metres).

There are three barrows visible on this plate, two long barrows and one oval barrow.

The two long barrows [Danebury Barrow 1 [Map] and Danebury Barrow 2 [Map]] were discovered by Dr. Williams-Freeman, and are referred to in his book (Field Archaeology of Hampshire, 1915, p. 155). In spite of being annually ploughed over, they are both still in a good state of preservation. The dark lines of the parallel side-ditches can be clearly seen on the plate. The two barrows are 180 ft. apart; and lie about 600 yds. north-west of Danebury.

The south-western barrow is 213 ft. long: from the bottom of the ditch to the highest point of the barrow is 9 ft. 6 in., and the top of the ditch itself is i ft. 8 in. below the adjacent ground level. The orientation is 118° Magnetic (1924).

The north-eastern barrow is 177 ft. long and 6 ft. 7 in. high; the ditch is i ft. 3 in. below ground-level; and the orientation is 110° Magnetic (1924).

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Hampshire, Danebury Barrows, Danebury Barrow 2 [Map]

Wessex from the Air Plate 30. Reference No. 163. Geological Formation. Upper Chalk. County. Hants. 31 NW. (122: E. 12). Time and Date of Photograph. 6.4 p.m., 26th June. Parish. Nether Wallop. Height of Aeroplane. 3,300 ft. (1,006 metres), Latitude. 51° 8' 34" N. Longitude. 1° 32' 22" W. Speed of Shutter, 1/80th of a second. Height above Sea-level. A little over 300 ft. (91 metres).

There are three barrows visible on this plate, two long barrows and one oval barrow.

The two long barrows [Danebury Barrow 1 [Map] and Danebury Barrow 2 [Map]] were discovered by Dr. Williams-Freeman, and are referred to in his book (Field Archaeology of Hampshire, 1915, p. 155). In spite of being annually ploughed over, they are both still in a good state of preservation. The dark lines of the parallel side-ditches can be clearly seen on the plate. The two barrows are 180 ft. apart; and lie about 600 yds. north-west of Danebury.

The south-western barrow is 213 ft. long: from the bottom of the ditch to the highest point of the barrow is 9 ft. 6 in., and the top of the ditch itself is i ft. 8 in. below the adjacent ground level. The orientation is 118° Magnetic (1924).

The north-eastern barrow is 177 ft. long and 6 ft. 7 in. high; the ditch is i ft. 3 in. below ground-level; and the orientation is 110° Magnetic (1924).

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Donhead St Mary Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Donhead St. Mary. 4. [Donhead St Mary Long Barrow [Map]] S.W. of Wingreen, near the Dorset border. N.W. of Abbot's Copse, and S. of the Ridgeway. Length 132ft.; N.E. and S.W. There is no record of the opening of this barrow, but it appears to have been dug into. The mound is in fair condition, and does not appear to have been ploughed over although the ground round it is under cultivation. Ditches indistinct. O.M. 74 N.W. Not shown by Hoare.

For Long Barrow in Donhead St. Mary parish now destroyed see end of this list.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Downton Long Barrow aka Giant's Grave [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Downton. 2. [Downton Long Barrow aka Giant's Grave [Map]]. "Giant's Grave," S.E. of Clearbury Rings [Map]. Length about 150ft.; S. and N. This barrow does not appear to have been opened; there is a slight sinking at the larger end, possibly over a cist. The mound is a fine one, in excellent condition, and apparently never disturbed, although the ground round it has been cultivated. Ditches indistinct as a result of cultivation. O.M. 71 SE. Not shown by Hoare.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, East Knoyle Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Knoyle, East, [1a.] [East Knoyle Long Barrow [Map]] N. of road from Willoughby Hedge to Amesbury, about | mile E. of the 18th milestone. Length? S.E. and N.W. No opening recorded. Now down to grass, but shows every sign of having been formerly under the plough for many years. Much spread about and levelled, and now very inconspicuous. Not marked on the OM., the oblong mound shown on the site being the remnant of a round barrow shown by Hoare, which has also suffered much under the plough. O.M. 63, NE.; A. W. I. Map of Stourton Station.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Wilsford, Ell Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Wilsford. 3. (N.Wilts) "Ell Barrow [Map]," on Black Heath, near the Wilsford — Charlton parish boundary. Length 170ft.; E. and W. Opened by Thurnam, but it had been rifled before, and he only found the remains of skeletons. No particulars are given. He also found a secondary Saxon burial of a large male skeleton at full length, a foot or so under the turf. The skull was cleft, but the wound was of a different character from the breakages of skulls in primary burials in "Long" barrows, and had apparently been inflicted by a sword. (Arch. xlii. 196, note).

This conspicuously situated barrow stands on un ploughed down, and its ditches are still quite distinct. It has been much trampled about in the last few years by mounted soldiers, who seem to use it as a look-out post. A flagstaff for flying the danger signal of the artillery range has been planted in the mound. O.M. 46 NE; A. W. I. 175; Arch. xlii. 180, 196, note; MS. Cat. 148 (the entry is that of the secondary interment only).

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Tormaton, Fox Covert Long Barrow [Map]

Fox Covert Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England

The monument includes a long barrow set just above the floor of a small valley. The barrow mound is orientated SW-NE, it is trapezoidal in plan and has dimensions of 50m long, 25m wide at the broader NE end and 22m wide at the SW end. The mound varies in height between 2m in the centre and 0.5m at the NE end. Although no longer visible at ground level ditches, from which material was quarried during the construction of the monument, flank the mound to the north and south. These have become infilled over the years but survive as buried features c.3m wide.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Allengrove, Giant's Cave Long Barrow [Map]

Giant's Cave Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England

The monument includes a chambered long barrow set on the floor of a valley immediately north of a tributary of the River Avon. The barrow mound is orientated east-west and is trapezoidal in plan. It has maximum dimensions of 56m in length, is 26m wide and 2.5m high. Limestone slabs on the surface of the mound at the eastern end represent the chambers of what was a laterally chambered tomb of the Cotswold-Severn group. Hollows and a spoil heap towards the centre of the mound represent an early exploration of the site although no details are known. Although no longer visible at ground level, quarry ditches run parallel to the north and south sides of the barrow mound. These have become infilled over the years but survive as buried features c.3m wide.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Luckington, Giant's Cave Long Barrow [Map]

The Beauties of Wiltshire:Luckington. LUCKINGTON.—About seven miles to the west of Malmesbury is situated the village of Luckington or Lockington, near which rises the principal branch of the river Avon. The parish consists of about 1200 acres. Two manors, denominated "Lochintone," occur in the Domesday survey of Wiltshire, one of which was held by Durand de Gloucester, and before the Conquest, had been the property of King Harold. The other belonged to Ralph de Mortemer, the proprietor of Hullavington, Alderton, In the reign of Henry the Fourth, Richard de St. Maur, or Seymour, died seised of the lordship. His son Richard left an only daughter, who married William, Lord Zouche, of Haringworth, whose son inherited the honours and estates of his maternal ancestors.

In this parish, between the village and Badminton, is a tumulus called Long-barrow [Giant's Cave Long Barrow [Map]], in which are some Caves, said to be nine in number. They are formed of long stones set upon their sides, with other broader stones on the top. According to Aubrey, they were accidentally discovered about the year 1646. Spurs and fragments of armour have been found in or near these caves, which have hence been supposed to be the graves of warriors slain in battle. Sir R. C. Hoare says, "From the experience I have lately had in similar antiquities, I can with safety pronounce this to have been a long barrow with a kistvaen, (as at Lugbury [Map],) placed at the east end; and it is very probable that the oblong stone inclosures on the sides of the barrow may have also been appropriated to sepulchral purposes1." In 1809, another barrow was levelled, and found to contain the remains of several human skeletons.

Note 1. Ancient Wiltshire, Roman Æra," p. 102.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Luckington. 1. "Giant's Caves [Map]." Length 123ft. 1; E. and W. Chambered. Apparently rifled at some unknown period and the cists or chambers left uncovered. This barrow now appears as a mere untidy shapeless heap in a grass field, covered with bushes; there are several large stones placed edgeways, half buried in the ground, that appear to be the ruins of at least three chambers; one of these, oblong in shape, seems to be fairly complete except for any covering stones it may have had. O.M. 12 NW.; A. W. II. 101—2 (quotes Aubrey and Childrey); Arch. xlii. 203.

Long Barrows of the Cotswolds. Giant's Cave Long Barrow [Map]

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Milton Lilbourne, Giant's Grave Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1885 V22 Pages 234-238. "Friday, 9 October [1807]. Fine and mild day. From Marlborough to Everley in a chaise, where I met my "Magnus Apollo," Mr. Cunnington. Mounted my horse and rode with him thus— see large map of Wilts. To the right between East and West Everley, a group of three barrows, viz., a finely formed Druid barrow between two bowl-shaped. A little beyond them on the declivity of a hill is a square earthen work, very perfect on three sides, and corners apparently rounded. In a northerly direction is a very interesting group of eight tumuli — very rude and possessing some novelty in their forms— particularly that of a long barrow within a circle. To the west of these, and a little on the left of the track leading to Pewsey, are two circles connected with each other by a ditch or hollow way [Map]. (The blackness of the soil, and the irregularity of the ground give me good reason to suppose that on digging I shall find the site of a British settlement here.) Turned off to the right, and skirted the ridge of hills, enjoying a most enchanting view of the richly wooded and cultivated vale beneath, terminated by the abrupt and bold Martinshall. On the declivity of the down see an immense irregular long barrow, called vulgarly the Giant's Grave [Map]. Beyond this tumulus and between it and Milton Farm-house, we evidently found the site of British habitations, and picked up a great deal of pottery. From hence crossed over to Easton Hill, where we discovered irregular earthen works, and excavations denoting ancient habitation. Returned to Milton Hill — a group of five tumuli very near each other, and another on the declivity of the hill [Map]. In our way back to Everley saw several others detached, but no earthen works or excavations exciting curiosity.

"A most interesting ride, full of novelty and information.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1868 V11 Pages 40-49. During the summer of 1865, I had an opportunity of opening a long barrow of great extent on Fyfield Hill, near Pewsey, Wiltshire, locally known as "the Giant's Grave [Map]." It is not less than 315 feet in length, by 70 feet in width at the east, and 50 feet at the west, and is about 7 feet high at the east end. A moderately wide trench runs along each side, but is not continued round the ends of the barrow. On the natural level, near the east end, a heap of three or four skeletons was found, the only perfect skull from which is of a remarkably long and narrow form, the breadth being as ·69 to the length taken as 1·00. One of the other skulls had been forcibly cleft before burial. The only object of antiquity with the skeletons was a finely-chipped arrow-head of flint, of a beautiful leaf-shape, and weighing forty-three grains: the point of its more tapering extremity was broken off when found, as represented in the woodcut. It has measured 2 inches in length, by 9/10 inch in breadth; or 51 by 23 millimetres.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Milton Lilbourne. 7.2 "Giant's Grave [Map]," on Fyfield Down, S. of the village of Milton Lilbourne. Length 315ft. (Thurnam); E.N.E. and W.S. W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865. "On the natural level, near the east end, a heap of three or four skeletons was found, the only perfect skull from which is of a remarkably long and narrow form. One of the other skulls had been forcibly cleft before burial. The only object found with the skeletons was a finely-worked leaf-shaped arrowhead of flint, close to one of the skulls."

Thurnam also says "A moderately wide trench runs along each side, but is not continued round the ends of the barrow." There is now really no sign of a ditch on the S. side; on the N. side it is quite evident, and very irregular in shape; there is also the very unusual feature of a slight but distinct counterscarp on the outer edge of this ditch.3

A very fine barrow and placed in a commanding situation overlooking the Vale of Pewsey. In perfect preservation except for a large hole at the E. end, no doubt not filled up after Thurnam's excavation. O.M. 42, NW.; A.W. I. 190; Arch. xlii. 180, 182, 194; Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2 S., III. 170; W.A.M. xi. 47; MS. Cat. 225.

Note 2. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Fyfield."

Note 3. I have never noticed this feature in any other Long Barrow.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Castle Combe, Green Barrow Farm Long Barrow [Map]

Green Barrow Farm Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1018419

The monument includes a long barrow 240m south west of Green Barrow Farm on level farmland to the east of the village of Castle Combe. The monument has a long rounded mound up to 1.5m high interpreted as a long barrow which has been spread by ploughing. It is 57m long on a NNE-SSW axis and 43m wide on a SSE-NNW axis. Crossing the mound towards the south west there is a slight linear depression interpreted as a former field boundary. The barrow from which Green Barrow Farm takes its name is recorded in Scrope's History of Castle Combe as a long oblong mound, levelled by its owner in 1852.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Old Sarum, Hand Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Laverstock. 3. "Hand Barrow [Map]," about a mile N.E. of Old Sarum, ¾ mile N. of Ford, on the S. side of the Portway. Length 148ft.; N.N.E. and S.S. W. Nothing known of any opening. It is shown on Hoare's maps as two round barrows, but he speaks of it as "a tumulus called Hand Barrows, as if there were two mounds, but I am inclined to think they originally formed one long barrow." A. W. II. Roman Æra, 46. There are now dwarfish trees growing on the mound, but it is otherwise probably much in the same condition as when Hoare saw it. The ground round it is ploughed up to the edge of the mound, so that the ditches, if any, are entirely obliterated. A quantity of material has been taken away from the central part of the mound, giving somewhat the appearance of two distinct mounds, as at Corton Long Barrow (see under Boyton), but it is nowhere levelled down to the natural surface; material has also been taken from the larger end, leaving a hollow. In spite of these disfigurements, however, the mound still has decidedly the appearance of a "Long" barrow; it is considerably wider at one end than the other and tapers off regularly almost to a point. O.M. 66 N.E.; A. W. I. Station V., South, map only; II. Roman Æra 46.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Dorset, Portesham, Hell Stone [Map]

Hell Stone [Map] is a Neolithic dolmen on Portesham Hill in Dorset, England. The burial chamber is at the southeast end of a rectangular mound. The mound is 24 metres long and orientated northwest to southeast. The mound tapers from 12 to 8 metres in width from the southeast end to the northwest end, and it is 1 metre high. The chamber was badly restored in 1866 when eight men re-erected the stones, arranging them radially "rather like the slices of a cake" and supporting a large capstone.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Tilshead Wiltshire, Kill Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1868 V11 Pages 40-49. In addition to the two or three Oval Barrows opened by Sir Richard Hoare1, I have examined two or three others. The result appears to be, that, like the bowl and bell shaped tumuli, they cover interments sometimes by simple inhumation, but more generally after cremation. Like the circular barrows, they belong chiefly, if not altogether, to the age of bronze, and of burning the dead; by which phrase I understand a period when this metal and this mode of burial were in common but not universal use; implements and weapons of stone being still employed for many purposes, and burial by simple inhumation being still often resorted to. The attribution of the oval barrow to the bronze period might thus be not ill-founded, even if objects of bronze had not as yet been discovered in them. But in a barrow of this description on Roundway Down, near Devizes, in the examination of which by Mr. W. Cunnington, F.G.S., I had the opportunity of assisting, two blades of bronze were found, one with a deposit of burnt bones at the east, another with a similar deposit at the west end of the burial mound.2 In another oval tumulus, moreover, that called "Kill-barrow [Map]" near Tilshead, opened in 1865, I found many of the burnt bones strongly tinged with copper, clearly proving that objects of bronze had been burnt with the bodies.

Note 1. Those referred to in "Ancient "Wilts," vol. i., p. 169 (118), p. 241 (10), p. 242 (22), appear to be of this description. On the last Sir Richard Hoare observes: — "These diminutive long barrows differ very materially from those of the larger sort, in which we have almost invariably found the interments (of entire skeletons) deposited at the east and broadest end."

Note 2. Wilts Arch. Mag, vol. vi., p. 162. Barrow No. 6, Cran. Brit. pi. xxxi., 43, p. (2).

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Tilshead. 1. "Kill Barrow [Map]," on the Tilshead — Chitterne All Saints parish boundary. Length 170ft. (Thurnam); S.E. and N.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865.1 At one time Thurnam believed this not to be a true "Long" barrow, but an oval one of the Bronze Age; but he subsequently changed his opinion and compared its unusual features with those of the Long Barrow, Winterbourne Stoke 53 (Hoare's No. 3). " Both... yielded deposits of burnt bones covered and intermixed with a substance resembling mortar, many of the bones being tinged of a green colour. At Kill Barrow it was clear that several bodies had been burnt very imperfectly, some of the bones being merely charred. Others were stained a brilliant green and blue, but chemical tests yielded no traces of copper. Under a pile of a white friable substance like half-dried shelly mortar, were curious masses of a sort of ossiferous breccia; the burnt human bones, black, white, blue, and green, being closely cemented by calcareous matter. I am now convinced that both are Long barrows, and not Oval ones, as I had supposed." The MS. Cat. gives some details that may not be published elsewhere: — " The primary interment consisted of piles of burnt bones on the floor of the barrow at the east end. One of these to the east of the other, would have about filled a peck; the other, 6ft. or 7ft. nearer the middle of the barrow, was in much greater quantity. These burnt bones were some of them curiously [mixed] with burnt flints, sarsen chips, &c, into what I have called an ossiferous breccia, and many were stained of a beautifully vivid blue and green colour. These burnt bones were unequally burnt, and many merely charred were quite black. Above the bones the chalk rubble of the barrow was curiously changed into a delicate friable cream-coloured substance like burnt shells. I fancy this an imperfect lime, formed probably from the burnt bones having been deposited whilst hot. This substance was very abundant, and would probably have filled a bushel." Two secondary burials of skeletons were found also. One was "one foot deep, — stretched at length, with head to the north (or N".N".W.) " The other skeleton was "in the same position, nearer the eastern end." It seems that the barrow was opened on two separate occasions. The skull from the first-mentioned secondary burial only, seems to have been sent to Cambridge.

The barrow is unploughed and in good condition, but no distinguishable ditch. O.M. 46 SW.; AAV. I. 89; Arch, xliii. 297, note; Proc. Soc. Ant., 2 S., II. 427; W.A.M. xi. 42; xiv. 259 (name); MS. Cat. 258.

Note 1. This barrow is not included among the list of those opened by Thurnam.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Warminster, King Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Warminster1. 14. "King Barrow [Map]," in the grounds of Bishopstrow House, on the boundary of Warminster and Bishopstrow parish. Length 206ft. (Hoare); N. and S. Opened on two occasions by Hoare and Cunnington in the beginning of the 19th century. They found secondary interments, but apparently failed to find the primary one. Hoare states that a great deal of the mound was carted away in his time, and that the then occupier of the land intended to level the whole of it. Happily this was not done, and the mound now measures in length the same as in Hoare's time (206ft.), and is still high and steep. It is planted with trees and bushes, a large cedar tree standing on its northern end. O.M. 52 N W.; A. W. I. 72; Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. Thurnam refers to this barrow as " Boreham."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Heddington, King's Play Hill Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1910 V36 Pages 311-317. Notes On Barrows [King's Play Hill Long Barrow [Map], King's Play Hill Round Barrow 1 [Map], King's Play Hill Round Barrow 2 [Map]] On King's Play Down, Heddington.1 By Maud E. Cunnington (age 40).

Note 1. The three barrows here described were opened by Mr. B. H. Cunnington and myself in August, 1907, by kind permission of Captain Spicer, of Spye Park and of his tenant, Mr. Peak-Garland.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1910 V36 Pages 311-317. King's Play Down rises in a steep ascent from the old Bath and London road to the edge of the chalk escarpment overlooking the village of Heddington. About half-way up the slope, and not in a very prominent or conspicuous position, is a long, low, rather flat barrow [King's Play Hill Long Barrow [Map]].1

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Heddington. 3. [King's Play Hill Long Barrow [Map]] On King's Play Down. Length 101ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened 1907 and found to cover one crouched skeleton of typical "Long" barrow character. Turf, in good condition, with well-defined ditches. The skull, etc., in Devizes Museum. O.M. 34 N W.; A. W. II. Map of Calne and Swindon Stations; W.A.M. xxxvi. 311; Smith p. 62 IV. A vii. c.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Kitchen Barrow Hlll, Kitchen Hill Long Barrow [Map]

Kitchen Hill Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1012519.

The monument includes a Long Barrow, orientated SW-NE and set below the crest of a steep south-facing slope. The barrow mound has maximum dimensions of 33m long by 15m wide and survives to a height of 2m when viewed from the south-west. Flanking quarry ditches run parallel and contiguous to the barrow mound. These are 5m wide and up to 0.5m deep on the east side and 1m deep to the west. Central hollows on the surface of the mound suggest the site may once have been excavated. Worked flint artefacts, probably contemporary with the construction and use of the monument, are visible on the surface of the adjacent ploughed field.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow is also in Stonehenge Long Barrows.

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1010052.

A large, impressive Long Barrow orientated east/west. The mound is c.60m long x 20m wide, and is flanked by ditches c.12m wide which are very deep and well defined. The overall width is c.44m.

It is a curious fact that Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map] is, within 0.2 of a degree of longitude, north of Stonehenge [Map] - see Five Wells Chambered Tomb and Stonehenge Alignment. Moreover, this line of longitude, give or take 500m, has the highest number of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Monuments on it when compared to other lines of longitude. North to South:

Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map]

Long Low Barrow [Map]

Willersey Barrow [Map]

Farmington Long Barrow [Map]

Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]

East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]

Adam's Grave [Map]

Knap Hill [Map]

Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

Stonehenge.

Colt Hoare 1812. Iter IV. Starting once more From my head quarters at Amesbury, I shall direct my course towards KNIGHTON LONG BARROW [Map], which, from its elevated situation on a high ridge of land, rivals, if not surpasses, ELL BARROW in preminence of prospect, The first object of our attention: near a clump of trees called ROBIN HOOD BALL [Map], is one those ancient circles, which I have before mentioned and described in the Heytesbury Station, p. 80, This, like the generality of them, is placed on an elevated and commanding situation, but has this peculiarity, of having one circle within the other, with an entrance towards the north. We have to regret the great injury these circles have sustained by the plough, as in their original state they must have been highly curious, and are the more remarkable, from representing a double circle.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Figheldean. 27. "Knighton Barrow [Map],"1 on Knighton Down. Length 182ft.; E. and W. There seems to be no record of this barrow ever having been opened, but it looks as if it had been dug into in more than one place. Although not of great length this is a very fine barrow, and the most conspicuously situated of any in the county, being a landmark for many miles across the Plain in every direction. The mound is of great height and the ditches unusually deep and well defined. It has been much disfigured of late years by the military, who have chosen the southern ditch as a convenient spot in which to put a series of water tanks. O.M. 54 NE.; A. W. I. 175—6.

Note 1. Referred to by Stukeley as "North Long Barrow."

Knook Castle Long Barrow

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Knook. 5.. [Knook Castle Long Barrow [Map]] On Knook Down, NE. of "Knook Barrow," E. of Bowl's Barrow, and N. of " Old Ditch." Length 78ft; E. and W. Opened in 1801. Under the usual stratum of black earth three skeletons were found near the E. end, and a little to the W. of these another skeleton. This barrow stands on uncultivated down and is in fair condition. It is a small mound, flat, low, and broad; the ditches are fairly well defined. O.M. 52 NE.; A. W. I. 86; Arch. xlii. 180. Referred to by Thurnam as "Knook b."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Chittern Anstey, Knook Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Knook. 2. "Knook Barrow [Map]," on Knook Down, E. of the "British Village." Length 90ft. (Hoare); a recent measurement 100ft.; nearly N. and S. Opened by Wm. Cunnington 1801 — 2, when he found under a heap of flint and marl stones, and on a pavement of flints, a number of charred human and other animal bones, and charred wood; the bones seemed to be those of seven or eight individuals. A secondary burial of four headless skeletons was also found near the centre of the mound, at a depth of about 18in. The barrow was reopened by Thurnam without further result. This barrow stands on uncultivated down land and is in fair condition, but with some rabbits in it; the ditches are distinct. O.M. 52 NE.; A. W. I. 83; Arch. xlii. 180, 192; xv. 345. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as " Knook a."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Lake Group Barrows, Lake Group Barrow 1 [Map]

Colt Hoare 1812. No. 1 [Map] is a long barrow, situated at the south-west extremity of the group, and like many others of a similar form has not been opened, as they have in general proved so uniform in their modes of sepulture, and so very unproductive in articles of curiosity.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Wilsford. 41. [Lake Group Barrow 1 [Map]] S.W. of Stonehenge. No. 1 of Hoare's Lake Group. Length 169ft.; S.E. and N.W. No recorded opening. It is now in a plantation, but is otherwise in fair condition. O.M. 63 N W.; A. W. I. 209.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Lanhill Long Barrow aka Hubba's Low [Map]

Lanhill Long Barrow aka Hubba's Low [Map]. Historic England

The monument includes a long barrow set on level ground close to a tributary of the River Avon. It is rectangular in plan and orientated east-west. The barrow mound is 55m long, 25m wide and 1.5m high. A drystone entrance on the south side of the mound leads into a small chamber c.2m square while two further chambers are recorded on the north side of the mound. Although no longer visible at ground level flanking ditches, from which material was quarried during construction of the monument, run parallel to the north and south sides of the mound. These have become infilled over the years but survive as buried features c.3m wide. The site has been partially excavated, finds including the scattered bones of two adults in a chamber on the north side of the mound, nine skeletons in a chamber on the NW side and eleven skeletons in a further chamber.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1856 V3 Pages 67-86. On the Barrow of Lanhill [Map] near Chippenham. with remarks on the site of, and the events connected with The Battles of Cynuit and Ethandun, A.D. 878 By John Thurnam (age 45), M.D. F.S.A.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1910 V36 Pages 300-310. The Discovery Of A Chamber In The Long Barrow At Lanhill [Lanhill Long Barrow aka Hubba's Low [Map]], Near Chippenham. By Maud E. Cunnington (age 40).

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Chippenham. 1. "Lanhill Barrow [Map]," on Barrow Hill, sometimes called "Hubba's Low." Length about 160ft. (Thurnam); E. and W. chambered. This large stone-built barrow has been long used more or less as a quarry. In 1855 Thurnam made some excavations in it, and found two chambers with remains of skeletons, but they seem to have been previously disturbed. In 1909 a chamber was accidentally discovered by men digging stone from the mound; it was built of six large slabs of stone, with the spaces between them filled in with dry walling, and a corbelled roof of. similar stones. Lying in a confused heap within the chamber were the remains of not fewer than eleven individuals. Steps have been taken to protect this chamber, and it may be seen still intact.

Thurnam's description, written in 1866, of this once fine barrow, applies to it equally well to-day. " At present the mound has the appearance of several irregular hillocks, in part grown over with thorns and briars, resembling somewhat the site of an old quarry." O.M. 19 SE; A. W. II. 99; Arch. xlii. 203; W.A.M. iii. 67 (Thurnam 1856); xxxvi. 300,(1909). This barrow was described by Aubrey about the middle of the 17th century in his manuscript "Monumenta Britannica."

1937. Doris Emerson Chapman (age 34). “Skull 4, Lanhill [Map].”

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow is also in Stonehenge Long Barrows.

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1012167.

The monument includes a Long Barrow situated within Larkhill Camp, north of the Packway. The barrow mound, which is orientated north west - south east, is up to 1.1m high, 46m long and c.16m wide. Flanking the mound on the north east and south west sides are ditches visible as earthworks up to c.7m wide from which material was quarried during construction of the monument.

It is a curious fact that Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map] is, within 0.2 of a degree of longitude, north of Stonehenge [Map] - see Five Wells Chambered Tomb and Stonehenge Alignment. Moreover, this line of longitude, give or take 500m, has the highest number of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Monuments on it when compared to other lines of longitude. North to South:

Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map]

Long Low Barrow [Map]

Willersey Barrow [Map]

Farmington Long Barrow [Map]

Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]

East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]

Adam's Grave [Map]

Knap Hill [Map]

Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

Stonehenge.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Durrington. 24. [Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]]. On Durrington Down, S.S.W. of Knighton Long Barrow [Map], within a few feet, and N. of, the new military cross-road from Lark Hill to the Devizes —Salisbury Road. Length 142ft.; S.E. and N.W. There is no record of any opening of this barrow. It is planted with trees, and now stands in the middle of a military camping ground, and is in a poor state of preservation. The ditch on the northerly side is still discernible, but that on the other side has been disfigured and obscured by sheds erected by the military. O.M. 54 SW. Not shown by Hoare.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Liddington Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1924 V42 Pages 49-51. New Long Barrow at Liddington [Map]. O.M. XXIII. N.E. Parish of Liddington. In the left-hand top corner of this sheet the 700 foot contour is tongue-shaped and almost equally divided by the Liddington—Wanborough parish boundary. On the highest point of this ridge is an unrecorded long barrow, now measuring 165 feet long by 42 feet wide, and 5 feet high at the S.end, thelongeraxis being rudely S.E.—N.W. (Exactly 40 degrees E. of S. magnetic). The mound has been much narrowed at its extremities by repeated ploughing and the centre portion has several hollows indicative of former excavation. Towards the 8. end is a large sarsen stone showing above the turf, while at intervals towards the N. are others of smaller size. On the east side of the tumulus isa fence, in digging the post-holes for which (about 1890) three skeletons were found. A few years later a shepherd found another, several bones of which came into the writer's collection and have lately been examined by Professor Parsons, of the University of London, who reports as follows:- "The bones submitted to me by Mr. Passmore were those of an adult male. The only complete bones were a right humerus and a right tibia, which latter measured 360 mm. without the spine. This should give a total height of 164 ¢c.m., or about 5ft. 43in. There is a facet on the front of the lower end of the tibia, known as a -Squatting facet, showing that the individual was in the habit of squatting on the ground. The bones are those of a not particularly muscular individual and do not suggest the clean lines and perfect symmetry which I have learned to associate with Anglo-Saxons. I see nothing to make me think that these bones may not have been those of a Neolithic long barrow man, but the absence of the skull and teeth makes the question a difficult one to decide."2

Note 2. These bones have been presented to St. Thomas's Hospital.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Dorset, Long Bredy Long Barrow [Map]

Long Bredy Long Barrow [Map].

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Bulford, Longbarrow Clump [Map]

Longbarrow Clump, Bulford is also in Stonehenge Long Barrows.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Bulford. 1. "Longbarrow Clump [Map]," on sloping ground, S. of Bulford village, close to and S. of railway line. Length 133ft.; E. and W. There seem to be no records of this barrow, and it is not shown by Hoare. It is a high mound planted with trees, otherwise in fairly good condition. The ground on which it stands is now down to grass, but it was formerly ploughed right up to the edge of the mound, and the ditches are obliterated. O.M. 54 SE.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Castle Combe, Lugbury aka Littleton Drew Long Barrow [Map]

Lugbury aka Littleton Drew Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1010397

The monument includes a long barrow set on level ground above the valley of By Brook, a tributary of the River Avon. It is orientated east-west and appears rectangular in shape. The monument measures 56m long, 38m wide and 1.5m high. Towards the eastern end of the mound are the remains of a limestone chamber comprising a capstone, 3m by 2m in size, leaning against the western side of two large uprights which measure 2m by 1m. Flanking ditches, from which material was quarried during the construction of the monument, run parallel to the north and south sides of the mound. These have been infilled over the years but survive as buried features c.3m wide. The monument was partially excavated by Colt-Hoare in 1821 and again by Scrope in 1854/5. Finds included twenty-six skeletons in four limestone chambers.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1856 V3 Pages 164-177. On a Cromlech-tumulus called Lugbury [Map], near Littleton Drew by John Thurnam (age 45), M.D., F.S.A.

22 Littleton Drew Barrow. This [Lugbury aka Littleton Drew Long Barrow [Map]] was first noticed by John Aubrey in his MS., "Monumenta Britannica," in the seventeenth century; it was called "Lugbury." It lies in the parish of Nettleton, but close to Littleton Drew, in Wiltshire, just outside the boundary of our county. It measures 180 feet in length, and 90 feet in breadth, its greatest elevation being six feet. Its direction is nearly due east and west. There are three stones at the east end, on the slope of the barrow, thirty feet from its base; the two uprights are six feet six inches apart, two feet thick, and four feet wide; one is six feet six inches high, the other five feet six inches. Resting on the mound and leaning against the uprights is a large stone, twelve feet long, six feet wide, and two feet thick. A cistern was discovered about sixty feet from the east end, containing one skeleton. Another cistern was found on the south side. Three other cisterns were also found, about ten feet long, four feet wide, and two feet deep, formed of rough stone. The total number of skeletons found numbered twenty-six. Several flint flakes were also discovered.

See "Crania Britannica," vol. II.

Also "Ancient Wilts," vol. II, p99 (Hoar).

Also "History of Castle Combe," p7 (Scrope).

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Nettleton, 1. "Littleton Drew Barrow [Map],"1 or "Lugbury," on the Nettleton — Littleton Drew parish boundary. Length 185ft. (Hoare); E. and W. A chambered, stone-built barrow, with two large upright stones and a third large flat stone leaning up against them, near the E. end of the mound. In 1821 Hoare2 cut a trench 150ft. in length down the mound to the west of the standing stones, and found a burial of a single crouched skeleton on the floor of the barrow about 30ft. from them, with a small pointed flint implement. After this the field came under cultivation, and in 1854 a stone cist or chamber was brought to light by the plough, and subsequently Mr. Poulett Scrope, the then owner, made a "complete examination " of the mound, when three other chambers, all on the south side, were found. In these there were nine, seven, and ten skeletons respectively, the fourth chamber being empty.

The field is now down to grass, but the mound has been much spread about by cultivation, and the ditches are scarcely discernible. O.M. 19 NW.; A. W. II. 99, Roman Æra, 101—2; Arch. xlii. 200, 203, 209; W.A.M. iii. 164 (Thurnam); Cr. Brit. PL 24; Gent. Mag. 1822, xcii. 160; Hoare 's MS. (Devizes Museum), Pt. I. p. 160; MS. Cat. 56—65.

Note 1. As Dr. Thurnam remarks both Aubrey and Sir B. C. Hoare connected the barrow with Littleton Drew rather than with Nettleton, because they had'an idea that the name "Drew" had some Druidical connection.

Note 2.Sir B. C. Hoare opened this barrow after his second volume of An. Wilts was published, and his account of the work is contained in a letter from him to the Gentleman's Magazine for 1822, referred to above; practically the whole of this letter is reprinted as an appendix to Poulett Scrope's History of Castle Combe (p. 391). The fullest account of the barrow and of its contents is to be found in the paper by Thurnam in the Wilts Arch. Mag., also referred to above.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Milston 1 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Milston. 1. [Milston 1 Long Barrow [Map]] On Brigmerston (or Brigmilston) Field, S. of Silk Hill. Length 1; N.E. and S.W. No recorded opening. Now down to grass, but formerly much ploughed over and thrown about; ditches obliterated. O.M. 55 NW.; A. W. I. Map of Everley Station.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Milston 22 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Milston. 22. [Milston 22 Long Barrow [Map]] On Brigmerston Down, E. of source of 9 mile river, and W. of the big "Ditch." Length about 100ft.; S.E. and N. W. Does not appear to have been opened. Turf, in fair condition, apparently never ploughed. Ditch on S.W". side well defined, but on the other side obscured by an old trackway. O.M. 55 NW. Not shown by Hoare.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Milston 39 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Milston. 31. On Milston Down, to the N.W. of barrows 39, 40. Length 106ft. S.S. E. and N.N. W. No record of opening. Perhaps a doubtful "Long " barrow. It is a wide rather flat mound, some 66ft. in width, rather larger at the southern end; it can hardly be said that any ditch is distinguishable, but the fact that rabbits have burrowed a good deal on both sides, and not at the ends, suggests that there were side ditches only. It stands in a thin plantation, but there are no trees growing actually on the barrow. O.M. 55 NW.

Milston. 39. [Milston 39 Long Barrow [Map]] On Milston Down, near the Hants border, close to, and N. of new military road from Bulford to Tedworth. Length 173ft; E. and W. No recorded opening. Fine mound with well-defined ditches. The ground round it, though now down to grass, was formerly under cultivation, but the barrow itself does not appear to have been cultivated. It is now badly infested by rabbits that have disfigured it a good deal. There is a distinct berm, or level space, between the inner edges of the ditches and the fringe of the mound.1 O.M. 55 NW.; A.W. I., Map of Everley Station; Arch. xlii. 171.

Milston. 40. On Milston Down, close to the last. Length 87ft; E. and W. No recorded opening. This smaller barrow lies parallel with, and only 52 yards, measured from the nearest edges of their respective ditches, N. of the preceding one. Its ditches are quite evident, but the whole barrow seems to have been under cultivation for a short time; it is now down to grass. It has, like the last, suffered much dilapidation from rabbits. It is unusual to find two Long Barrows close together; these two are the closest on record. O.M. 55 NW.; Arch. xlii. 171. Not shown by Hoare.

Note 1. This is an unusual feature that occurs in only a few other of the Wiltshire Long Barrows. See Brixton Deverill 2 and 7.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Somerset, Nempnet Thrubwell, Nempnet aka Fairy Toot Burial Mound [Map]

Nempnet aka Fairy Toot Burial Mound [Map] is a 60 m long, 25 m wide and now 2.5 m high, retained by a stone wall, Severn-Cotswold Oval Barrow. On being opened and essentially destroyed between 1787 and 1835 by the Reverend Thomas Bere of Butcombe and the Reverend John Skinner of Camerton, it was found to contain two rows of cells, running from south to north, formed by immense stones set edgeways, and covered by others of larger dimensions. A human skull from the barrow is now in the Bristol Museum and Art Gallery.

Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society Volume 8 Pages 35-62. Fairy's Toot [Map], which is now destroyed, was another of these singular tumuli. It is situated about a quarter of a mile east of Butcombe Church, on the declivity of some rising ground near Nempnett Farm, in the same parish. Its discovery was noticed by the Rev. Thos. Bere, rector of Butcombe, who made a drawing of it, and communicated the following account to the Gentleman's Magazine A.D. 1789:

"This barrow is from N. to S. 150 feet, and from E. to W. 76 feet. It had been known from time immemorial by the name of Fairy's Toot, and considered the haunt of fairies, ghosts, and goblins.

"The waywarden of the parish being in want of stones, ordered his workmen to see what Fairy's Toot was made of. They began at the south extremity, and soon came to a stone inclining west, and probably the door of the sepulchre. The stone being passed, an unmortared wall appeared on the left hand, and no doubt a similar one existed on the right. This wall was built of thin stone (a white lias). Its height was more than four feet, its thickness fourteen inches. Thirteen feet north from the entrance a perforated stone appeared, inclining to the north, and shutting up the avenue between the unmortared walls. Working round to the east side of it, a cell presented itself, two feet three inches broad, four feet high, and nine feet long from north to south. Here was found a perfect skeleton, the skull with teeth entire, the body having been deposited north and south.

"At the end of the first sepulchre, the horizontal stones on the top had fallen down. There,were two other catacombs, one on the right and the other on the left, of the avenue, containing several human skulls and other bones. A lateral excavation was made, and the central avenue was found to be continued. Three cells were here discernible, two on the west side and one on the east. These had no bones in them. The whole tumulus was covered with a thin stratum of earth, and overgrown with trees and bushes.

"The upright stones of which the cells are composed are stated to have been many of them two or three tons weight each, and in the very state in which Nature formed them. The number of cells can only be matter of conjecture. Supposing the avenue to have been 110 feet long, and about two feet thickness of wall or stone between each two cells, there would be room for ten cells on each side of the avenue." (See Sayer's History of Bristol.)

The writer of this notice conjectures this sepulchral tumulus to have been the work of the Druids, and the burying-place belonging to the Great Temple of Stanton Drew.

Archaeological Journal Volume 15 Pages 199-215. The chambered tumulus at Butcombe [Map], about three miles from Stanton Drew, must also be noticed, inasmuch as it has been supposed by some to have been the sepulchre of the Druids attached to the Stanton Temple. "This barrow," says the Rev. Thomas Bere, rector of Butcombe, in his communication to the Gentleman's Magazine, 1789, "is from north to south 150 feet, and from east to west 75 feet." It was found to contain a longitudinal stone chamber with lateral cells, similar to that at New Grange [Map], near Drogheda, and to the chambered barrows at Wellow, in Somersetshire [Stoney Littleton Long Barrow [Map]], a few miles only from Stanton Drew, and at Uley [Uley Barrow aka Hetty Pegler's Tump [Map]], in Gloucestershire.1 A perfect skeleton, several human skulls, and other bones were discovered within it; but it is supposed to have been previously opened. It is now entirely destroyed.

Note 1. See Dr. Thurnam's Memoir on the examination of the chambered tumuli at Uley, Archaeological Journal, vol. xi. p. 315.

The Gentleman's Magazine Volume 59 Part 1 Page 392. The barrow is, from North to South, 150 feet; from East to West 79 feet. This looks more like a designed proportion than the effect of chance. It has been immemorially known by the name of Fairy’s Toote [Map], and considered still, by our sagacious provincials, as the haunts of ghosts, goblins, and fairies.

This may be deemed the electrical tremblings of very remote superstition. The idle tale travelled down through many an age, long, long after the cadavers from which it originated had ceased to be had in remembrance. Desirous of obtaining stone for the adjacent roads, the proprietor ordered his workmen to see what the Toote was made of. They accordingly commenced their labours at the Southern extremity, and soon came to the stone D, which then was at A, with a considerable West inclination, and no doubt served for a door to the sepulchre, which, prior (and in some instances subsequent) to Christianity, was the common mode of securing the entrance of these repositories. Such as that which was placed at the mouth of the cave wherein our blessed Saviour was interred. The stone D being passed, an admirable unmortar’d wall appeared on the left-hand, and no doubt a similar one after the dotted line on the right side existed, as we find it continued in the same direction at F. This wall was built of thin irregular base freestone, less in length and breadth, but in general thicker, than common Dutch chimney tile. Its height was some what more than four feet; its thickness about fourteen inches. Thirteen feet directly North from A (where the stone D stood) the perforated stone B appears, inclining to the North about thirty degrees, and shutting up the avenue between the unmortar’d walls. — Working round the East side, at I a cell presented itself, two feet three inches broad, four feet high, and nine feet from South to North. Here were found a perfect human skull, the teeth entire, all found, and of the most delicate white: it lay against the inside of the stone B, the body having been deposited North and South. Several other pieces of skulls, human spinal joints, arm bones, &c., were found herein; and particularly the thigh bone of a very large quadruped, which, by comparing with the same, bone of an ox, I conjecture to have belonged to an animal of that species. As the skull appeared to me larger than common, I was willing to form some conjecture of the height of that body to which it belonged, and applied my rule to it, taking the painter’s datum, of allowing eight faces (from the hair on the forehead to the chin) for the whole, found it gave something more than eight feet. With this the length of the sepulchre agrees, being, as was before observed, nine feet. In this cell was also found the tooth of some large bead; but no one that has seen it can guess of what genus. At the termination of the first sepulchre, the horizontal bones in the top of the avenue had fallen down. With some difficulty, and no little danger, I obtruded far enough to see, by site light of a candle, two other similar catacombs, one on the right, the other on the left fide of the avenue, containing several human skull’s, and other bones; but which, from the imminent hazard of being buried in the ruins of the surrounding masses, have not yet been entered. This, as far as it goes, is a true account of the discoveries at the Southern extremity of the tumulus. The lateral section at G has afforded as yet nothing more than a view of the unmortar’d wall, seen in the Southern extremity at H, and here at F, with the continuation of the central avenue seen. at B, and here from C to C. This avenue is constructed of very large rock fragments, consisting of three bones, two perpendicular and one horizontal, as may be seen in the representation E. Three cells are here discernible, two of which are on the West side, and one on the East; these also have human bones. The proprietor means now to proceed from B to C C, propping up the avenue with wooden posts, in the same manner in which our miners do their adits, to the lapis caluminaris veins. This mode will give the visitor an opportunity of seeing the different cells with safety and convenience. I have only to add, that the tumulus is formed of small whitish stone, of which the neighbourhood affords plenty; and that the exterior appears to have been turfed, there yet remains a stratum, five or six inches deep, of graded earth on the bones. The view I took on the spot, in one of the sneaping days of the last rigorous season. I can therefore say nothing for it, but that, if it be not a good drawing, it is a true representation. When the central avenue is cleared, I purpose to send you the ichnography. In the mean time, through your publication, I beg to present my compliments to your correspondent Owain o Feirion, who, if I mistake not, is my old college acquaintance, and other gentlemen who may have a turn for such investigation; and hope, through your valuable vehicle, to have their sentiments on this subject.— But, Mr. Urban, if no other more able hand shall give the publick conjectures relative to the history of Fairies Toote, you shall again hear on this subject from your old correspondent.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Monuments and Burials, Robin Hood's Ball, Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

It is a curious fact that Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map] is, within 0.2 of a degree of longitude, north of Stonehenge [Map] - see Five Wells Chambered Tomb and Stonehenge Alignment. Moreover, this line of longitude, give or take 500m, has the highest number of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Monuments on it when compared to other lines of longitude. North to South:

Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map]

Long Low Barrow [Map]

Willersey Barrow [Map]

Farmington Long Barrow [Map]

Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]

East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]

Adam's Grave [Map]

Knap Hill [Map]

Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

Stonehenge.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Netheravon. 6. [Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]] On Netheravon Down, E. of Netheravon Bake, N.E. of the clump of trees known as Robin Hood Ball. Length 111ft.; S.S.E. and N.N.W. Opened by Thurnam, who does not seem to have published any account of his discoveries beyond that in the summary list in Arch. xlii. The following entry, however, appears in the MS. Gat.: — "No. 236. Ancient British. From a long barrow much degraded by the plough in the parish of N etheravon, and about ½ a mile from the one in the parish of Figheldean. Excavated by Dr. Thurnam, Sept. 21, 1865. Near the east end and about a foot below the surface on the chalk rock were the broken scattered bones of one or perhaps two skeletons from which I picked out the fragments from which this calvarium has been restored, also the lower jaw almost perfect. With these was the cleft fragment of a second skull, and a portion of a small female jaw."

The mound is now very low, flat, and broad, and the ditches indistinct.

It is turfed, and looks as if it had been down to grass for many years.

O.M. 54 N.W.; A. W. I. Map only, of Amesbury Station; Arch. xlii. 180; MS. Cat. 236.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Normanton Down Barrows, Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

It is a curious fact that Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map] is, within 0.2 of a degree of longitude, north of Stonehenge [Map] - see Five Wells Chambered Tomb and Stonehenge Alignment. Moreover, this line of longitude, give or take 500m, has the highest number of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Monuments on it when compared to other lines of longitude. North to South:

Five Wells Chambered Tomb [Map]

Long Low Barrow [Map]

Willersey Barrow [Map]

Farmington Long Barrow [Map]

Monkton Fields Long Barrow [Map]

East Kennet Long Barrow [Map]

Adam's Grave [Map]

Knap Hill [Map]

Netheravon 6 Long Barrow [Map]

Knighton Long Barrow [Map]

Larkhill Long Barrow [Map]

Amesbury Barrow 14 G1 [Map]

Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]

Stonehenge.

Colt Hoare 1812. No. 151 [Map] is a small long barrow; and we found that No. 152 [Map], No. 153 [Map], and No. 154 [Map], had been opened before.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Wilsford (S. Wilts). 13. [Normanton Barrow 151 G13 [Map]] On Normanton Down, S. of Stonehenge. No. 151 of Hoare's Normanton Group Length 65ft.; S.W. and N.E. There is no record of this barrow having been opened, but it rather looks as if it might have been. It is a small, but judging by external appearances a true "Long" barrow; the ditch on the S. side is quite distinct and does not appear to be continued round the ends of the mound; on the other side it is not so clear, but as it is within a few feet of a large disc-shaped barrow, the making of the latter may have obscured the ditch of the former. O.M. 54 SW.; A. W. I. 201.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Normanton Down Barrows, Normanton Barrow 170 G34 [Map]

Colt Hoare 1812. No. 170 [Map] is a long barrow, not opened;

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Wilsford. 34. [Normanton Barrow 170 G34 [Map]] On Wilsford Down, S.W. of Stonehenge. No. 170 of Hoare's Normanton group. Length 117ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam in 1865 — 6, who found at least five skeletons, all apparently secondary burials; but as no primary burial was found, he seems, in the end, to have been a little doubtful as to whether the five burials were all secondary or not. Unfortunately there seems to be no consecutive or published account of the discoveries in this barrow, and the following notes are taken from the MS. Catalogue. At the extreme W. end of the barrow, at a depth of about 2ft., was found the skeleton of a boy, lying on its back, with head to the S.S.W.; "with legs doubled up, knees not drawn up." A second skeleton was found, near the summit of the barrow, also near the W. end, but to the E. of the last; it was in a contracted position and without relics. A third skeleton was found to the E. of the other two; it was that of a girl, and was "doubled up with head to the N.N. W. and the hand applied to the head." A. fourth skeleton was also near the summit of the barrow, and E. of the other three; it was contracted "with a fine British drinking cup near the hips." The fifth skeleton was "almost exactly at the centre of the barrow (but E. of the other four?), at a depth of 1½ft.; it was doubled up, with head to the east, and without relics.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Normanton Down Barrows, Normanton Barrow 173 G30 [Map]

Colt Hoare 1812. No. 173 [Map] is a long barrow. In making, as usual, our section at the broad end, where experience has taught us the sepulchral deposit was generally made, we discovered, at the depth of 18 inches from the surface, a skeleton, and on reaching the floor of the barrow, four other skeletons strangely huddled together; yet from the regular appearance of the stratum of chalk over them, we had no reason to think that the barrow had been opened before. The bones were in a high state of preservation, and one of the persons here interred seemed to have had no forehead, the sockets of his eyes appearing to have been on the top of his head, and the final termination of the vertebræ turned up so much, that we almost fancied we had found the remains of one of Lord Montboddo's animals.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Wilsford. 30.1 [Normanton Barrow 173 G30 [Map]] On Normanton Down, S.W. of Stonehenge. No. 173 of Hoare's Normanton group. Length 126ft.; E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington, who made a section in the broad end and found a secondary burial of a skeleton, and "on reaching the floor of the barrow, four other skeletons strangely huddled together." This barrow lies on unploughed down, and is in good condition with very fairly well-defined ditches. O.M. 60 NVV.; A. W. I. 206; Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as "Normanton No. 173."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Calne, Oldbury Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1872 V13 Page 103. Notes of a Long Barrow [Map] on Oldbury Hill

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Cherhill. 1a. [Oldbury Long Barrow [Map]] Just outside the ramparts of Oldbury Camp, W. of the monument, on the Cherhill — Calne Without parish boundary. Length 60ft. ( Wm. Cunnington1 ); E. and W. This barrow has been practically destroyed by flint diggers, only a confused heap now remaining. During this digging in 1864 some human bones were found, and Wm. Cunnington visited the spot and further examined the mound. Three skeletons were found " lying with their heads towards the E. in a large shallow grave surrounded by small blocks of sarsen stone."2 A second grave was found empty, and in the mound a worn mealing stone of sarsen (Devizes Museum Cat. II. X. 96a) and charcoal. O.M. 27 SE.; Arch. xlii. 203, 218; Mem. Anthrop. Soc. I. 473; W.A.M. xiii. 103 (Cunnington); Smith p. 50, III. C. v. d.: MS. Cat. No. 198.

The barrow is not shown on the O.M. The site may be found by prolonging the curve of the ditch of the outer rampart of the camp to the point where it cuts the parish boundary, just N. of the track. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Oldbury."

Note 1. To avoid confusion it is perhaps as well to explain that there are two William Cunningtons referred to in this list. The elder and contemporary of Sir R. Colt Hoare died in 1810, the younger, who was his grandson, died in 1906.

Note 2. Thurnam has included this among his list of chambered barrows, but this account by Wm. Cunnington, who himself examined the mound, hardly seems to justify its description as a "chambered" barrow.

Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London Volume 1. Skulls from Long Barrow, Oldbury [Map], Wilts.—In the same year (1864), in digging in a chalk-pit near the ancient British camp of Oldbury, North Wiltshire, about three miles from the elebrated megalithic circles at Avebury, two or three skeletons were uncovered at the base of the east end of what turned out to be a long barrow, of low elevation. The measurements of three skulls, which, though quite dolichocephalous, are of small size, and not very characteristic, are given in the table. Two of the skulls appear to be those of women, and are in the possession of Mr. Cunnington, of Devizes, who assisted in their exhumation. The other skull, that of a man, has been added to my collection (No. 198). Near the skeletons were a number of flint flakes, with one or two cores, from which they had been broken off. At the centre of the mound was a small irregularly-shaped cist, built up with sarsen stones: it was empty. This tumulus, though of oblong form, has not the unequivocal characters of a long barrow ; it appears, however, to have belonged to that class.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Warminster, Oxendean Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Warminster1. 6. [Oxendean Long Barrow [Map]] By Oxendean, N. of Battlesbury Camp, W. of the Imber — Warminster road. Length 106ft.; S.E. and N.W. Opened by Cunnington and Hoare, who found "an interment of a skeleton near the centre2, in a cist cut in the native soil beneath the floor of the barrow; and over it, near the surface, was a small cup of rude British pottery."3 It was re-opened by Thurnam, who found the remains of the skeleton but with no further result. This barrow is on unploughed ground, in good condition, with ditches well defined, especially on the N.E. side. O.M. 52 NW.; A. W. I. 66; Arch. xlii. 180.

Note 1. Thurnam refers to this barrow as "Warminster."

Note 2. Thurnam remarks that the burial was nearer the E. end than this description implies.

Note 3. Stourhead Catalogue. Number 202.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Fyfield, Preshute aka Rockley Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Preshute. 1.1 [Preshute aka Rockley Long Barrow [Map]] On Manton Down, S.W. of Rockley, and N.W. of Manton House. Length 57ft.; S.E. and N.W. Chambered. The chamber seems to have been uncovered, and probably rifled at some unknown period. Hoare speaks of the barrow as "a small long barrow, covered with heath and furze, having a fallen kistvaen at the east end. The mound appears to have been set round with stones." The Rev. A. C. Smith also describes it as being so covered with heath and furze as "to be not easily discovered." This growth has now disappeared, the mound is grass-grown, and the partially-ruined chamber, or "kistvaen," as Hoare calls it, is quite clear. Most, if not all, the stones that once formed the chamber are still in situ, but several have fallen down. It was oblong in shape, with one large stone, that still stands, forming its back, or westernmost wall; the side walls were formed by two stones, one on each side, and it was no doubt the collapse inwards of the one on the northern side that let down the large covering stone into the leaning position in which it now lies. Immediately in front of the two stones forming the side walls, i.e., to the eastward of them, are two fallen stones, so much buried in the ground, that it is not possible to see their size or shape; it seems not improbable that these formed portals to the chamber. Of the stones that once stood round the mound three, or perhaps four, may still be seen lying partially buried. There is now what looks like a wide crack in the covering stone, and the stone is actually in two pieces. The Rev. A. 0. Smith states that this stone was split by workmen preparatory to breaking it up into building stone, but that fortunately he arrived on the scene in time to prevent further damage. O.M. 28 NE.; A. W. II. 43; Arch. xlii. 203; Smith p. 198, xiv. K. iv. a; Proc. Soc. Ant. 2nd S. II. 309.

Note 1. This barrow was referred to by Thurnam as " Rockley."

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Monuments and Burials, Robin Hood's Ball Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Figheldean. 31. [Robin Hood's Ball Long Barrow [Map]] S. of Robin Hood Ball (clump of trees) and E. of circular earthwork. Length 148ft. S.E. and N.W. Opened by Thurnam Sept. 8th, 1864, who found the primary interment, consisting of the bones of a single individual, hot in their natural order, but forming a pile, very little to the east of the centre of the mound. He also found a secondary burial of a skeleton with a "drinking cup."1 The following account is from the M.S. Cat.: — "The primary interment consisted of a skeleton doubled up in the black earth at the base of the barrow, within a space of not more than 1½ft. square. There was reason for thinking that the bones had been separated in part before interment, the head of one tibia being in apposition with the malleolus of the other, though lying side by side. The primary interment in this barrow (which is in sight of Stonehenge) though lying towards the east, was much nearer the centre than usual2, and was only found (after making four distinct excavations) about 55ft. from the east end, the entire length being 150ft. The skeleton was in the usual stratum of dry brown earth, the bones and especially the skull being remarkable for their peculiarly eroded character. Within ljft. to the east of the skeleton was an oblong hole or cist in the chalk rock, 2ft. 9in. (long?) and 1ft. deep, with nothing in it but dry brown earth." The secondary interment was "about a foot below the surface, about 40ft. from the east end of the same barrow; the skeleton was in a moderately contracted posture, with head to N.W. Near the hips a fine drinking cup of red ware much broken, but since restored."

The whole of the central part of this barrow has been carted away, leaving practically only the fringe of the mound. This most regretable destruction seems to have been perpetrated during the last four or five years by the military on the Plain, apparently for the purpose of making a shelter hut. O.M. 54 N W.; A. W. I. 176; Arch. xlii. 180, 184, 197, 198; Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop. 2 S. ii. 357, GT7,fig. Men. Anthrop. Soc. iii.; MS. Cat. 233—4.

This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam as " Figheldean."

Note 1. This vessel is now in the British Museum.

Note 2. See Warminster 6.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Tidcombe, Shalbourne 5 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Shalbourne, 5. [Shalbourne 5 Long Barrow [Map]] In Great Botley Copse, N. of Tidcombe. Length 170ft.; S. and N. No recorded opening. Now in a wood and thickly covered with undergrowth; there is a large circular cavity at the south end that may show where it has been dug into. O.M. 43; A. W. I. 187.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Tidcombe, Shalbourne 5a Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Shalbourne. [5a.] [Shalbourne 5a Long Barrow [Map]] On Smay Down, E. of "The Hassock " and W. of old chalk pit. Length about 162ft.; S.E. and N.W. It is said that this barrow has been opened and that skeletons were found, but there is no record of the opening, and no particulars seem to be known. Now down to grass, but it was formerly under cultivation and has been much levelled and flattened. Not on O.M. 43 N W. or in A. W.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Sherrington Clump aka Stockton Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Stockton. 1. "Stockton Barrow [Map]," N. of Stockton Works, S. of Sherrington Clump. Length about 120ft.; nearly N. and S. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington, who presumably found skeletons, as Hoare only says " a long barrow, which we opened, and found similar to those of the same class." It stands on ploughed ground, but the barrow itself does not appear to have been cultivated; it is planted with trees but otherwise in good condition, and the ditches are still distinct. O.M. 58 SE.; A. W. I. 107; Arch. xlii. 180.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Sherrington Long Barrow [Map]

Sherrington Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England: The monument includes a long barrow set on a floodplain 90m south of the River Wylye. Like other long barrows in the area the barrow mound is ovate and orientated on the same alignment as the river, in this case ENE-WSW. The barrow mound is 30m long, 15m wide and stands to a height of c.4m. The site was partially excavated by Cunnington towards the end of the 19th century. Finds included a layer of charred wood and ashes as well as a cist or stone box 0.7m in diameter containing an ox head and small deer antler. Although no longer visible at ground level, ditches from which material was quarried during construction of the monument, flank the NE and SW sides of the mound. These have become infilled over the years but survive as buried features c.5m wide.

Archaeologia Volume 15 Section XXXIII. The apparent want of system in the British Sepulchres, gives us much trouble in examining them: this we experienced in a great degree, when opening the large Sherrington barrow [Map], see Plate XVIII.

This tumulus is situated on the borders of Sherrington field, about a hundred yards south of the river Wilye, and not more than a furlong south of the village of Codford. If you conceive an egg cut in two, lengthwise, and one half placed on the ground with the convex side upwards, the great end to the WNW you have the shape and position of the barrow. It is 108 feet long, and 80 feet wide in the broadest part, [m], and at A, 14 feet in elevation; it is chiefly raised by gravel near the Wilye. We opened this tumulus by a large section at the large end, and on the highest part: when at the depth of about 16 inches, we found 4 skeletons, lying from south to north; at the depth of 14 feet, we came to the floor of the barrow, [n] which was covered with charred wood and ashes; on the fouth fide of the floor, was a neat circular cist, made in the original soil, about two feet in diameter, and about sixteen inches deep; in this cist, we found the head of an ox, and one small horn of a deer. In this cist, or near it, we expected to have found the primary interment; being disappointed, we made two large sections at B and C. In the first, at the depth of eighteen inches, we discovered a skeleton lying from west to east; on the right side, we found an iron spear-head, see Plate XIX. Fig. 1. We pursued our researches to the floor of the barrow, but making no further discovery, we next sunk another pit, at C; here, at the depth of 18 inches, we discovered the skeleton of a stout man, [o] lying from west to east. On the right side of this skeleton, close by the thighs, lay a two-edged sword, the blade two feet in length, with rather an obtuse point, but no guarded hilt; it had been enclosed in a scabbard of wood, a considerable quantity of which, now adheres to it, (see Plate XIX. fig. 3.) On the right side of the head lay an iron spear, (see Plate XVIII. fig. 1;) and on the left, and close to the head, we found the umbo of a Shield, (see Plate XIX. fig. 3.) With the latter were found an iron buckle, a piece of leather, a strip of brass perforated in several places: all of which I conceive belonged to this Shield, as did also a thin bit of silver, see Plate XVIII. fig. 2; where it is drawn the full size. This probably covered the projecting part of the umbo; it is mutilated at both ends, and now appears like a small gorget. On the left side of the skeleton, and near the umbo, was found the knife, (see Plate XIX. fig. 4;) also several pieces of corroded iron. On the east of this skeleton, and in the same direction, we discovered two other skeletons, one of an adult, the other of a child four or five years of age; with these were found a small knife, and a piece of corroded lead: in the latter, was, (as I conjectured,) one or more iron rivets.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Sherrington. I.1 Sherrington Barrow [Map], about ½ mile E. of Sherrington Church, and about 100 yards south of the River Wylye. Length, according to Hoare, 108ft., at present 86ft.; W.N.W. and E.S.E. (Hoare). Opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1804, when several secondary interments were found, but no primary interment. Re-opened by Thurnam and the Rev. A. Fane in 1856 without further result. This mound has suffered much injury in the last 100 years from cultivation and other causes. It seems too high to have been ploughed over, but ploughing round it has |much reduced its size. There is a large crater-like hole at the east end, and the whole surface of the mound is irregular, much cut about, and untidy looking; the field is now down to grass; there is no sign of ditches. On the O.M. it appears as an almost circular mound, as now in fact it is. O.M. 58 NE.; A. W. I. 100; Arch. xv. (Cunnington, 1805); xlii. 180.

Note 1. This is the barrow referred to by Thurnam and Hoare as " Sherrington.'

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Somerset, Stoney Littleton Long Barrow [Map]

3500BC. Stoney Littleton Long Barrow [Map] is a Long Barrow constructed around 3500BC ±500 years around 7.5km south of Bath on high unlevel ground above a bend in the River Wellow. It is a Severn Cotswolds type tomb. The stone structure is about 30 metres in length, 3m high, and contains a 12.8 metres long gallery with a roof of overlapping stones with three pairs of side chambers and an end chamber. The tomb was excavated by Richard Colt Hoare 2nd Baronet in 1816-1817.

Archaeologia Volume 19 Section IV. 1816. An Account of a Stone Barrow [Map], in the Parish of Wellow, at Stoney Littleton [Map] in the County of Somerset, which was opened and investigated in the Month of May 1816. Communicated by Sir Richard Colt Hoare (age 57), Bart. F.S.A. Read 22d May, 1817.

Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society Volume 8 Pages 35-62. Remarks on ancient chambered tumuli as illustrative still existing at Stoney Littleton [Map], near Wellow, in the county of Somerset. By The Rev. H. M. Scarth (age 44), M.A.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Sutton Veny Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Sutton Veny. 2. [Sutton Veny Long Barrow [Map]] In grass field to the N.N.W. of the old Church of St. Leonard. Hoare shows a " Long " barrow in this position. The O.M. shows it as a large circular mound, and in its present condition it has no resemblance to a "Long" barrow, but in deference to Hoare, who saw it in a more perfect condition, it must be regarded as one. It is of great size, and level on top, and now looks more like a "motte" mound than anything else. It is shown by Hoare as unopened, and as lying S. and N. O.M. 52 SW.; A. W. I. Map of Wylye Station.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Dorset, Cashmoor, Thickthorn Down Long Barrows [Map]

The Thickthorn Down Long Barrows [Map] are two Neolithic long barrows near the south-western end of the Dorset Cursus.

3300BC. The Dorset Cursus is a 10km Cursus that extends across of Cranborne Chase from Dorset Cursus North-Western End Martin Down [Map], over North Farm, Cashmoor [Map]. At Gussage Down Long Barrow 1 changes direction to Wyke Down Barrow 1 [Map], contining to the Thickthorn Down Long Barrows [Map]. The cursus consisted of a pair of parallel banks 1.5m high 80 m apart with external ditches 1.5m deep and 2m wide.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Tidcombe Great Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Tidcombe with Fosbury. 1. "Tidcombe Great Barrow [Map]," about ½ mile S. of Tidcombe. Length 195ft.; according to Lukis 188ft.; S. and N. Chambered. Opened by country people in search for treasure about 1750 (Arch. viii. 91, note i.) who found a chamber at the E. end built of large sarsen stones, and it is said, containing only one skeleton. Opened again by the Rev. W. C. Lukis and Dr. Thurnam 1 without apparently further result.

This once fine barrow has been much injured; a large cutting has been made through the mound from end to end, and never filled up; several large sarsen stones (that once formed the chamber?) are exposed at the southern end. The ground is under cultivation up to the fringe of the mound, and there is no sign of the ditches visible on the surface. O.M. 43 N.W.; A. W. 187 (this is only an incidental reference, and the barrow is not marked on the map of Everley "Station," but there are two round barrows shown in its place). A. W. ii. Roman Æra, 69, and Map of Roman Road, p. 67; Arch. viii. 91, note 1; xlii. 203, 229; W.A.M. viii. 155 (Lukis).

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Tilshead Wiltshire, Tilshead Old Ditch Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1872 V13 Pages 339-342. The Long Barrows differ in toto from those of the circular form, and belong to a different and earlier epoch. From their usually great size, with one end only devoted to interment, they may be quite as much or even more properly regarded as monuments than as mere tombs. They very commonly measure from 200 to 250 feet in length, and in rare cases even 300 or 400 feet. They seldom exceed ten feet in height, and are wider and higher at one end than at the other — usually that pointing to the east; though at times, they range north and south, in which case the south end is of larger size. It is at this larger end, under what we may term the apex of the tumulus, that the interments are found, on or but little below the natural level of the ground. At each side of the barrow is a trench, whence great part of the material of which the barrow consists has been derived; which trenches, it is remarkable, are not continued round the ends of the barrow. From the great size of the Long Barrows, and the often uncertain position of the apex, their exploration is attended with great labour and difficulty, and hence only a comparatively small number have been explored. About fifteen of those in South Wiltshire were excavated by the elder Cunnington and Sir Richard Hoare, and more recently rather more than that number by Dr. Thurnam. From these data a tolerably complete view of the character of these barrows has been obtained.1 Usually — in at least six cases out of seven — the interments consist of unburnt bodies. Sometimes, there is a single skeleton doubled up; but more commonly a pile of many skeletons, as many perhaps as ten or twenty in number, the bones mixed promiscuously, as if removed from some prior place of burial. The greater part of the skulls are cleft, and many of the long bones split, as if the majority of those interred had been immolated, in honour perhaps of a de- ceased chieftain, and as if not alone human sacrifice, but cannibalism likewise, had been resorted to. In rare cases (and the Long Barrow round which they were now gathered was one), the body or bodies had been burnt, but the cremation was of a peculiar and imperfect sort, the bones being charred, rather than completely burnt like those in the Round Barrows. In one instance, that of the largest Long Barrow in South Wilts, that of Tilshead Old Ditch [Map], which measures 380ft. in length, and was imperfectly explored in 1802, Dr. Thurnam in 1865, found the true primary interment, at a depth of ten feet, consisting of one imperfectly burnt body, and immediately adjacent a doubled-up unburnt skeleton, that of a woman of small stature, the skull bearing indisputable marks of having been violently cleft before burial, and doubtless during life. The burnt body must be regarded as that of the chief, the unburnt one as that of the wife or female slave, slaughtered that she might accompany her lord to the land of spirits.

Note 1. Archæologia. Vol. XLII., p. 169.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Tilshead. 2. "Old Ditch" Barrow [Map]. Length 377ft. (Hoare); 380ft. (Thurnam); NE. and S.W. Opened, 1802, by Wm. Cunnington, who made a section 85ft. long from the E. end, but failed to find the primary burial; he noticed the usual stratum of black sooty soil, and found two secondary burnt burials near the surface of the mound. He then cut a section at the VV. end and found three skeletons lying on a pavement of flints about 18in. above the floor of the barrow. In 1865 it was re-opened by Thurnam who made a large excavation near the E. end; and only a few feet beyond where Cunnington had left off in 1802, he found the primary interment. The following account of the discovery is from the MS. Cat. " No. 235. Ancient British. From the great Long Barrow at Tilshead, near Old Ditch, excavated by Thurnam, September 29th, 1865. This (the primary interment) was found by us after great labour, and at a depth of ten feet under the highest point of the tumulus close to its eastern end. Here, at or below the base, was a pile of large flints mixed with a stratum of black earth, and below these was a small skeleton well preserved, in the contracted position and with head to the north. The skull was smashed, as I thought at first by the weight of the flints, but from the peculiar character of a contused cleft near the coronal border of the left parietal, it would appear to have been purposely cleaved before interment. Within a foot or two of the skeleton to the east, under the pile of flints, and on a sort of pavement of the same, were a heap of imperfectly burnt bones, in larger pieces than is usual in round barrows. This very exceptional deposit after cremation must have been made contemporaneously with that of the body to which the entire skeleton belonged. The burnt bones, which were unmixed with charcoal, were perhaps buried whilst still hot, many of the flints around them being of a red or blue colour and very brittle as if from the effect of heat. The only relic with them was a rude and heavy opalescent flint; whether the apparently chipped edges were intentionally given to it may be doubtful; it is 2½in. long, 1¾in. wide, and thick. Other extensive excavations were made in the most likely situations without finding anything except in one place the bones of a fox a few feet deep."

This barrow, one of the finest and longest in the county, is in excellent condition. It lies on gently sloping ground, not at the top of a hill, and in spite of its great size is not at all conspicuous. It has lately been planted with a row of trees along its crest. As its name implies it is close to the remarkable bank and ditch known as "Old Ditch" that traverses the down for some miles to E. and W. of the barrow; as noticed by Hoare "Old Ditch" makes a decided curve when it reaches the mound in order to avoid it.

The ditch of the barrow is very well defined on the north side, but not so well on the south, for "Old Ditch" passing the barrow on that side has somewhat obscured it. O.M. 54 NW.; A. W I. 90; Arch, xlii., 175, 180, 191, 192; W.A.M., xiii., 231 [Note. The Page here is incorrect; the page is 341]; Bull, de la Soc. d'Anthrop., 2 S., ii., 357, 676, fig.; Mem. Anthrop. Soc, iii., 65, PI. i.,fig. i.; MS. Cat. 235.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Edington, Tinhead Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Edington. 7. "Tinhead Barrow [Map]," on Tinhead Hill. Length 220ft.; N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who states that "it had evidently been rifled at some unknown period "; he only found "traces of human remains in the usual situation at the east end, with a fragment or two of rude black pottery." It stands on ploughed ground, and its E. end is ploughed over, but the greater part of the mound is planted with trees. The ditches are obliterated, and material has been dug out of the mound in more than one place, many years ago, for large trees are now growing in the hollows. O.M. 45 NE.; A. W. I. 88; Arch. xlii. 180, 194—5.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, West Grafton, Tow Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Grafton. 5. [Tow Long Barrow [Map]] On Wexcombe Down, to the N.E. of Jubilee Plantation. Length 83ft. N. and S. In excellent condition, standing on uncultivated down land, and apparently unopened; the ditches are unusually well defined and end abruptly at both ends of the mound in the orthodox way. The mound is rather flat and broad, with one or two depressions in it that may mark the place of interments— perhaps secondary ones. It appears rather as an oval mound on the O.M., and does not seem to have been previously noticed as a "Long" barrow. O.M. 43 N.W.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Everleigh, Weather Hill Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Fittleton.1 5. [Weather Hill Long Barrow [Map]] On Weather Hill, S. of Everley and W of the old Marlborough — Salisbury Road. Length about 150ft. N.E. and S.W. Opened by Thurnam, who does not seem to have published any account of the excavations beyond that in the summary list in Arch. xlii. The following entry, however, appears in the MS. Cat.: — "255. Ancient British. Part of a very dolichocephalic calvarium obtained from the north broad end of a long barrow on Fittleton Down, near Chidbury Camp, Oct. 6, 1866. The barrow had been previously disturbed. There were indications of one skull only, and that apparently a female. Remains of bos longifrons and horns of Cervus elaphus? scattered."

The barrow stands on an uncultivated down in good condition with well defined ditches. It shows where it has been dug into, no doubt by Thurnam. This barrow is referred to by Thurnam as "Fittleton."2 O.M. 48 N W.; A. W. I. Map of Everley Station; Arch. xlii. 180; MS. Cat. No. 255.

For Long Barrows in Fittleton parish now destroyed see end of this list.

Note 1. This is not the barrow opened by Wm. Cunnington in 1851, referred to in W.A.M. xxviii. 172. For that see below, List of barrows now destroyed, under Fittleton.

Note 2. Hoare shows two Long Barrows lying near each other on Weather Hill but there is no trace of the second barrow to be found now, and only one is shown on the O.M. As the down does not appear to have been under recent cultivation this was possibly an error of Hoare's.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Tilshead Wiltshire, White Long Barrow [Map]

3750BC. White Long Barrow [Map] is 77.5 m long and approximately 47 m wide including the surrounding ditch. Dating of materials found in and around it suggests that it dates from around 3750BC±250.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Tilshead. 4. "White Barrow [Map]." Length 255ft. (Hoare); E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington but without success, only a few pieces of stag's horns and the usual "line of black earth " being found. This barrow, with 2¾ acres of land adjoining, is now the property of the National Trust. Hoare speaks of it as having been "lately covered with a plantation," but this has long since disappeared, and the whole barrow was for some time under cultivation. In spite of this it may happily still be described as in good condition with well-defined ditches; it is now down to grass, and under its present ownership will not be ploughed again. O.M. 53 NE.; A.W. I. 91; Arch. xlii. 180.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Winterbourne Stoke Crossroads Long Barrow [Map]

Winterbourne Stoke Crossroads Long Barrow is also in Stonehenge Long Barrows.

Winterbourne Stoke Crossroads Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1011841.

The monument includes a Long Barrow north east of Winterbourne Stoke crossroads, situated on a south west-north east ridge and having extensive views to the south east across Wilsford Down and Normanton Down. The long barrow is orientated south west-north east along the ridge and forms the origin and focal point of a linear round barrow cemetery which extends some 500m along the ridge to the north east and contains a total of 22 round barrows. The barrow mound is 95m in length, 22m wide, and 2.5m high. It is flanked on the north west and south east by ditches running the length of the mound from which material was quarried during its construction. The north west ditch is 1m deep and c.8m wide. The south east ditch is visible in part, having become largely infilled over the years, but its full width is visible as a vegetation mark on aerial photographs from which it is calculated to be c.10m wide. The long barrow is therefore 95m long and 40m wide. Partial excavation in the 19th century revealed a primary male inhumation with a flint implement, and six secondary inhumations with a plain food vessel 0.75m from the top of the mound.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Winterborne Stoke Barrows, Winterbourne Stoke Down Barrows, Winterbourne Stoke Down Barrow 3 G53 [Map]

Colt Hoare 1812. No. 3 [Map] is a long, or rather triangular barrow, standing nearly east and west, the broad end towards the former point; it measures 104 teet in length, 64 feet in width at the large end, 45 feet at the small end, and does not exceed three or four feet in elevation, This tumulus has been much mutilated, partly by former antiquaries, and partly by cowherds or shepherds, who had excavated the eastern end, by making huts for shelter. Our first section was made at the western end, but produced nothing. On making a second, we perceived the earth had been disturbed, and pursuing the section, found two or three fragments of burned bones. We next observed a rude conical pile of large flints, imbedded in a kind of mortar made of the martyr chalk dug near the spot. This rude pile was not more than four or five feet in the base, and about two feet high on the highest part, and was raised upon a floor, on which had been an intense fire, so as to make it red like brick. At first we conceived that this pile might have been raised over an interment, but after much labour in removing the greater part of it, we very unexpectedly found the remains of the Briton below, and were much astonished at seeing several pieces of burned bones intermixed with the great masses of mortar, a circumstance extremely curious, and so novel, that we know not how to decide upon the original intent of this barrow. The primary interment might have been disturbed before, or we might have missed the Britons might perhaps have burned the body by an intense fire on the spot, where the earth was made red; and the calcined bones might then have been collected together, and mixed in the mortar, which, with flints, formed the rude cone over the fire-place. If this opinion is right, the Britons in this case adopted a very singular method for preserving the dead. We have left some of the mortar containing the burned bones, near the top of the barrow, to satisfy the curiosity of any person who might wish to examine it. Though nearly the whole of the bones had slight tinge of green, we could not discover any articles of brass. On exploring this barrow further to the east, we found two deep cists containing an immense quantity of wood ashes, and large pieces of charred wood, but no other signs of interment.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Winterbourne Stoke. 53. [Winterbourne Stoke Down Barrow 3 G53 [Map]] On Winterbourne Stoke Down. Hoare's No. 3. Length 104ft.; E. and W. Opened by Hoare and Cunnington. They found a large pile of flints that had been "imbedded in a kind of mortar made of the marly chalk dug near the spot"; the flints were "raised upon a floor, on which had been an intense fire, so as to make it red like brick." Under the flints were "several pieces of burnt bones intermixed with the great masses of mortar, a circum- stance extremely curious, and so novel, that we did not know how to decide upon the original intent of this barrow." Hoare expresses some doubt as to whether they had found the primary interment. This barrow is a rather shapeless mass, wide and flat; the ditches are ill defined. Hoare says "that it has been much mutilated, partly by former antiquaries, and partly by cowherds or shepherds, who had excavated the eastern end by making huts for shelter." O.M. 54 S.W.; A. W. 1.117.

Compare Kill Barrow, under Tilshead. This barrow is not included in Thurnam's list of Long Barrows opened by Hoare and Cunnington. Arch. xlii. 180.

Wiltshire Museum. DZSWS:STHEAD.75a. 1 sandstone whetstone rubbed flat on two sides found with a primary (?) cremation in long barrow Winterbourne Stoke G53 [Map], excavated by William Cunnington.

Wiltshire Museum. DZSWS:STHEAD.75b. 1 flint hammerstone found with a primary (?) cremation in long barrow Winterbourne Stoke G53 [Map], excavated by William Cunnington.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Winterbourne Stoke Long Barrow [Map]

Winterbourne Stoke Long Barrow is also in Stonehenge Long Barrows.

Winterbourne Stoke Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1015021.

The monument includes a Long Barrow orientated east - west situated on a downland spur 180m south of the A360 on Winterbourne Stoke Down. The mound is 43m long. A 36m length of the mound survives as a visible earthwork which varies in height from 1.5m high at the western end to c.1m at the eastern end. Beyond this the remainder of the mound is visible as a slight rise in the field surface. The mound is 17m wide and is flanked on either side by a ditch up to 5m wide; that on the south side is visible as a shallow depression. The north western ditch survives as a buried feature. A part excavation by Cunnington in the early 19th century produced a cremation covered with flints and two deep cists containing wood ash and charcoal. The long barrow lies within a levelled field system which has not been included in the scheduling.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Upper Woodford, Woodford 2 Long Barrow [Map]

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1913 V38 Pages 379-414. Woodford. 2. [Woodford 2 Long Barrow [Map]] S. of Druid's Lodge, on the E. side of Devizes — Salisbury Road, and about one-fifth of a mile S. of 6th milestone from Salisbury. Length 64ft.; S. and N. No recorded opening, but it looks as if it had been dug into in more than one place. It is short and broad, and lies on a steep slope on an uncultivated down; the ditches are fairly distinct. On the O.M. it appears as an almost round barrow. O.M. 60 SW.; Arch. xlii. 173, note b. Not shown by Hoare.

Europe, British Isles, South-West England, Wiltshire, Stonehenge Landscape, Stonehenge Barrows, Amesbury Barrows, Woodhenge Long Barrow [Map]

Woodhenge Long Barrow [Map]. Historic England 1009130.

The monument includes a levelled long barrow aligned north east-south west located some 450m WSW of Woodhenge on Countess Farm and situated on a west facing slope. The barrow is now difficult to identify on the ground. However, the ditches which flank the mound of the long barrow on its western and eastern sides, from which material was quarried during its construction, survive as buried features and are visible as parchmarks. These are represented on a parchmark survey carried out in 1990 from which the overall length of the long barrow can be calculated to be 40m and the overall width 28m.