Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Castle Baynard, St Paul's Cathedral [Map]

St Paul's Cathedral is in Castle Baynard [Map].

1012-Martyrdom of Archibishop Ælfheah

1399 Death of John of Gaunt

1400 Death of Richard II

1458 Loveday

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1525 Battle of Pavia

1547 Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

1552 Trial and Execution of Edward Seymour Duke of Somerset and his Supporters

1555 Consecrations

1666 Great Fire of London

1806 Funeral of Horatio Nelson

Bede. 695. A stone coffin having been provided for burying his body (age 69), when they came to lay it in the same, they found his body a span longer than the coffin. Hereupon they hewed away the stone, and made the coffin about two fingers longer; but neither would it then contain the body. Under this difficulty of entombing him, they had thoughts either to get another coffin, or else to shorten the body, by bending it at the knees, if they could. But a wonderful event, caused by Providence, prevented the execution of either of those designs; for on a sudden, in the presence of the bishop, and Sighard, the son of the king who had turned monk, and who reigned after him jointly with his brother Suefred, and of a considerable number of men, that same coffin was found to answer the length of the body, insomuch that a pillow might also be put in at the head; and at the feet the coffin was four fingers longer than the body. He was buried in the church of the blessed Apostle of the Gentiles [Map], by whose instructions he had learned to hope for heavenly things.

1012-Martyrdom of Archibishop Ælfheah

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1012. This year came Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, and all the oldest counsellors of England, clerk and laity, to London before Easter, which was then on the ides of April; and there they abode, over Easter, until all the tribute was paid, which was 48,000 pounds. Then on the Saturday was the army much stirred against the bishop; because he would not promise them any fee, and forbade that any man should give anything for him. They were also much drunken; for there was wine brought them from the south. Then took they the bishop (age 59), and led him to their hustings, on the eve of the Sunday after Easter, which was the thirteenth before the calends of May; and there they then shamefully killed him. They overwhelmed him with bones and horns of oxen; and one of them smote him with an axe-iron on the head; so that he sunk downwards with the blow; and his holy blood fell on the earth, whilst his sacred soul was sent to the realm of God. The corpse in the morning was carried to London; and the bishops, Ednoth and Elfhun, and the citizens, received him with all honour, and buried him in St. Paul's minster [Map]; where God now showeth this holy martyr's miracles. When the tribute was paid, and the peace-oaths were sworn, then dispersed the army as widely as it was before collected. Then submitted to the king five and forty of the ships of the enemy; and promised him, that they would defend this land, and he should feed and clothe them.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1023. This year returned King Knute (age 28) to England; and Thurkyll and he were reconciled. He committed Denmark and his son to the care of Thurkyll, whilst he took Thurkyll's son with him to England. This year died Archbishop Wulfstan; and Elfric succeeded him; and Archbishop Egelnoth blessed him in Canterbury. This year King Knute (age 28) in London, in St. Paul's minster [Map], gave full leave60 to Archbishop Ethelnoth, Bishop Britwine, and all God's servants that were with them, that they might take up from the grave the archbishop, Saint Elphege. And they did so, on the sixth day before the ides of June; and the illustrious king, and the archbishop, and the diocesan bishops, and the earls, and very many others, both clergy and laity, carried by ship his holy corpse over the Thames to Southwark [Map]. And there they committed the holy martyr to the archbishop and his companions; and they with worthy pomp and sprightly joy carried him to Rochester. There on the third day came the Lady Emma (age 38) with her royal son Hardacnute (age 5); and they all with much majesty, and bliss, and songs of praise, carried the holy archbishop into Canterbury Cathedral [Map], and so brought him gloriously into the church, on the third day before the ides of June. Afterwards, on the eighth day, the seventeenth before the calends of July, Archbishop Ethelnoth, and Bishop Elfsy, and Bishop Britwine, and all they that were with them, lodged the holy corpse of Saint Elphege on the north side of the altar of Christ; to the praise of God, and to the glory of the holy archbishop, and to the everlasting salvation of all those who there his holy body daily seek with earnest heart and all humility. May God Almighty have mercy on all Christian men through the holy intercession of Elphege!

Note 60. Matthew of Westminster says the king took up the body with his own hands.

On 07 Aug 1106 Henry Holy Roman Emperoir (age 55) died. He was buried in St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. As a consequence of Henry Holy Roman Emperoir (age 55) having been excommunicated he was moved six days later to an unconsecrated chapel near Liège.

On 02 Oct 1241 Bishop Roger Niger was buried in St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. There was an eclipse of the sun the same day.

In 1359 Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Astley (age 43) died at Bordesley Abbey, Worcestershire [Map]. She was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 10 Oct 1367 Bishop William of Wykeham (age 47) was consecrated Bishop of Winchester at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 12 Sep 1368 Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 23) died at Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire [Map]. Her last words were said to be "Souveyne vous de moi" ("Don't forget me") the 'S' of which was possibly subsequently represented on the Lancastrian Esses Collar. She was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. Her son King Henry IV of England (age 1) succeeded 3rd Earl Derby and 6th Earl Lancaster.

In 1380 Giles "Payne" Roet (age 70) died. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Death of John of Gaunt

On 03 Feb 1399 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 58) died at Leicester Castle [Map]. Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster (age 48) was by his side. He was buried in the Choir of St Paul's Cathedral [Map] with his first wife Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster. His son King Henry IV of England (age 31) succeeded 2nd Duke Lancaster, 7th Earl of Leicester.

King Richard II of England (age 32) witheld the future Henry IV's (age 31) inheritance from him giving Henry (age 31) reason to return to England to claim his lands and titles.

Death of Richard II

On 14 Feb 1400 (exact date not known) King Richard II (age 33) died at Pontefract Castle [Map] where he had been imprisoned three months before; possibly murdered, possibly starved to death. His death was a consequence of the Epiphany Rising; he was still considered a threat. His first cousin Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster de jure Heir to the Throne of England since she was the daughter of Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence. She at this time had four children with her husband Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, Earl Ulster. The new King Henry IV (age 32) ignored her claim.

On 17 Feb 1400 Richard's (deceased) corpse was displayed at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 06 Mar 1400 Richard's (deceased) remains were buried at King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 29 Oct 1415. And in that same year, onne the morne aftyr Syn Symonnys day and Jude, that the mayre shulde ryde to Westemyster for to take his othe, come tydyngys to London of the batayle a-bove said by the Byschoppe of Worseter20, that tyme beyng Chaunceler, for he come to London erly in the mornynge, and warnyd the mayre. And thenne thorowe London they lette rynge the bellys in every chyrche and song Te Deum; and at Powlys [Map], at ix of the clocke, the tydyngys were oppynly proclaymyd to alle the comeners of [th]e cytte and to alle othyr strangerys. And thenne the Quene (age 45)21, and alle her byschoppys and alle the lordys [th]at were in London that tyme, wentte to Westemyster on her fete a prosessyon to Synt Edward is schryne, whythe alle the prestys, and clerkys, and fryers, and alle othyr relygyous men, devoutely syngynge ande saynge the letanye. And whenne they hadde offerde, the mayre com home rydynge merely whythe alle his aldermen and comeners as they were i-wounte for to doo.

Note 20. Should be Winchester. Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester (age 40), afterwards Cardinal. The title is given correctly in Vit.

Note 21. Joan of Navarre (age 45), widow of Henry IV.

Chronicle of Gregory 1433. 14 Nov 1432. And the same year deyde the Duchyes of Bedforde (age 28) in Fraunce, the wife of the Regyaunte (age 43), whos terment was solempny holde at Syn Poulys [Map] in London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1433. 09 Nov 1433. Ande that same year, the ix day of November, was the terement of the Erle of Syn Powle worthely i-holde at the chyrche of Syn Poulys [Map] in London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 04 Feb 1437. Ande the ix day of Feverer Quene Kateryn (deceased) aforesaid was broughte to Powlys [Map] yn London, and there sche hadde a solempne deryge ande a masse on the morne. And thenne she was hadde unto Westemyster. And the iij day aftyr she was worth ely enteryde and buryde in Oure Lady chapylle at Westemyster in the Abby; of whos soule God have mercy.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 09 Dec 1437. Ande that same year deyde the Emperowre of Rome (age 69), and his termentte was solempnly holde at Syn Poulys [Map] at the cytte of London the iij day of May, there beynge the King (age 16) and his lordys.

Chronicle of Gregory 1445. 01 Feb 1445. Ande the same year was Syn Poulys [Map] stypylle fyryd a-pon Candylmas evyn whythe the lyghtenynge.


On 24 Mar 1458 at Westminster Hall [Map] King Henry VI (age 36) made a great speech [See Chronicle of St Albans] the purpose of which was to ensure future peace in his Kingdom. Some were required to pay fines in recomponse for deaths at the First Battle of St Albans some three years before, some prisoners were released, some were bound to good behaviour, and future arbitration.

After the speech King Henry VI (age 36), Queen Margaret (age 28), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 22), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 29), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 22), Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 36) and Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 35) processed, hand-in-hand to St Paul's Cathedral [Map] and a ttended a service presided over by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 40).

In Jul 1484 William Collingbourne, a Tudor agent, tacked up a lampooning poem to St Paul's Cathedral [Map], which mentions Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 28), whose family's heraldic symbol was a silver wolf, among the three aides to King Richard III (age 31), whose emblem was a white boar:

The Catte, the Ratte and Lovell our dogge.

Rulyth all Englande under a hogge.

In 1499 Bishop Robert Sherbourne (age 46) was appointed Dean St Paul's Cathedral.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 14 Nov 1501. This yeare, the 14th day of November, Prince Arthure (age 15) was marriedg at Paules Churche [Map], in London, to the Kinge of Spaynes (age 49) third daughter, named Katheryne (age 15).a

Note g. At the age of fifteen, his bride (age 15) being seventeen. The commission and marriage articles may be seen in MS. Harleian. Cod. 6, 220, Art. 1.

On 14 Nov 1501 Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and Catherine of Aragon (age 15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map] by Archbishop Henry Deane assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (age 51) and a further eighteen bishops. She wore a white satin dress with a farthingale and over her head wore a veil of fine silk trimmed with gold and pearls. She would, eight years later, marry his younger brother King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 10) - see Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 49) and Isabella Queen Castile (age 50). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 44) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 35). They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Prince Henry (age 10) who escorted her up the aisle and gave her away.

Cecily York Viscountess Welles (age 32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 24) was Chief Answerer.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 18) and Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) attended.

Thomas Englefield was appointed Knight of the Bath.

Immediately after their marriage Arthur Prince of Wales (age 15) and Catherine of Aragon (age 15) resided at Tickenhill Manor, Bewdley [Map] for a month. Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow, Shropshire [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 08 Mar 1503... and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure and the Kinge (age 46) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1510-1519. 14 Sep 1513. This yeare allso, on the day of th' Exaltation of the Crosseh, Te Deum was sungen in Paules Churche [Map] for the victorie of the Scottishe feild, where King Jamys of Scotland (deceased) was slaynei. The King of England (age 22) that tyme lyenge at seege before Turney [Map]a in France, and wan it and Turwymb also.

Note h. 14th of September.

Note i. James IV (deceased) of Scotland was slain at the battle of Flodden Field, on the 9th September, 1513.

Note a. Tonrnai, the capital of the Tonmaisis, and one of the most ancient towns of Belgium, contained at this period about 80,000 inhabitants.

Note b. Terouenne surrendered to Henry on the 23rd August, 1513.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1510-1519. 04 Dec 1514. This yeare on Monday, the 4th of December, Richarde Hunn, taylor, of London, was hanged in the Lowlardes Tower at Powles [Map]. He was made an heretique for suinge a Præmunire against Dr. Fitz-James, Bishopp of London, and Dr. Horsey, his Chauncellor; and they saide he hanged himselfe, but it was fownde contrarie. His bodie was burnt in Smithfeilde [Map], on the even of St. Thomas th' Apostle next followinge.g

Note g. Arnold's version is as follows: "This yere, in Octobre, one Richard Hoone, dwellyng in the parysh of Saynt Margaret in Brydge Stret, was appeached of heresy, and put into the Lollar's Tower, at Powles, and therin was founde hangyd in prison, whereupon grete exclamacyon was amonge people, how, by whom, or by what meane, he was hangyd; the dowt was denyd by the temporall lawe, and was sayd that one Kok Charls, a sumner, and the Bell Rynge of Powles, sholde, in a nyght, hang the sayd Hoone; howe be it, aftyr he was hanged, he was jugyd an herctyck by the spirituall lawe, and brnyed in Smythfeld."

Battle of Pavia

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1520-1529. 09 Mar 1525. This yeare, the 9th day of Marche,c tidinges were brought to the Kinge (age 33) that Francis (age 30), the French King, was taken prisoner before the cittie Pavie, in Italie, by the Duke of Burbon (age 35), capteyn of the Emperoures (age 25) hoste,d and 14,000 French men slayne at the same feild.

And the Archbishop of Yorke (age 52), cardinall and legatt de latere, songe masse the same tyme in Paules churche [Map], in his "pontificalibus,"e and 11 bishopps and abbotts, with their miters, beinge present, the Duke of Northfolke (age 52) and the Duke of Suffolke (age 41), with all the nobles of the realme. And the saide Cardinall (age 52) grawnted the same to all manner of persons, beinge within the precinct of the churche in the tyme of the masse, plenary remission of their synnes, à pœná et culpá; and, after masse, Te Deum was sunge for the sayde victorie,a the Major,b Aldermen, with the head craftes of the cittie standinge in the bodie of the churche in theyr liveries; and that night great fiers were made in divers places of the cittie, with vessells of wyne at everie fier for the people to drincke.

Note c. Francis I was made prisoner on the 24th February.

Note d. Charles Duke of Bourbon (age 35), Constable of France, being persecuted by Francis I for refusing to marry Louisa of Savoy (age 48), the French King's (age 30) mother, sought the protection of the Emperor Charles V (age 25) by whom he was appointed his lieutenant in Italy.

Note e. After Wolsey (age 52) had been invested by Pope Leo X with the sole legatine power in England, he was wont to say mass on state occasions after the manner of the Pope himself.

Note a. The victory gained by the Imperialists over the French before Pavia so changed the aspect of affairs on the continent that Henry at first entertained a project forinvading France, and asserting his claim to that crown.

Note b. Sir John Allen.

On 02 Mar 1543 John Neville 3rd Baron Latimer (age 49) died at London. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. His son John Neville 4th Baron Latimer of Snape (age 23) succeeded 4th Baron Latimer of Snape.

In 1545 Dean William May was appointed Prebendary St Paul's Cathedral.

On 14 Feb 1546 Bishop Henry Man was consecrated Bishop of Sodor and Man at St Paul's Cathedral [Map] by Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London (age 46), Bishop Thomas Chetham and Bishop John Hodgkins.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1547. The 29th daie of June there was a solempne obsequie kept in Poules [Map] [for] the French Kinge Frances latelie departed, where was a sumptuous herse made, and the quire and the bodie of the church hanged with blacke and sett with schuchions of the armes of France, and tow hundreth torch bearers having new blacke gownes and hoodes with badges of the armes of France on their sholders, the Archbishop of Canterbery (age 57) begining the derige in his pontificalibus, the Archbishop of Yorke (age 65) and other 8 bishopps and suffragans being also in their pontificalibus, six erles and lordes of the Kinges Majestie being the cheife mourners, the Emperours Embassadour, and the French Kinges Embassadoure, and the Secretarie of Venice in their blacke mourning gownes being also there present at the same, the major and aldermen with tow hundred citizens in their best lyveries with their hoodes on their sholders present at the same also; and on the morrow also at the requiem masse, which the Archbishopp of Canterberie (age 57) songe in his pontificalibus, with the other bishopps in their pontificalibus also; and there preached at the said masse the Bishop of Rochester (age 70) [Note. Possibly Bishop Nicholas Ridley (age 47) who became Bishop of Rochester in 1547], who greatlie commended in his sermon the said French King departed, for setting fourth of the Bible and New Testament in the French tonge to be reade of all his subjectes; also all the parish churches in London kept a solempne obett with knill, the bells ringing, and a herse with tow great tapers, in everie parish church.

Battle of Pinkie Cleugh

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1547. The 20th daie, being Sainct Matthewes Eaven, was a solemne sermon made in Poules [Map] by the Bishopp of Lincolne, with procession, Ponies. kneeling with their copes in the quire, and after that Te Deum song with the organns playinge to give laude to God for the said victorie, my lord major, with his brethren the aldermen, being present, with all the comens in their lyveries, and that night great fiars were made in everie streete with banqueting for joy of the said victorie.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1547. The sixth daie of November the Convocation of the bishopps beganne at Powles [Map], afore whome preached the Bishopp of Lyncolne, who made a goodlie sermon in Lattin; and for Prolocutor of the Lower House for the clergie was chosen Doctor John Taylor, Deane of Lyncolne (age 44), and parson of Sainct Peeters in Cornehill, in London.

On 20 Feb 1552 Anne Parr Countess Pembroke (age 36) died at Baynard's Castle [Map]. She was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1552. The xxviij day of Feybruarii was bered the nobull [lady the] contes of Penbroke (deceased), and syster to the late qwyne and wyffe [to the] nobull Kyng Henry the viij. late kyng, and the good lade [the] contes of Penbroke the wyche she ded at Benard Castle [Map], and so cared unto Powlls. Ther was a C. [Note. 100] powre men and women had mantylle fryse gownes, then cam the haroldes, [then] the corse, and a-bowt her viij baners rolls of armes, and then cam the mornars boyth lordes and knyghts and gentyll men, and then cam the lades mornars and gentyll women mornars ij C. [then the] gentyll men and gentyll women, and after cam in cotts ij C. servandes and odur servandes, and she was bered by the tombe of [the duke] of Lankaster [Note. At St Paul's Cathedral [Map]], and after her banars wher sett up over her [and her] armes sett on dyvers pelers,-the vj King Edward vjth.

Note. Funeral of the countess of Pembroke. King Edward in his Diary records the death of the countess of Pembroke on the 20th Feb. 1551–2. As sister to queen Katharine Parr, she was a person of high consideration. A magnificent canopied monument to William Herbert, earl of Pembroke, and his countess Anne, with their recumbent effigies, and kneeling effigies of their three children, Henry earl of Pembroke, sir Edward Herbert knt. and Anne lady Talbot, was erected in St. Paul's cathedral, next the monument of John of Ghent, duke of Lancaster, and is represented in a plate of Dugdale's History of St. Paul's.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 18 Oct 1554. 18 Oct 1554. The 18 of Octobre, beinge the day of St. Luke, the Kinge (age 27) rode from his pallace of Whitehall to Paules Church [Map] in the forenoone, and there heard masse, which was sunge by the Spaniards of his owne quier.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1555. [The same day were certain bishops, viz. doctor Corwyn (age 55) archbishop of] Duvylyne [Dublin], [doctor William] Glyne (age 51) bysshoppe of Bangor, (and) doctur (James Turberville) bysshope of Exsseter, alle consecratyd at Powlles [Map].

1555 Consecrations

On 04 Sep 1555 Bishop Edmund "Bloody" Bonner of London (age 55) consecrated an Archbishop and two Bishops at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]:

Archbishop Hugh Curwen (age 55) was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin.

Bishop James Turbeville was consecrated Bishop of Exeter.

Bishop William Glynne (age 51) was consecrated Bishop of Bangor.

In 1559 Archdeacon John Mullins was appointed Archdeacon of London and Canon at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. After 07 Apr 1559. The (blank) day cam from Franse my lord chamburlayn Haward (age 38) and my lord bysshope of Elly (age 53) and master doctur Wotton, and (unfinished) .... ye Tempull, and ix .... dener, and ther dynyd the consell and dyvers notabyll .... and juges, and my lord mayre (age 50) and the althermen, and the [officers of the] Chansseres [Chancery] and the Flett [Map], and the Kyngesbynshe [Map], and the Marshalsea [Map]; [and they] gayff gownes of ij collers, morreys and mustars, and ... ij collers ... hondered; and at v of cloke at after-non [the new] serganttes whent unto sant Thomas of Acurs in a ... gowne and skarlette hodes a-bowt ther nekes, and whyt [hoods on] ther hedes, and no capes [caps]; and after they whent unto Powles [Map] with typstayffes and offesers of the Kyngbynche [Map], and odur plasses, and [they were] browth be ij old serganttes, one after a-nodur in skarlett ... of north syd, and ther thay stod tyll thay had brou[th them] unto ix sondre pellers [pillars] of the north syd, and after the ... cam unto the furst, and after to the reseduu; and thay whe[nt back] unto the Tempull on a-lone [one-by-one], and a-for whent the ... and the rulers and the Chansere and of the Kyngbynche [ij and ij to]gether, and after cam a hondered in parte cottes of ...

Note. P. 195. The serjeants' feast. This took place at the Inner Temple on the 19th of April. In the second line read, "and ix. [serjeants made]." Dugdale, indeed, gives the names of ten as having been called to the degree by writ tested by the queen on the 12th Dec. namely, Thomas Carus, Reginald Corbet, John Welsh, John Southcote, William Simmonds, George Wall, Richard Harper, Ranulph Cholmley, Nicholas Powtrell, and John Birch; and to these was added Richard Weston by writ dated 24 Jan. making in all eleven. Dugdale's Chronica Series.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Sep 1559. [The v day of September was a frame set up for the French king deceased, in] Powlles [Map] qwyre, of ix [9] storys, and [with a] valens of sarsenetes and blake fyne fryng, [and pensils, and] rond a-bowt the hers a pesse of welvett; [all the] viij pellers and all the quer [choir] hangyd with blake and [arms; and] the herse garnyshed with xxx [30] dosen penselles and xv dosen [of arms].

Note. P. 209. Obsequy of the French king Henry II. This took place at St. Paul's, and the ceremonial is preserved in the College of Arms, I. 13, f. 8, and I. 14, f. 7. There is a full abstract of it in Strype, Annals, i. 128–130, which is copied in Nichols's Progresses, &c. of Queen Elizabeth, i. 76–79.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Jan 1560. The xxv day of January wher mad at Powlles [Map] by the nuw byshope of London (age 41) lx prestes, menysters, and decons, and more.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 May 1561. The furst day of May was cared to Polles [Map] to be bered [one] Bathellmuw Comopane, a marchand stranger dwelling [by saint] Cristoffer at the stokes, and throughe Chepe, and yj men in blake gownes and hodes, and a xxx gownes for pore men and women of mantll frys, a liiij in blake gownes; and within the gatt of Powlles cherche-yerd mett all the quer [choir] of Powlles, and the clarkes of London whent a-for the corse with ther surples onder ther gownes, tyll they cam in-to the Powlles cherche-yerd, and then they be-gane to syng: and the quer [choir] wher hangyd with blake and armes, a iij dosen of skochyons of armes; and Veron dyd pryche, the Frencheman, and after browth ym to the neder end of the stepes under the belles, and bered hym, and after home to dener.

Note. P. 257. Funeral of Bartholomew Compagni, a Florentine. See a licence to him as the king's factor in Oct. 1550, in Strype, Mem. ii. 538, and his name occurs elsewhere Anglicised to Compayne. Margaret, his daughter and heir, was mother of the maids to queen Elizabeth, and married to John Baptist Castillion, of Benham Valence, Berks. (Archæologia, xxxii. 371.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. The x day of June was grantyd at Yeld-halle [Map] by my lord mare (age 52) and my masters the althermen and the commen consell iij xv toward the beldyng of Powlles chyrche [Map] and the stepulle, with as grett sped as they may gett tymbur rede [ready], and odur thynges, and worke-men.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1561. The xvij day of June my lord mare (age 52) and the althermen and the commen conselle how that and watt men shuld loke and over-se the workemen, and what men shuld take hed too in alle placys for the beldyng of Powlles [Map], and to chose men of knolleg to loke and over-se the worke and the workmen.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Jul 1561. The furst day of July be-gane workemen and la[bourers] at Powlles [Map] for the reparyng of the chyrche and the stepull, and the oversers and the doars of the sam here be ther namys, master Graftun grocer, and master Haresun goldsmyth, and master (blank) grocer.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Nov 1561. [The j day of November went to saint Paul's [Map] the lord mayor (age 65)] and the althermen at afternon [and all the crafts of] London in ther leverey, and with iiijxx men all carehyng of torchys, and my lord mare [tarried until] nyght, and so whent home with all torches [lighted,] for my lord mare (age 65) tared the sermon; my lord of London (age 42) mad the sermon; but yt was latt, [and so] there torchys was lyght to bryng my lord home.

On 17 Oct 1595 Thomas Heneage (age 63) died. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 21 Jan 1600 John Wooley was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 08 Jun 1602 Ursula St Barbe (age 70) died at her home in Barn Elms. She was buried the following night in St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

In 1612 William Dethick Officer of Arms (age 70) died. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. His grave was lost in the Great Fire of London.

On 25 Sep 1621 Mary Sidney Countess Pembroke (age 59) died of smallpox at Herbert Townhouse Aldersgate Street. Her funeral was held at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. She was buried at Salisbury Cathedral [Map].

On 14 Apr 1629 Dean Thomas Turner (age 38) was collated by Archbishop William Laud (age 55) to the Prebend of Newington in St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Feb 1656. I heard Dr. Wilkins (age 41) preach before the Lord Mayor in St. Paul's [Map], showing how obedience was preferable to sacrifice. He was a most obliging person, who had married the Protector's (age 56) sister, and took great pains to preserve the Universities from the ignorant, sacrilegious commanders and soldiers, who would fain have demolished all places and persons that pretended to learning.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Aug 1666. Waited on Sir William D'Oyly (age 52), now recovered, as it were, miraculously. In the afternoon, visited the Savoy Hospital, where I stayed to see the miserably dismembered and wounded men dressed, and gave some necessary orders. Then to my Lord Chancellor (age 57), who had, with the Bishop of London (age 74) and others in the commission, chosen me one of the three surveyors of the repairs of Paul's [Map], and to consider of a model for the new building, or, if it might be, repairing of the steeple, which was most decayed.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Aug 1666. I went to St. Paul's [Map] church, where, with Dr. Wren (age 80), Mr. Pratt (age 46), Mr. May (age 44), Mr. Thomas Chicheley (age 52), Mr. Slingsby, the Bishop of London (age 74), the Dean of St. Paul's, and several expert workmen, we went about to survey the general decays of that ancient and venerable church, and to set down in writing the particulars of what was fit to be done, with the charge thereof, giving our opinion from article to article. Finding the main building to recede outward it was the opinion of Chicheley and Mr. Pratt (age 46) that it had been so built aborigine for an effect in perspective, in regard of the height; but I was, with Dr. Wren (age 80), quite of another judgment, and so we entered it; we plumbed the uprights in several places. When we came to the steeple, it was deliberated whether it were not well enough to repair it only on its old foundation, with reservation to the four pillars; this Mr. Chicheley (age 52) and Mr. Pratt (age 46) were also for, but we totally rejected it, and persisted that it required a new foundation, not only in regard of the necessity, but for that the shape of what stood was very mean, and we had a mind to build it with a noble cupola, a form of church-building not as yet known in England, but of wonderful grace. For this purpose, we offered to bring in a plan and estimate, which after much contest, was at last assented to, and that we should nominate a committee of able workmen to examine the present foundation. This concluded, we drew all up in writing, and so went with my Lord Bishop to the Dean's.

Great Fire of London

From 02 Sep 1666 to 06 Sep 1666 the Great Fire of London destroyed around 13000 properties in the medieval City of London as well as 87 parish churches and St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. The fire is estimated to have left 80% of the city's residents homeless.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Sep 1666. The fire having continued all this night (if I may call that night which was light as day for ten miles round about, after a dreadful manner), when conspiring with a fierce eastern wind in a very dry season, I went on foot to the same place; and saw the whole south part of the city burning from Cheapside [Map] to the Thames, and all along Cornhill [Map] (for it likewise kindled back against the wind as well as forward), Tower street, Fenchurch Street [Map], Gracious street, and so along to Baynard's Castle [Map], and was now taking hold of St. Paul's church [Map], to which the scaffolds contributed exceedingly. The conflagration was so universal, and the people so astonished, that, from the beginning, I know not by what despondency, or fate, they hardly stirred to quench it; so that there was nothing heard, or seen, but crying out and lamentation, running about like distracted creatures, without at all attempting to save even their goods; such a strange consternation there was upon them, so as it burned both in breadth and length, the churches, public halls, Exchange, hospitals. Monuments, and ornaments; leaping after a prodigious manner, from house to house, and street to street, at great distances one from the other. For the heat, with a long set of fair and warm weather, had even ignited the air, and prepared the materials to conceive the fire, which devoured, after an incredible manner, houses, furniture, and every thing. Here, we saw the Thames covered with goods floating, all the barges and boats laden with what some had time and courage to save, as, on the other side, the carts, etc., carrying out to the fields, which for many miles were strewn with movables of all sorts, and tents erecting to shelter both people and what goods they could get away. Oh, the miserable and calamitous spectacle! such as haply the world had not seen since the foundation of it, nor can be outdone till the universal conflagration thereof. All the sky was of a fiery aspect, like the top of a burning oven, and the light seen above forty miles round about for many nights. God grant mine eyes may never behold the like, who now saw above 10,000 houses all in one flame! The noise and cracking and thunder of the impetuous flames, the shrieking of women and children, the hurry of people, the fall of towers, houses, and churches, was like a hideous storm; and the air all about so hot and inflamed, that at the last one was not able to approach it, so that they were forced to stand still, and let the flames burn on, which they did, for near two miles in length and one in breadth. The clouds also of smoke were dismal, and reached, upon computation, near fifty miles in length. Thus, I left it this afternoon burning, a resemblance of Sodom, or the last day. It forcibly called to my mind that passage-"non enim hic habemus stabilem civitatem"; the ruins resembling the picture of Troy. London was, but is no more! Thus, I returned.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. The burning still rages, and it is now gotten as far as the Inner Temple. All Fleet Street [Map], the Old Bailey, Ludgate hill, Warwick lane, Newgate, Paul's chain, Watling street, now flaming, and most of it reduced to ashes; the stones of Paul's [Map] flew like grenados, the melting lead running down the streets in a stream, and the very pavements glowing with fiery redness, so as no horse, nor man, was able to tread on them, and the demolition had stopped all the passages, so that no help could be applied. The eastern wind still more impetuously driving the flames forward. Nothing but the Almighty power of God was able to stop them; for vain was the help of man.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Sep 1666. Now begins the practice of blowing up of houses in Tower-streete [Map], those next the Tower, which at first did frighten people more than anything, but it stopped the fire where it was done, it bringing down the1 houses to the ground in the same places they stood, and then it was easy to quench what little fire was in it, though it kindled nothing almost. W. Newer this day went to see how his mother did, and comes late home, telling us how he hath been forced to remove her to Islington [Map], her house in Pye-corner being burned; so that the fire is got so far that way, and all the Old Bayly, and was running down to Fleete-streete [Map]; and Paul's [Map] is burned, and all Cheapside [Map]. I wrote to my father this night, but the post-house being burned, the letter could not go2. 5th. I lay down in the office again upon W. Hewer's (age 24), quilt, being mighty weary, and sore in my feet with going till I was hardly able to stand. About two in the morning my wife calls me up and tells me of new cRye [Map]s of fire, it being come to Barkeing Church, which is the bottom of our lane. I up, and finding it so, resolved presently to take her away, and did, and took my gold, which was about £2350, W. Newer, and Jane, down by Proundy's boat to Woolwich, Kent [Map]; but, Lord! what sad sight it was by moone-light to see, the whole City almost on fire, that you might see it plain at Woolwich, Kent [Map], as if you were by it. There, when I come, I find the gates shut, but no guard kept at all, which troubled me, because of discourse now begun, that there is plot in it, and that the French had done it. I got the gates open, and to Mr. Shelden's, where I locked up my gold, and charged, my wife and W. Newer never to leave the room without one of them in it, night, or day. So back again, by the way seeing my goods well in the lighters at Deptford, Kent [Map], and watched well by people.

Note 1. A copy of this letter, preserved among the Pepys MSS. in the author's own handwriting, is subjoined: "SIR, The fire is now very neere us as well on Tower Streete as Fanchurch Street side, and we little hope of our escape but by this remedy, to ye want whereof we doe certainly owe ye loss of ye City namely, ye pulling down of houses, in ye way of ye fire. This way Sir W. Pen (age 45) and myself have so far concluded upon ye practising, that he is gone to Woolwich, Kent [Map] and Deptford, Kent [Map] to supply himself with men and necessarys in order to the doeing thereof, in case at his returne our condition be not bettered and that he meets with his R. Hs. approbation, which I had thus undertaken to learn of you. Pray please to let me have this night (at whatever hour it is) what his R. Hs. directions are in this particular; Sir J. Minnes (age 67) and Sir W. Batten (age 65) having left us, we cannot add, though we are well assured of their, as well as all ye neighbourhood's concurrence. "Yr. obedient servnt. "S. P. "Sir W. Coventry (age 38), "Septr. 4, 1666"..

Note 2. J. Hickes wrote to Williamson on September 3rd from the "Golden Lyon", Red Cross Street Posthouse. Sir Philip (Frowde) and his lady fled from the (letter) office at midnight for: safety; stayed himself till 1 am. till his wife and childrens' patience could stay, no longer, fearing lest they should be quite stopped up; the passage was so tedious they had much ado to get where they are. The Chester and Irish, mails have come-in; sends him his letters, knows not how to dispose of the business (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, p. 95).

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. Up by five o'clock; and, blessed be God! find all well, and by water to Paul's Wharfe. Walked thence, and saw, all the towne burned, and a miserable sight of Paul's church [Map]; with all the roofs fallen, and the body of the quire fallen into St. Fayth's [Map]; Paul's school also, Ludgate, and Fleet-street [Map], my father's house, and the church, and a good part of the Temple [Map] the like.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. I went this morning on foot from Whitehall [Map] as far as London Bridge [Map], through the late Fleet Street [Map], Ludgate hill by St. Paul's [Map], Cheapside [Map], Exchange, Bishops-gate [Map], Aldersgate Ward, and out to Moorfields [Map], thence through Cornhill [Map], etc., with extraordinary difficulty, clambering over heaps of yet smoking rubbish, and frequently mistaking where I was; the ground under my feet so hot, that it even burnt the soles of my shoes. In the meantime, his Majesty (age 36) got to the Tower [Map] by water, to demolish the houses about the graff, which, being built entirely about it, had they taken fire and attacked the White Tower [Map], where the magazine of powder lay, would undoubtedly not only have beaten down and destroyed all the bridge, but sunk and torn the vessels in the river, and rendered the demolition beyond all expression for several miles about the country.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1666. At my return, I was infinitely concerned to find that goodly Church, St. Paul's [Map] - now a sad ruin, and that beautiful portico (for structure comparable to any in Europe, as not long before repaired by the late King) now rent in pieces, flakes of large stones split asunder, and nothing remaining entire but the inscription in the architrave showing by whom it was built, which had not one letter of it defaced! It was astonishing to see what immense stones the heat had in a manner calcined, so that all the ornaments, columns, friezes, capitals, and projectures of massy Portland stone, flew off, even to the very roof, where a sheet of lead covering a great space (no less than six acres by measure) was totally melted. The ruins of the vaulted roof falling, broke into St. Faith's [Map], which being filled with the magazines of books belonging to the Stationers, and carried thither for safety, they were all consumed, burning for a week following. It is also observable that the lead over the altar at the east end was untouched, and among the divers. Monuments the body of one bishop remained entire. Thus lay in ashes that most venerable church, one of the most ancient pieces of early piety in the Christian world, besides near one hundred more. The lead, ironwork, bells, plate, etc., melted, the exquisitely wrought Mercers' Chapel, the sumptuous Exchange [Map], the august fabric of Christ Church [Map], all the rest of the Companies' Halls, splendid buildings, arches, entries, all in dust; the fountains dried up and ruined, while the very waters remained boiling; the voragos of subterranean cellars, wells, and dungeons, formerly warehouses, still burning in stench and dark clouds of smoke; so that in five or six miles traversing about I did not see one load of timber unconsumed, nor many stones but what were calcined white as snow.

In 1676 Thomas Gale (age 41) was appointed Prebendary St Paul's Cathedral.

In 1678 Bishop Edward Stillingfleet (age 42) was appointed Dean St Paul's Cathedral.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 May 1681. Came to dine with me Sir William Fermor (age 32), of Northamptonshire, and Sir Christopher Wren (age 57), his Majesty's (age 50) architect and surveyor, now building the Cathedral of St. Paul [Map], and the column [Map] in memory of the city's conflagration, and was in hand with the building of fifty parish churches. A wonderful genius had this incomparable person.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Mar 1684. At Whitehall [Map] preached Mr. Henry Godolphin (age 35), a prebend of St. Paules, and brother to my deare friend Sydnie (age 38), on 55 Isaiah 7. I dined at the Lord Keeper's (age 46), and brought to him Sir John Chardin (age 40), who shewed him his accurate draughts of his travells in Persia.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1694. I went to St. Paul's [Map] to see the choir, now finished as to the stone work, and the scaffold struck both without and within, in that part. Some exceptions might perhaps be taken as to the placing columns on pilasters at the east tribunal. As to the rest it is a piece of architecture without reproach. The pulling out the forms, like drawers, from under the stalls, is ingenious. I went also to see the building beginning near St. Giles's [Map], where seven streets make a star from a Doric pillar placed in the middle of a circular area; said to be built by Mr. Neale, introducer of the late lotteries, in imitation of those at Venice, now set up here, for himself twice, and now one for the State.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Feb 1696. An extraordinary wet season, though temperate as to cold. The "Royal Sovereign" man-of-war burned at Chatham, Kent [Map]. It was built in 1637, and having given occasion to the levy of ship money was perhaps the cause of all the after troubles to this day. An earthquake in Dorsetshire by Portland, or rather a sinking of the ground suddenly for a large space, near the quarries of stone, hindering the conveyance of that material for the finishing St. Paul's [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Dec 1697. Was the first Sunday that St. Paul's [Map] had had service performed in it since it was burned in 1666.

On 21 Jul 1702 Charles Eversfield (age 18) and Mary Duncombe were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Nov 1702. Our affairs in so prosperous a condition both by sea and land, that there has not been so great an union in Parliament, Court, and people, in memory of man, which God in mercy make us thankful for, and continue! The Bishop of Exeter (age 52) preached before the Queen (age 37) and both Houses of Parliament at St. Paul's [Map]; they were wonderfully huzzaed in their passage, and splendidly entertained in the city.

On 14 Jul 1707 Henry Godolphin (age 58) was appointed Dean St Paul's Cathedral.

On 13 Aug 1719 Thomas Trollope 4th Baronet (age 27) and Diana Middleton (age 27) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

In 1720 William Wentworth 4th Baronet (age 30) and Diana Blackett Lady Wentworth (age 17) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Lady Wentworth of West Bretton.

On 31 Jan 1724 Jacob Bouverie 1st Viscount Folkestone (age 29) and Mary Clarke were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 02 May 1732 Robert Petre 8th Baron Petre (age 18) and Mary Radclyffe (age 18) were married in St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater and Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater. They were third cousin once removed. She a great granddaughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 29 May 1745 Robert Lee 4th Earl Lichfield (age 38) and Catherine Lee Countess of Lichfield (age 37) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. He the son of Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield and Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield. He a grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

Around 1750. Canaletto (age 52). The City from near the Terrace of Somerset House [Map] with St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Around 1754. Canaletto (age 56). St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 02 Aug 1788 Joshua Reynolds (age 65) died at his home In Leicester Fields. He was buried in St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. He bequesthed his niece Mary Palmer Marchioness Thomond (age 38) £100,000 in his will.

On 09 Jan 1806 Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

Admiral Peter Parker 1st Baronet (age 85) was Chief Mourner at his funeral.

Funeral of Horatio Nelson

On 09 Jan 1806 the funeral of Horatio Nelson 1st Viscount Nelson was held at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 18 Apr 1850 William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 18 Nov 1852 Arthur Wellesley 1st Duke Wellington was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

In 1871 Bishop Joseph Barber Lightfoot (age 42) became a Canon at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 24 Jun 1878 Archbishop William Dalrymple Maclagan (age 52) was consecrated Bishop of Lichfield by Archbishop Campbell Tait at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 29 Sep 1891 Bishop John Gott (age 60) was consecrated Bishop of Truro at St Paul's Cathedral [Map] by Archibishop Edward White Benson (age 62).

On 24 Jun 1896 William Charles de Meuron "Billy" Wentworth-Fitzwilliam 7th and 5th Earl Fitzwilliam (age 23) and Maud Frederica Elizabeth Dundas Countess Fitzwilliam (age 18) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. She the daughter of Lawrence Dundas 1st Marquess Zetland (age 51) and Lilian Selina Elizabeth Lumley Marchioness Zetland (age 44). They were third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland.

On 07 Sep 1910 William Holman Hunt (age 83) died. He was buried at St Paul's Cathedral [Map].

On 29 Jul 1981 Prince Charles (age 32) and Diana Spencer Princess Wales (age 20) were married at St Paul's Cathedral [Map]. She by marriage Princess of Wales. She the daughter of John Spencer 8th Earl Spencer (age 57) and Frances Ruth Roche Countess Spencer (age 45). He the son of Philip Mountbatten Duke Edinburgh (age 60) and Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom (age 55).

Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Castle Baynard, Gregory's Churchyard St Paul's Cathedral

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jun 1698. Dr. White, late Bishop of Norwich, who had been ejected for not complying with Government, was buried in St. Gregory's Churchyard, or vault, at St. Paul's. His hearse was accompanied by two non-juror bishops, Dr. Turner of Ely, and Dr. Lloyd, with forty other non-juror clergymen, who would not stay the Office of the burial, because the Dean of St. Paul's had appointed a conforming minister to read the Office; at which all much wondered, there being nothing in that Office which mentioned the present King.

Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Castle Baynard, Jesus Chapel St Paul's Cathedral

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 26 Feb 1552. Item the xxvj. day of the same monyth, the which was fryday, was hanged at Towre hylle sir Myllys Partryge knyght, the wych playd wyth kynge Henry the viiite at dysse for the grett belfery that stode in Powlles church-yerdea; and sir Raffe Vane, theys too ware hanged. Also sir Myhyll Stonnappe (age 45) and sir Thomas Arndelle (age 50), theys too ware beheddyd at that same tyme. And theis iiij. knyghttes confessyd that they ware never gyltd for soche thynges as was layd unto their charge, and dyde in that same oppinion.

The daye before endyd the parlament.

Note a. "Neere unto this schoole (St. Paul's) on the north side thereof, was (of old time) a great and high Clochier or Bell-house, foure-square, builded of stone, and in the same a most strong frame of timber, with foure bells, the greatest that I have heard; these were called Jesus' bells, and belonged to Jesus' Chappell, but I know not by whose gifte. The same had a great spire of timber covered with lead, with the image of Saint Paul on the top, but was pulled down by sir Miles Partridge knight, in the reigne of Henry the Eighth. The common speech was, that hee did set one hundred pounds upon a cast at dice against it, and so wonne the said clochier and bells of the king, and then causing the bells to be broken as they hung, the rest was pulled downe." Stowe's Survay.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Nov 1558. The xxij day of November was bered in Jhesus chapell master Robertt Jonsun gentyllman, and (blank) to the byshope (of) Lundon, Boner (age 58); with ij whyt branchys and xiiij grett stayff-torchys, and iiij grett tapurs, and ii dosen and d' [a half] of skochyons of armes; and mony morners in blake, and all the masters of Jhesus with ther blake saten hodes, and a xxx morners; and the morow masse and a sermon, and after a grett dener, and a dolle of money.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Jan 1560. The iij day of January was cared from Knyghtryder-stret unto Jhesus chapell under Powlles with prestes and clarkes syngyng my good lade Shandos wedow, with ij harolds of armes, with v baners of armes of her hosbandes and hers and of her petegre, and iiij dosen skochyons, and the chyrche wher hangyd with blake and armes; and a sermon; and after to her plasse to dener.

Note. P. 221. Funeral of lady Chandos widow. Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund lord Grey of Wilton, married to John Brydges first lord Chandos: died 29 Dec. 1559. See her poetical epitaph in Jesus chapel, afterwards St. Faith's, printed by Stowe. Her will was proved on the 5th Jan.