Biography of Queen Anne Boleyn of England 1501-1536

Paternal Family Tree: Boleyn

Maternal Family Tree: Emma de Dinan 1136-1208

Relatives Family Tree: Queen Anne Boleyn of England 1501-1536

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1529 Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

1531 Anne Boleyn Attacked by a Mob

1532 Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1532 Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

1532 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1533 Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1533 Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

1535 Visit of Chabot the French Admiral

1535 Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

1536 Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

1536 Henry VIII Tournament Accident

1536 Arrest of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

1536 Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

1536 Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

On 28 Jun 1491 [her future husband] Henry VIII was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall.

In 1494 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 2) was created 1st Duke York.

In 1498 [her father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 21) and [her mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 18) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 55) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey. They were fourth cousins.

Around 1501 Queen Anne Boleyn of England was born to Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 24) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 21) at either Blickling Hall, Norfolk [Map] or Hever Castle, Kent [Map]. The year of her birth somewhat uncertain - see Life of Cardinal Wolsey.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 12) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 24) was created Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson (age 54) was knighted.

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace [Map]. His son [her future husband] Henry VIII  (age 17) succeeded VIII King England. Duke York and Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 11 Jun 1509, one month after the death of his father, [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 17) and Catherine of Aragon (age 23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map]. She had, eight years before, married his older brother Prince Arthur Tudor - see Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 57) and Isabella Queen Castile. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. To tell you how the king's love began to take place, and what followed thereof, I will even as much as in me lieth, declare [unto] you. This, gentlewoman, Mistress Anne Boleyn (age 13), being very young6 was sent into the realm of France, and there made one of the French7 queen's women, continuing there until the French queen died. And then was she sent for home again; and being again with her father, he made such means that she was admitted to be one of Queen Katharine's maids, among whom, for her excellent gesture and behaviour, [she] did excel all other; in so much, as the king began to kindle the brand of amours; which was not known to any person, ne scantly to her own person.

Note 6. "Not above seven yeares of age, Anno 1514." as appears from a fragment of this life with notes by Sir Roger Twysden, of which a few copies were printed in 1808, by Mr. Triphook, from whence also the following note is copied.

Note 7. "It should seeme by some that she served three in France successively; Mary of England maryed to Lewis the twelfth, an. 1514, with whome she went out of England, but Lewis dying the first of January following, and that Queene (being) to returne home, sooner than either Sir Thomas Bullen or some other of her frendes liked she should, she was preferred to Clauda, daughter to Lewis XII. and wife to Francis I. then Queene (it is likely upon the commendation of Mary the Dowager), who not long after dying, an. 1524, not yet weary of France she went to live with Marguerite, Dutchess of Alençon and Berry, a Lady much commended for her favor towards good letters, but never enough for the Protestant religion then in the infancy from her, if I am not deceived, she first learnt the grounds of the Protestant religion; so that England may seem to owe some part of her happyness derived from that Lady."

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter XXXIX. 12 Oct 1514. [her future sister-in-law] Mary Queen of France (age 18) to King Henry the Eighth (age 23).

[MS. COTTON. CALIG. D. vi. fol. 253. Orig.]

MY good Brother (age 23) as hertly as I can I recomaund me unto your Grace, mervelynge moch that I never herd from you syns ... re depertynge, so often as I have sent and wrytten to you. And now am I left post a lone in effect; for on the morn next after . . e maryage my chambirlayn with all other men servants wer dischargd and in lyke wyse my mother Guldeford (age 51) with other my women and maydyns, except such as never had experiens nor knowlech how to advertyse or gyfe me counsell yn any tyme of nede, which is to be fered more schortly then your Grace thought at the tyme of my depertynge, as my mother Guldeford (age 51) can more playnly schew your Grace then I cann wryt; to whom I beseche you to gyve credens. And yf hit may be by eny meane possible, I humbly requyr you to cause my seyd mother Guldeford (age 51) to repayr hither once agayn. For ells if any chauns happe other then weale I schall not knowe wher nor of whom to aske any good counsell to your pleasur, nor yet to myn own proffit. I merveill moche that my Lord of Northfolke (age 41) wold at all tymes so lyghtly graunt every thynge at ther reqwests here. I am weale assured that when ze know the trouth of every thyng as my mother Guideford can schew you, ze wold full lyttyll have thowght I schold have ben thus intreated: that wold God my Lord of Zorke (age 41) had com with me yn the rome of Northfolke (age 41): for then am I sure I schuld have bene left moch more at my herti .... then I am now.

And thus I byd your Grace fare weale with .... as ever had Prince; and more herds ease then I have now ... a Abvile [Map] the xijth . day of October.

.... gef gredens to my mowder Geldeford.

Note B. your lowyng syster MARY QUENE OF FRANCE.

Note a. From.

Henry the Eighth and his Court accompanied the young Queen to Dover, whence on the second of October she sailed to Boulogne. She reached Abbeville on the 8th and was married on the 9th of that month. The original List of the persons who went in her retinue, signed by Louis himself, is still preserved among the Cottonian Manuscriptsb; though strange as it may seem, almost the whole were dismissed the morning after her marriage. "The Tewesdaye, being the x. daye of October," says Hall, "all th'Englishmen except a fewe that were officers with the sayde Quene, were discharged; whiche was a great sorowe for theim, for some had served her long in hope of prefermente, and some, that had honest romes, lefte them to serve her; and now they were with out service; which caused them to take thought, in so much that some dyed by the way returning, and some fell mad; but ther was no remedy." The Queen's own account of this Transaction will be found in this, and the following Letter. Mother Guldeford (age 51) who is so particularly mentioned in these Letters, was apparently the Governess, or, as she was sometimes called, the Mother to the Maids of Honor.

Note b. It was as follows:

"Premierement

Mons. le Conte de Nrushere.

Maistre docteur Denton aumosmer.

Messe. Richard Blounte escuyer de scuierie.

Enffans d'onneur: Le filz de Mons. Roos, Le filz de Mons. Cobham, Le filz de Messe. Seymor,

Evrard frere du Marquis.

Arthus Polle (age 12), frere de Monsr. de Montagu.

Le Poulayn.

Francoye Buddis, huissier de Chambre.

Maistre Guille, Medicin.

Henry Calays varler des robes.

Robert Wast.

Madamoyselle Grey, seur du Marquis. [Note. Possibly Elizabeth Grey Countess Kildare (age 17)]

Madamoyselle Marie finis fille de Monsr. Dacres. [Note. Possibly Mary Dacre (age 12)]

Madamoyselle Elizabet seur de Monsr. Grey.

Madamoyselle BOLEYNE. [Note. Unclear as to whether this is Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 13) or [her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 15)]

Maistres Anne Jenyngham (age 10). femme de Chambre.

Johanue Daruossc, chamberiere."

The Martyrdom of the King of Scotland. Anne Boullen (age 14) n'avant encore atteint l‘aage de quinze ans, sçauoit fort bien chanter et jouer instrumens, et estoit d’ailleurs richement douee de plusieurs dons de nature, si elle eust eu l'esprit a les employer comme il appartenoit. Mais en ceste jeunesse s'estant mal gouvernee et laissee deflorer par le sommelier et par le chaplain de son pere putatif, à fin de celer ceste vergoigne elle fut envoyee en France, et y vesquit quelque temps chez un gentil-homme du pays de Brie, amy de cedit pere putatif jufques à ce qu’elle fut menee en Cour. Où estant el le sceut si dextrement conduire ses amours, et prattiquer le Roy tres chrestien François premier de ce nom, qu'elle s'insinua si avant en ses bonnes graces, qu'en fin elle eut sa compagnie si fouvent et si apertement, qu'on l'appelloit la mule du Roy, et depuis s’estant prostituee indifferemment à tous ceux de la Cour qui en vouloient, luy fut impose le nom de hacquenee d'Angleterre.

Anne Boullen (age 14), who had not yet reached the age of fifteen, knew how to sing and play instruments very well, and was also richly endowed with several natural gifts, if she had had the mind to use them as they were appropriate. But in this youth having misgoverned herself and allowed herself to be deflowered by the sommelier and by the chaplain of her putative father, in order to conceal this shame she was sent to France, and lived there for some time with a gentleman from the country of Brie, friend of this putative father until she was taken to court. Where being she knew how to conduct her loves so dexterously, and practice the very Christian King Francis the First of that name, that she insinuated herself so far into his good graces, that in the end she had his company so often and so keenly, that she was called the King's mule, and since then having prostituted herself indifferently to all those at Court who wanted her, the name of English Hackney was given to her.

The Life and Times of Cardinal Wolsey Volume 2. 16 Apr 1515. On the 16th of April after they had taken a suitable leave of the French Court, they departed from Paris attended by all the English in their Retinue (except Anna Bulleyn (age 14), who remained in France); on the 2d of May they landed in England and soon arriyed at Court when they had made proper Submission to the King, they were received into Favour, and, on the 13th of the same Month, they were publickly married at Greenwich in the Presence of his Majesty, the Archbishops and Bishops, and a great Concourse of the Nobility and Gentry, and then received the Compliments and Congratulations upon the happy Union. The Account the learned Bishop Burnet gives us of the Duke1 is, "That he never meddled much in Business and, by all that appears, he was a better Courtier than Statesman."

Note 1. The Duke had issue by the VIII's youngest sister two Queen Mary of France sons, Henry and Charles, who died, in the year 1551, of the Sweating Sickness, at Cambridge, within twelve Hours of each other; and two Daughters, the Ladies Frances and Eleanor. (See Dugd. Bar. Vol. II. p. 300.) The eldest, Frances, married Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset, afterwards created Duke of Suffolk. It is said, the principal Noblemen and Ladies that sprung from the Lady Frances, Viscountess of Weymouth, who had the Honour to be descended from this illustrious Branch of the said Queen and Duke's Family, are the present Right Honourable Thomas, Earl of Ailesbury, arid his Aunt, the Countess of Cardigan ; the late Earl of Winchelsea's Sister, and the Earl himselff, whose Successor is the present Right Honourable Daniel, Earl of Winchelsea and Nottingham, first Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, &c. whose Sister, the Lady Betty Finch, married the eminent Lawyer, and excellent Orator, the Honourable William Murray, Esq; his Majesty's Sollcitor General. Eleanor, the youngest Daughter, of the said Queen and Duke, married Henry, Lord Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, which title is extinct : But the illustrious Name of Clifford will never die, in regard the Blood of that noble House now runs in the Veins of the present Right Honourable Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington, &c. who will ever be renowned for his popular Spirit, in encouraging all Liberal Arts and Sciences, particularly Architecture, in which he is allowed to have a most sublime Taste ; and it may be truly said of this Nobleman, that he has been blest with Riches, and a Soul to enjoy it. The Right Honourable Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery, is of this noble Family; as was also the late Lord Shannon. In short, they have, for several Generations, shone as well in the Senatorial as Marital Capacity.

1522 Chateau Vert Pageant

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 04 Mar 1522. On Shrove Tuesday at night, the said Cardinal to the King and Ambassadors made another supper, and after supper they came into a great chamber hanged with Arras, and there was a clothe of estate, and many branches, and on every branch thirty-two torchettes of wax, and in the nether end of the same chamber was a castle, in which was a principal Tower, in which was a cresset burning: and two other less Towers stood on every side, warded and embattailed, and on every Tower was a banner, one banner was of three rent hearts, the other was a ladies hand gripping a man’s heart, the third banner was a ladies hand turning a man’s heart: this castle was kept with ladies of strange names, the first [her future sister-in-law] Beautie (age 32), the second Honor (age 19), the third Perseveraunce (age 21), the fourth [her sister] Kyndnes (age 23), the fifth Constance (age 17), the sixte Bounty, the seventh Mercy, and the eight Pity: these eight ladies had Milan gowns of white satin, every Lady had her name embroidered with gold, on their heads cauls, and Milan bonnets of gold, with jewels. Underneath the base fortress of the castle were other eight ladies, whose names were, Danger, Disdain, Jealousy, Unkindness, Scorn, Malebouche, Strangeness, these ladies were tired [attired] like to women of India. Then entered eight lords in clothe of gold caps and all, and great mantel cloaks of blue satin, these lords were named. Amorous, Nobleness, Youth, Attendance, Loyalty, Pleasure, Gentleness, and Liberty, the [her future husband] King (age 30) was chief of this company, this company was led by one all in crimson satin with burning flames of gold, called Ardent Desire which so moved the Ladies to give over the Castle, but Scorne and Disdain said they would hold the place, then Desire said the ladies should be won and came and encouraged the knights, then the lords ran to the castle, (at which time without was shot a great peal of guns) and the ladies defended the castle with rose water and comfits and the lords threw in dates and oranges, and other fruits made for pleasure but at the last the place was won, but Lady Scorn and her company stubbornly defended them with bows and balls, till they were driven out of the place and fled. Then the lords took the ladies of honour as prisoners by the hands, and brought them down, and danced together very pleasantly, which much pleased the strangers, and when they had danced their fill then all these dis-visored themselves and were known: and then was there a costly banquet, and when all was done, the strangers took their leave of the King and the Cardinal and so departed into Flanders, giving to the King much commendation.

On 04 Mar 1522, Shrove Tuesday, at Cardinal Wolsey's York Place, a pageant known as Chateau Vert was performed. Believed to be the first public appearance of Anne Bolyen (age 21) since her return from the French Court, and the first time [her future husband] King Henry VIII (age 30) had seen her since her childhood. The pageant was part of the Shrovetide celebrations which began on 1st March 1522 and which also celebrated the negotiations between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and King Henry VIII (age 30) for a joint attack on France, which were to be sealed by the marriage of Charles V (age 22) and [her future step-daughter] Princess Mary (age 6), Henry's daughter.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. In so much [as] my Lord Percy (age 21), the son and heir of the Earl of Northumberland (age 44), then attended upon the Lord Cardinal, and was also his servitor; and when it chanced the Lord Cardinal at any time to repair to the court, the Lord Percy (age 21) would then resort for his pastime unto the queen's chamber, and there would fall in dalliance among the queen's maidens, being at the last more conversant with Mistress Anne Boleyn (age 22) than with any other; so that there grew such a secret love between them that, at length, they were insured together8, intending to marry. The which thing came to the king's knowledge, who was then much offended. Wherefore he could hide no longer his secret affection, but revealed his secret intendment unto my Lord Cardinal in that behalf; and consulted with him to infringe the precontract between them: insomuch, that after my Lord Cardinal was departed from the court, and returned home to his place at Westminster, not forgetting the king's request and counsel, being in his gallery, called there before him the said Lord Percy unto his presence, and before us his servants of his chamber, saying thus unto him." I marvel not a little," quoth he, "of thy peevish folly, that thou wouldest tangle and ensure thyself with a foolish girl yonder in the court, I mean Anne Boleyn (age 22). Dost thou not consider the estate that God hath called thee unto in this world? For after the death of thy noble father, thou art most like to inherit and possess one of the most worthiest earldoms of this realm. Therefore it had been most meet, and convenient for thee, to have sued for the consent of thy father in that behalf, and to have also made the king's highness privy thereto; requiring therein his princely favour, submitting all thy whole proceeding in all such matters unto his highness, who would not only accept thankfully your sub mission, but would, I assure thee, provide so for your purpose therein, that he would advance you much more nobly, and have matched you according to your estate and honour, whereby ye might have grown so by your wisdom and honourable behaviour into the king's high estimation, that it should have been much to your increase of honour. But now behold what ye have done through your wilfulness. Ye have not only offended your natural father, but also your most gracious sovereign lord, and matched yourself with one, such as neither the king, ne yet your father will be agreeable with the matter. And hereof I put you out of doubt, that I will send for your father, and at his coming, he shall either break this unadvised contract, or else disinherit thee for ever. The king's majesty himself will complain to thy father on thee, and require no less at his hand than I have said; whose highness intended to have preferred [Anne Boleyn (age 22)] unto another person, with whom the king hath travelled already, and being almost at a point with the same person, although she knoweth it not, yet hath the king, most like a politic and prudent prince, conveyed the matter in such sort, that she, upon the king's motion, will be (I doubt not) right glad and agreeable to the same." "Sir," (quoth the Lord Percy, all weeping), "I knew nothing of the king's pleasure therein, for whose displeasure I am very sorry. I considered that I was of good years, and thought myself sufficient to provide me of a convenient wife, whereas my fancy served me best, not doubting but that my lord my father would have been right well persuaded. And though she be a simple maid, and having but a knight to her father, yet is she descended of right noble parentage. As by her mother she is nigh of the Norfolk blood: and of her father's side lineally descended of the Earl of Ormond, he being one of the earl's heirs general9. Why should I then, sir, be any thing scrupulous to match with her, whose estate of descent is equivalent with mine when I shall be in most dignity? Therefore I most humbly require your grace of your especial favour herein; and also to entreat the king's most royal majesty most lowly on my behalf for his princely benevolence in this matter, the which I cannot deny or for sake." "Lo, sirs," quoth the cardinal, "ye may see what conformity and wisdom is in this wilful boy's head. I thought that when thou heardest me declare the king's intended pleasure and travail herein, thou wouldest have relented and wholly submitted thyself, and all thy wilful and unadvised fact, to the king's royal will and prudent pleasure, to be fully disposed and ordered by his grace's disposition, as his highness should seem good." "Sir, so I would," quoth the Lord Percy, "but in this matter I have gone so far, before many so worthy witnesses, that I know not how to avoid my self nor to discharge my conscience." Why, thinkest thou, "quoth the cardinal," that the king and I know not what we have to do in as weighty a matter as this? Yes (quoth he), I warrant thee. Howbeit I can see in thee no submission to the purpose." "For sooth, my Lord," quoth the Lord Percy, "if it please your grace, I will submit myself wholly unto the king's majesty and [your] grace in this matter, my conscience being discharged of the weighty burthen of my precontract." "Well then," quoth the cardinal, "I will send for your father out of the north parts, and he and we shall take such order for the avoiding of this thy hasty folly as shall be by the king thought most expedient. And in the mean season I charge thee, and in the king's name command thee, that thou presume not once to resort into her company, as thou intendest to avoid the king's high indignation." And this said he rose up and went into his chamber.

Note 8. This expression, unless the author himself were misinformed, must not be extended to imply an absolute precontract. Lord Herbert, in his Life of Henry VIII. p. 448, has published an original letter from this nobleman, then Earl of Northumberland, written in the year 1536, a short time before Q. Anne's suffering, in which he denies any such contract, in the most solemn terms. This letter will be found in the Appendix. W.

I have placed this letter in the Appendix (Letter VII) for the convenience of the reader.

Note 9. Geffrey Bollen, a gentlemen of Norfolk, Mayor of London 1457, marryed one [Ann Hoo] of the daughters and heyres of Thomas Lord Hoo and Hastings, by whome he had William Bolleyn (knight of the Bath at Richard 3ds coronation) who marryed the Earl of Ormond's [her grandmother] daughter (age 69) (he though of Ireland, sate in the English parliament above English Barons), by her he had Thomas Bollen (age 46), whome the Erle of Surrey after Duke of Norfolk (age 80) chose for his son-in-law; of which marriage this Anne was born, 1507.

Note from Sir R. Twysden's MS. Frag.

In 1523 Henry Percy 6th Earl of Northumberland (age 21) and Anne Boleyn (age 22) were secretly betrothed. The bethrothal broken off when his father Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 44) refused to support their engagement.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. After that all these troublesome matters of my Lord Percy's were brought to a good stay, and all things finished that were before devised, Mistress Anne Boleyn (age 23) was revoked unto the court3, where she flourished after in great estimation and favour; having always a privy indignation unto the cardinal, for breaking off the precontract made between my Lord Percy and her, supposing that it had been his own device and will, and none other, not yet being privy to the king's secret mind, although that he had a great affection unto her. Howbeit, after she knew the king's pleasure, and the great love that he bare her in the bottom of his stomach, then she began to look very hault and stout, having all manner of jewels, or rich apparel, that might be gotten with money. It was therefore judged by-and-bye through all the court of every man, that she being in such favour, might work masteries with the king, and obtain any suit of him for her friend.

Note 3. The charms of Anne had also attracted Sir Thomas Wyatt (age 21), and some of his poems evidently allude to his passion; he was afterwards closely questioned as to the nature of his intimacy with her. A very curious narrative of some particulars relating to this attachment, from the pen of a descendant of the poet, has fortunately been preserved among the MS. collections of Lewis the antiquary. A few copies of this memoir were printed in 1817, but as it has still almost the rarity of a manuscript, I shall enrich my Appendix by reprinting it as a most curious and valuable document relating to this eventful period of our history.

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 [her illegitimate step-son] Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father [her future husband] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

[her father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. [her mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

[her uncle] Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

The History of the Reformation Volume 1 Book II. These were the grounds upon which the canonists advised the process at Rome to be carried on. But first, to amuse or overreach the Spaniard, the king [?] to his ambassador in Spain to silence the noise that was made about it in that court. Whether the king had then resolved on the person that should succeed the queen, when he had obtained 1527 what he desired or not, is much questioned. Some suggest, that from the beginning he was taken with the charms of Anne Boleyn (age 26), and that all this process was moved by the unseen spring of that secret affection. Others will have this amour to have been later in the king's thoughts. How early it came there, at this distance it is not easy to determine. But before I say more of it, she being so considerable a person in the following relation, I shall give some account of her. Sanders has assured the world, "That the king had a liking to her [her mother] mother (age 47), who was daughter to the duke of Norfolk; and to the end that he might enjoy her with the less disturbance, he sent her husband, sir Thomas Boleyn, to be ambassador in France: and that, after two years absence, his wife being with child, he came over, and sued a divorce against her in the archbishop of Canterbury's court; but the king sent the marquis of Dorset to let him know, that she was with child by him, and that therefore the king desired he would pass the matter over, and be reconciled he would pass the matter over, and be reconciled. Boleyn, though she went under the name of his daughter, yet was of the king's begetting. As he describes her, "she was ill-shaped and ugly, had six fingers, a gag tooth, and a tumour under her chin, with many other unseemly things in her person." "At the fifteenth year of her age," he says, "both her father's butler and chaplain lay with her: afterwards she was sent to France, where she was at first kept privately in the house of a person of quality; then she went to the French court, where she led such a dissolute life, that she was called the English Hackney. That the French king liked her, and, from the freedoms he took with her, she was called the King's Mule. But returning to England, she was admitted to the court, where she quickly perceived how weary the king was of the queen, and what the cardinal was designing; and having gained the king's affection, she governed it so, that by all innocent freedoms she drew him into her toils, and by the appearances of a severe virtue, with which she disguised herself, so increased his affection and esteem, that he resolved to put her in his queen's place, as soon as the divorce was granted." The same author adds That the king had likewise enjoyed her sister, with a great deal more, to the disgrace of this lady and her family.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1527. Love Letters VIII. 3219. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36) to Anne Boleyn (age 26).

Though it is not for a gentleman to take his lady in the place of a servant, nevertheless, according to your desire, I shall willingly grant it if thereby I may find you less ungrateful in the place chosen by yourself than you have been in the place given you by me; thanking you most heartily that you are pleased still to have some remembrance of me.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1527. Love Letters IV. 3218. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36) to Anne Boleyn (age 26).

I have been in great agony about the contents of your letters, not knowing whether to construe them to my disadvantage "comme en des aucunes autres," or to my advantage. I beg to know expressly your intention touching the love between us. Necessity compels me to obtain this answer, having been more than a year wounded by the dart of love, and not yet sure whether I shall fail or find a place in your affection. This has prevented me naming you my mistress; for if you love me with no more than ordinary love, the name is not appropriate to you, for it denotes a singularity far from the common. But if it please you to do the office of a true, loyal mistress, and give yourself, body and heart, to me, who have been and mean to be your loyal servant, I promise you not only the name, but that I shall make you my sole mistress, remove all others from my affection, and serve you only. Give me a full answer on which I can rely; and if you do not like to answer by letter, appoint some place where I can have it by word of mouth.

Letters and Papers 1527. Aug 1527. Love Letters V. 3325. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36). to Anne Boleyn (age 26).

For a present so beautiful that nothing could be more so I thank you most heartily, not only for the splendid diamond and the ship in which the solitary damsel is tossed about, but also for the pretty interpretation and too humble submission made by your benignity. I should have found it difficult to merit this but for your humanity and favor, which I have sought and will seek to preserve by every kindness possible to me; and this is my firm intention and hope, according to the motto, Aut illic aut nullibi. Your letter, and the demonstrations of your affection, are so cordial that they bind me to honor, love and serve you. I desire also, if at any time I have offended you, that you will give me the same absolution that you ask, assuring you that henceforth my heart shall be devoted to you only. I wish my body also could be. God can do it if he pleases, to whom I pray once a day that it may be, and hope at length to be heard. "Escripte de la main du secretaire qui en ceur, corps et volonte est vostre loiall et plus assure serviteure.

Letters and Papers 1527. Aug 1527. Love Letters II. 3326. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36). to Anne Boleyn (age 26).

The time seems so long since I heard of your good health and of you, that I send the bearer to be better ascertained of your health and your purpose; for since my last parting from you I have been told you have quite given up the intention of coming to court, either with your mother or otherwise. If so, I cannot wonder sufficiently; for I have committed no offence against you, and it is very little return for the great love I bear you to deny me the presence of the woman I esteem most of all the world. If you love me as I hope you do, our separation should be painful to you. I trust your absence is not wilful on your part; for if so, I can but lament my ill fortune, and by degrees abate my great folly.

Letters and Papers 1528. Feb 1528. Love Letters XIV. 3990. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36). to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The bearer and his fellow are dispatched with as many things to compass our matter and bring it to pass as wit could imagine; which being accomplished by their diligence, I trust you and I will shortly have our desired end. This would be more to my heart's ease and quietness of my mind than anything in the world. I assure you no time shall be lost, for ultra posse non est esse. "Keep him not too long with you, but desire him, for your sake, to make the more speed; for the sooner we shall have word from him, the sooner shall our matter come to pass. And thus, upon trust of your short repair to London, I make an end of my letter, mine own sweetheart. Written with the hand of him which desireth as much to be yours as you do to have him."

Calendars. Feb. 10. [1528] Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvii. p. 5. 236. Advices from France, transmitted to the Signory by Coresara.

It is understood that the Emperor has separated the ambassadors one from the other, in several places near Burgos. On hearing this news, the most Christian King immediately sent Mons. de Lavigni to arrest the Emperor's ambassador in Paris, who was taken to the Chateau of the Louvre; and his Majesty caused notice of this to be given to the English King, urging him to resent what the Emperor had done. Subsequently he sent orders throughout France, for all the men-at-arms to go to their garrisons, that they may be ready to march in such direction as requisite.

The English King intends to repudiate the Queen his consort, saying that the dispensation given by the Pope, on account of her first having had for husband his Majesty's brother, is defective and invalid, and also because the Queen is of such an age that he can no longer hope for offspring from her; so that for the maintenance and welfare of his realm, he purposes marrying Sir Thomas Boleyn's (age 51) daughter (age 27), who is very beautiful. It is reported that the Pope is willing to give his consent; so the enmity between the King of England and the Emperor will not only continue but increase.

Paris, 10th February. Registered by Sanuto, 2nd March.

[Italian.]

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 11 Jun 1528. Vit. B. XII. 4. B. M. Burnet, I. 103. 4360. Anne Boleyn (age 27) to Wolsey (age 55).

My Lord, in my most humble wise I desire you to pardon me that I am so bold to trouble you with my simple and rude writing, proceeding from one who is much desirous to know that your Grace does well, as I perceive by this bearer. The great pains you take for me, both day and night, are never likely to be recompensed, "but alonely in loving you, next unto the King's grace, above all creatures living," as my deeds shall manifest. I long to hear from you news of the Legate, and hope they will be very good.

Added by the King:-The writer of this would not cease till she had called me likewise to set to my hand. Both of us desire to see you, and are glad to hear you have escaped the plague so well, trusting the fury of it is abated, especially with those that keep good diet, as I trust you do. The not hearing of the Legate's arrival in France causeth us somewhat to muse; but we trust by your diligence shortly to be eased of that trouble.

Letters and Papers 1528. 16 Jun 1528. Love Letters XII. 4383. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

There came to me in the night the most afflicting news possible. I have to grieve for three causes: first, to hear of my mistress's (age 27) sickness, whose health I desire as my own, and would willingly bear the half of yours to cure you; secondly, because I fear to suffer yet longer that absence which has already given me so much pain, God deliver me from such an importunate rebel!; thirdly, because the physician I trust most is at present absent when he could do me the greatest pleasure. However, in his absence, I send you the second, praying God he may soon make you well, and I shall love him the better. I beseech you to be governed by his advice, and then I hope to see you soon again!

Letters and Papers 1528. 18 Jun 1528. 4391. On Tuesday one of the ladies of the chamber, Mademoiselle de Boulan (age 27), was infected with the sweat. The King, in great haste, dislodged, and went 12 miles hence, and I hear the lady (age 27) was sent to her [her father] brother (age 51) [Note. A mistake for father] the Viscount in Kent ("Cainet"). As yet the love has not abated. I know not if absence, and the difficulties of Rome, may effect anything. This sweat, which has made its appearance within these four days, is a most perilous disease. One has a little pain in the head and heart; suddenly a sweat begins; and a physician is useless, for whether you wrap yourself up much or little, in four hours, sometimes in two or three, you are despatched without languishing, as in those troublesome fevers. However, only about 2,000 have caught it in London. Yesterday, going to swear the truce, we saw them as thick as flies, rushing from the streets and shops into their houses to take the sweat whenever they felt ill. I found the ambassador of Milan leaving his lodging in great haste because two or three had been suddenly attacked. If all the ambassadors are to have their share of it, you will not have gained your cause; for you will not be able to brag you made me die of hunger, and the King will only have gained nine months of my service for nothing. In London, I assure you the priests have a better time of it than the doctors, except that the latter do not help to bury. If the thing goes on, corn will soon be cheap. It is 12 years since there was such a visitation, when there died 10,000 persons in 10 or 12 days, but it was not so bad as this has begun.The Legate had come for the term, but immediately bridled his horses again, and there will be no term appointed. Every one is terribly amazed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36). to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham [Map], two ushers, two valets de chambre, your [her brother] brother (age 25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, Hertfordshire [Map], where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:-few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. Love Letters IX. 4410. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 36) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The cause of my writing at this time, good sweetheart, is only to understand of your good health and prosperity, whereof to know I would be as glad as in manner mine own; praying God that (and it be His pleasure) to send us shortly together, for I promise you I long for it, howbeit trust it shall not be long to; and seeing my darling is absent, I can no less do than to send her some flesh representing my name, which is hart's flesh for Henry, prognosticating that hereafter, God willing, you must enjoy some of mine, which, He pleased, I would were now. As touching your [her sister] sister's (age 29) matter, I have caused Water Welze to write to my Lord my mind therein, whereby I trust that Eve shall not have power to deceive Adam; for surely, whatsoever is said, it cannot so stand with his honor but that [her father] he2 must needs take her his natural daughter now in her extreme necessity. No more to you at this time, mine own darling, but that a while I would we were together of an evening. With the hand of yours, &c.

Note 1. So in the Harl. Misc. copy, which seems there to give the right reading. The Pamphleteer reads: "that we shall not have poure to dyslave Adam."

Note 2. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51).

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. 4408. Thomas Hennege to Wolsey.

"Laud be Jesu, the King's grace is very merry since he came to this house, for there was none fell sick of the sweat since he came hither, and ever after dinner he shoth (shooteth ?) to supper time. This morning is told me that Mistress Ann (age 27) and my [her brother] Lord of Roxfort (age 25) had the sweat, and was past the danger thereof." Mr. Carre (deceased) begs you to be gracious to his sister, a nun in Wilton Abbey, to be prioress there, according to your promise. Mr. Tuke is here, and lies in the court under the King's privy chamber, so that he may come at the King's pleasure. At every meal the King sends him a dish from his table. The King will tarry here 14 days. Hunsdon, 23 June.

This night, as the King went to bed, word came of the death of William Care (deceased).

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Jun 1528. 4440. The young lady (age 27) is still with her father. The [her future husband] King (age 37) keeps moving about for fear of the plague. Many of his people have died of it in three or four hours. of those you know there are only Poowits (deceased), Carey (deceased) and Cotton (age 46) dead; but Feuguillem, the marquis [Dorset] (age 51), my Lord William, Bron (Brown), Careu, Bryan [Tuke], who is now of the Chamber, Nourriz (Norris), Walop, Chesney, Quinston (Kingston), Paget, and those of the Chamber generally, all but one, have been or are attacked. Yesterday some of them were said to be dead. The King (age 37) shuts himself up quite alone. It is the same with Wolsey (age 55). After all, those who are not exposed to the air do not die. Of 40,000 attacked in London, only 2,000 are dead; but if a man only put his hand out of bed during twenty-four hours, it becomes as stiff as a pane of glass.

Letters and Papers 1528. 07 Jul 1528. Otho, C. X. 218. 4480. B. M. Burnet, I. 104. 4480. Anne Boleyn (age 27) to Wolsey.

In most humble wise that my poor heart can think, I thank your Grace for your kind letter and rich present, which I shall never be able to deserve without your help; "of the which I have hitherto had so great plenty that all the days of my life I am most bound, of all creatures, next the King's grace, to love and serve your Grace." I beseech you never to doubt that I shall ever vary from this thought while breath is in my body. As to your Grace's trouble with the sweat, I thank God those that I desired and prayed for have escaped,—namely, the King and you. I much desire the coming of the Legate, and, if it be God's pleasure, I pray Him to bring this matter shortly to a good end, when I trust partly to recompense your pains.

Letters and Papers 1528. 07 Jul 1528. Love Letters XIII. 4477. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Since her last, Walter Welshe, Master Browne, Thomas Care, Yrion of Brearton, John Coke the potecary, are fallen of the sweat in this house, and, thank God, have all recovered, so the plague has not yet quite ceased here. The rest of us are well, and I hope will pass it. As for the matter of Wylton, my Lord Cardinal has had the nuns before him, and examined them in presence of Master Bell, who assures me that she whom we would have had abbess has confessed herself to have had two children by two different priests, and has since been kept, not long ago, by a servant of Lord Broke that was. "Wherefore I would not, for all the gold in the world, cloak your conscience nor mine to make her ruler of a house which is of so ungodly demeanour; nor I trust you would not that neither for brother nor sister I should so distayne mine honor or conscience. And as touching the prioress or dame Ellenor's eldest sister, though there is not any evident case proved against them, and the prioress is so old that of many years she could not be as she was named, yet notwithstanding, to do you pleasure, I have done that nother of them shall have it, but that some other good and well-disposed woman shall have it, whereby the house shall be the better reformed, whereof I ensure you it hath much need, and God much the better served. As touching your abode at Hever [Map], do therein as best shall like you, for you know best what air doth best with you; but I would it were come thereto, if it pleased God, that nother of us need care for that, for I ensure you I think it long. Suche (Zouch) is fallen sick of the sweat, and therefore I send you this bearer because I think you long to hear tidings from us, as we do in likewise from you.".

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. R. O. 4538. Hennege To Wolsey.

I have this day put the King in remembrance of the letter of his own hand, which he said he would write, but he complains of his head, and therefore is not disposed to write at present. Tomorrow he intends to go to Grafton, to stay the Thursday, and return on the Friday. I will get him to write without fail, when I can. I beseech you continue gracious to my poor brother the archdeacon of Oxford, for whom I thank you. Ampthill, 21 July. Signed.

P.S.—There is no news here. The King is well, saving his head. My Lady Rocheford (age 23) and Mrs. Anne (age 27) cometh this week to the Court. My [her brother] lord Rocheford (age 25) was to have come, but because of the sweat he remains at home.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Le Grand, III. 150. 4542. Du Bellay To Montmorency.

Has informed Wolsey, by long letters directed to Vannes, of the contents of Francis's letters of the 9th and 13th. He is very glad of the news from Naples, and from Italy generally. The point of all my letters, Sir, is the contribution. The first time I sent to him he determined that it should commence in the middle of June. I applied to him again, and I think if I can speak to him tomorrow I shall gain my purpose, for he has consented that I shall go to the village of Hampton Court, when he will consider whether I shall speak by trumpet or by myself. I will do what I can about the advance of money, for I have not had a word yet in answer; but you must know the Angelots are worth here 69 sous, and I think they will deliver them to you for the weight, for they have no other money except these escus à la couronne, which are still worse. Let me know how to remit, or send a man to receive them. If you desire it I will try and get Wolsey to send the money to Calais free of cost.

The danger in this country begins to diminish hereabouts, and to increase elsewhere. In Kent it is very great. Mademoiselle de Boulan (age 27) and her [her father] father (age 51) have sweated, but have got over it. The day I sweated at my lord of Canterbury's there died 18 persons in four hours, and hardly anybody escaped but myself, who am not yet quite strong again. The King has gone further off than he was, uses great precautions, confesses himself every day, and receives Our Lord at every Feast. So also the Queen (age 42), who is with him, and Wolsey for his part. The notaries have had a fine time of it. I think 100,000 wills have been made off-hand, for those who were dying became quite foolish the moment they fell ill. The astrologers say this will not turn into a plague, but I think they dream. Has no doubt the King and Wolsey will be gratified with Francis's condolences on this visitation.

I have determined to send off this despatch, not to keep you in suspense till I have seen the Legate; but till next voyage I do not mean to put hand to pen (n'ay voulu mectre la main à la plume), that I may not cause suspicion to any one; for this is a regular pestilence (n'est que belle peste), and the moment a man is dead "il en devient tout couvert sur le corps1."

Thanks for remittances, &c. I am quite content to stay here, or even in Turkey, if the interests of Francis require it, and to spend all my goods if need be. All I have is but 4,000 livres of rent, and the expence being here so great, you will have to provide for the excess after I and my friends have done what we can. If I were as rich as some other bishops, or were I at a place of small expence like Venice, you should hear no complaint from me. London, 21 July.

Fr. Add.

Note 1. he becomes all covered on his body.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. 4409. When I came to that part of your letter mentioning your counsel to the King for avoiding infection he thanked your Grace, and showed the manner of the infection; how folks were taken; how little danger there was if good order be observed; how few were dead of it; how Mistress Ann (Boleyn) (age 27) and my [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 25) both have had it; what jeopardy they have been in by the turning in of the sweat before the time; of the endeavor of Mr. Buttes (age 42), who hath been with them in his return; and finally of their perfect recovery. He begs you will keep out of infection, and that you will use small suppers, drink little wine, "namely, that is big," and once in the week use the pills of Rasis; and if it come, to sweat moderately, and at the full time, without suffering it to run in, &c.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters I. 3221. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

I and my heart put ourselves in your hands. Let not absence lessen your affection; for it causes us more pain than I should ever have thought, reminding us of a point of astronomy that the longer the days are, the further off is the sun, and yet the heat is all the greater. So it is with our love, which keeps its fervour in absence, at least on our side. Prolonged absence would be intolerable, but for my firm hope in your indissoluble affection. As I cannot be with you in person, I send you my picture set in bracelets.

Letters and Papers 1527. 01 Jul 1528. Love Letters X. 3220. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Although, my mistress, you have not been pleased to remember your promise when I was last with you, to let me hear news of you and have an answer to my last, I think it the part of a true servant to inquire after his mistress's health and send you this, desiring to hear of your prosperity. I also send by the bearer a buck killed by me late last night, hoping when you eat of it you will think of the hunter. Written by the hand of your servant, who often wishes you in the place of your brother.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XV. 4539. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Is perplexed with such things as her [her brother] brother (age 25) will declare to her. Wrote in his last that he trusted shortly to see her, "which is better known at London than with any that is about me; whereof I not a little marvel, but lack of discreet handling must be the cause thereof." I hope soon "our meeting shall not depend upon other men's lyght handylleness but upon your own. Written with the hand of hys that longeth to be yours."

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XI. 4537. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The approach of the time which has been delayed so long delights me so much that it seems almost already come. Nevertheless, the entire accomplishment cannot be till the two persons meet; which meeting is more desired on my part than anything in the world, for what joy can be so great as to have the company of her who is my most dear friend, knowing likewise that she does the same. Judge then what will that personage do whose absence has given me the greatest pain in my heart, which neither tongue nor writing can express, and nothing but that can remedy. Tell your [her father] father (age 51) on my part that I beg him to abridge by two days the time appointed that he may be in court before the old term, or at least upon the day prefixed; otherwise I shall think he will not do the lover's turn as he said he would, nor answer my expectation. No more, for want of time. I hope soon to tell you by mouth the rest of the pains I have suffered in your absence. Written by the hand of the secretary, who hopes to be privately with you, &c.

Letters and Papers 1528. 01 Aug 1528. Love Letters XVI. 4597. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Writes to tell her of the great "elengenes" he finds since her departure, "for, I ensure you, me thinketh the time lenger since your departing now last than I was wont to do a whole fortnight." Could not have thought so short an absence would have so grieved him, but is comforted now he is coming towards her; "insomuch that my book maketh substantially for my matter; in token whereof I have spent above four hours this day, which caused me to write the shorter letter to you at this time by cause of some pain in my head. Wishing myself specially an evening in my sweetheart's arms, whose pretty dubbys I trust shortly to cusse.".

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Aug 1528. Love Letters VII. 4648. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Has got her a lodging by my Lord Cardinal's means, such as could not have been found hereabouts "for all causes," as the bearer will explain. Nothing more can be done in our other affairs, nor can all dangers be better provided against, so that I trust it will be hereafter to both our comforts; but I defer particulars, which would be too long to write, and not fit to trust to a messenger till your repair hither. I trust it will not be long "to-fore" I have caused my lord your [her father] father (age 51) to make his provisions with speed.

Letters and Papers 1528. 16 Sep 1528. Love Letters VI. 4742. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

"The reasonable request of your last letter, with the pleasure also that I take to know them true, causeth me to send you now these news. The Legate which we most desire arrived at Paris on Sunday or Monday last past, so that I trust by the next Monday to hear of his arrival at Calais, and then I trust within a while after to enjoy that which I have so longed for to God's pleasure and our both comfort. No more to you at this present, mine own darling, for lack of time, but that I would you were in mine arms or I in yours, for I think it long since I kissed you. Written after the killing of an hart, at 11 of the clock, minding with God's grace tomorrow mytely tymely to kill another, by the hand of him which I trust shortly shall be yours.-Henry R.".

Ellis' Letters S1 V1 Letter C. Around Oct 1528. Anne Boleyn (age 27) to Cardinal Wolsey (age 55).

[MS. COTTON. OTHO. C. X. fol. 218. Orig.]

Fiddes, at the end of his Life of Wolsey, has printed this and another Letter to the Cardinal from Anne Boleyn previous to her marriage. He has indeed printed three Lettersa; but the second of the three, as appears from its contents, must have been addressed to archbishop Cranmer.

The mention of the Sweating Sickness in the Letter immediately before the Reader, as well as the anxiety it expresses for the coming of Campegius and the hastening of his decision, show that it must have been written in the autumn of 1528. It is here introduced to prepare the Reader more regularly for the perusal of those Letters which describe Anne Boleyn's advancement to the Throne and her Catastrophe.

This Letter, since Fiddes saw it, has suffered materially in the fire which injured the Cottonian Library in 1731. The words in brackets have been supplied from Fiddes's copy.

MY Lord, in my most, humblyst wyse that my powuer hart can thynke I do thanke your Grace for your kynd Letter, and for youer rych and goodly present, the whyche I shall never be able to desarve wyth owt your gret helpe, of the whyche I have hetherto hade so grete plente that all the dayes of my lyfe I am moaste bownd [of] all creators next the Kyngs Grace to love and serve your Grace, of the whyclie I besyche yo[u never] to dowte that ever I shalle vary fromc this thought as long a[s ony bre]the is in my body. And as tochyng your Graces troble with the Swet [I thanke o]wer Lorde that them that I desyerd and prayed for ar sca[pyd, and th]at is the Kyng and you. Not doughthyng bot that God [has preserjvyd you bothe for grete cawsys knowen allonly of his hy[gh wysdom]e. And as for the commyng of the Legate, I desyer that moche; [and yf it be Godds] pleasor I pray hym to send this matter shortly to [a good ende]: and then I trust my Lord to recompence part of your grfete panys the whych] I must requyer you in the meane tyme to excepte [my good wyll in t]he stede of the power, the whyche must prosede partly f[rom you as ower Lo]urd knoweth to whom I be syche to sende you lon[ge lyfe with continew]ance in honor. Wrytten wyth the hande of her th[at is most bound to be]

You[r humble and] obed[yent servante]

[Anne Boleyn (age 27).]

Note a. Fiddes's Life of Card. Wolsey, fol. Loud. 1726. Collect, p. 204, 205.

The other Letter which Fiddes has printed, and which is still preserved in the Cottonian Volume Vcspas. F. XIII. fol. 55, is stronger in expressions of thankfulness toward Wolsey than this.

Both Letters indeed contain such assurances of regard, that Anne Boleyn has heen charged with ingratitude for not aiding Wolsey in his declining fortune. Though with how little propriety the reflecting reader will determine for himself, who remembers that Wolsey, after separating Lord Percy from Anne Boleyn's affections, would have married Henry to a foreign Princess.

Letters and Papers 1528. 30 Oct 1528. Love Letters, XVII. 4894. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37). to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

"To inform you what joy it is to me to understand of your conformableness to reason, and of the suppressing of your inutile vain thoughts and fantasies with the bridle of reason, I ensure you all the good in this world could not counterpoise for my satisfaction the knowledge and certainty hereof. Wherefore, good sweetheart, continue in the same, not only in this but in all your doings hereafter; for thereby shall come, both to you and me, the greatest quietness that may be in this world. The cause why this bearer tarryeth so long is the business that I have had to dress up yer (geer?) for you, which I trust or long to see you occupy, and then I trust to occupy yours, which shall be recompense enough to me for all my pains and labors. The unfeigned sickness of this well-willing legate doth somewhat retard his access to your presence; but I trust verily, when God shall send him health, he will with diligence recompense his demowre, for I know well whereby he hath said (lamenting the saying and bruit that he should be Imperial) that it should be well known in this matter that he is not Imperial. And thus for lack of time," &c.

Letters and Papers 1528. 31 Oct 1528. Love Letters XVII. 4894. [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 37) to Anne Boleyn (age 27).

"To inform you what joy it is to me to understand of your conformableness to reason, and of the suppressing of your inutile vain thoughts and fantasies with the bridle of reason, I ensure you all the good in this world could not counterpoise for my satisfaction the knowledge and certainty hereof. Wherefore, good sweetheart, continue in the same, not only in this but in all your doings hereafter; for thereby shall come, both to you and me, the greatest quietness that may be in this world. The cause why this bearer tarryeth so long is the business that I have had to dress up yer (geer?) for you, which I trust or long to see you occupy, and then I trust to occupy yours, which shall be recompense enough to me for all my pains and labors. The unfeigned sickness of this well-willing legate doth somewhat retard his access to your presence; but I trust verily, when God shall send him health, he will with diligence recompense his demowre, for I know well whereby he hath said (lamenting the saying and bruit that he should be Imperial) that it should be well known in this matter that he is not Imperial. And thus for lack of time," &c.

Letters and Papers 1529. 04 Apr 1529. R. O. Burnet, v. 444. 5422. Anne Boleyn (age 28) to Gardiner (age 46).

Thanks him for his letter, showing his willing and faithful mind. Trusts he will not repent it, and that the end of this journey will be more pleasant to her than his first, "for that was but a rejoysyng hope, whiche causyng [the like] of it dose put me to the more payn, and they that ar parta[kers] with me, as you do knowe; and therefore I do trust that this herd begynn[ing] shall make the better endyng." Sends cramp-rings for him, Master Gregory, and Master Peter, to whom she desires to be recommended. Greenwich, 4 April. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1529. 25 Oct 1529. Bradford, 256. 6026. Chapuys (age 39) to Charles V (age 29).

On the receipt of your letter on Thursday the 21st, dated Piacenza, I sent to Windsor to ask for an audience. As the administration has fallen principally into the hands of the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 56), and the communication is more agreeable to him than that of the marriage, I hastened to visit him. The Cardinal (age 56), who was dis-evangelised on the day of St. Luke the Evangelist (18 Oct.), has been deprived of his offices. I was received by the Duke with great distinction, and expressed to him the regard in which you had always held him for his goodwill. He seemed highly pleased, and said that he and his family had always been attached to the house of Burgundy; that no one more lamented the late disagreements than himself, but that all the evil and misunderstanding ought to be attributed to those who formerly directed the King's councils, acting by their own will and authority, with which the King himself was often dissatisfied.

In reply to his remark that he should like to serve your Majesty against the Turk, I praised his virtuous feelings, and told him that was the main object of my communication; but for the better security of peace, which the King had done so much to establish, one unhappy difference between himself and the Queen remained to be settled. I told him that, however strongly he might feel from family considerations, he could not but feel as a true knight, nor act otherwise than if it had been his own daughter, and as conscience directed; and that your Majesty was convinced that he had not been the promoter of this step. He replied that he would sooner have lost one of his hands than that such a question should have arisen; but it was entirely a matter of law and conscience, and he had never been appealed to; that it had been submitted to ecclesiastics and doctors, who had pronounced against the validity of the marriage; that if the dispensation you held was illegal, the King would consider himself the most abused prince in Christendom; and that if you had not declared yourself in it so openly, it might have sooner been brought to a satisfactory issue. I explained to him the constraint under which you acted; and that, as to the king of England not having declared himself a party in the matter, it was clear that he had done so from the proceedings of the English ambassadors at Rome. Finding he remained thoughtful, I changed the subject. Shortly after he turned to me with a laugh, and said, "How glad the Emperor will be to hear of this fall of the Cardinal (age 56), and his loss of office?" I answered, I thought you would, but not from any hatred you had to the Cardinal (age 56); and that he could have done neither good nor ill to you, and was not of such importance as that you would care to be avenged, or trouble yourself about his disgrace; but what you rejoiced at was, that the king of England would now learn who had been his evil counsellors, and leave the management of affairs to men who from birth and circumstances were more competent. I told him that I was the first who had broken through the chain of paying court to the Cardinal (age 56), and addressed myself to him. He thanked me for my good intentions, and said that the government was managed not by an individual but by the Council, where he usually assisted, and would promote Your Majesty's interests.

In order to please the Duke (age 56) I asked him what I should do, although I had already sent one of my secretaries to the King. He told me that the King had ordered that application should be made direct to himself, before any other person was acquainted with the communication. He followed me to the hall, using very courteous language.

On the 22nd my secretary returned from Windsor, stating that the King would be at Greenwich on Saturday, and I was to go the day after. On my reaching Greenwich [Map] I found a civil gentleman, named Poller (Bollen?), sent by the King to conduct me to the palace. There I found the bishop of London (age 55), who led me to the King's antechamber, where the Court was assembled, and was received by two dukes and the archbishop of Canterbury (age 79). I conversed with these lords, waiting for the King to go to mass; and we talked of the conference at Bologna. The King, on going to mass, came directly to me, and taking me by the sleeve said, with the utmost graciousness, "You have news from my brother the Emperor." On answering Yes, he asked the date, and then said your Majesty was very careful to give him information. I assured him that you were anxious to make him partaker of all affairs, and thus show your brotherly affection. I then presented your letters, and, as to the particulars of my credentials, he said that the ambassadors in your court were authorised to treat about them. Speaking of your going into Italy I bespoke his good offices.

On his return from mass, he came up to me again, and resumed the subject. When we talked of the necessity of resisting the Turk, and of the Pope's arrival at Bologna on the 5th, I said I thought it advisable that he should commission his ambassadors with the Pope to treat; and I combated his remark that he could do but little against the Turk, seeing he was wealthy, and as absolute in his dominions as the Pope. He urged that this affair was chiefly yours, and if you wished to accomplish it you must make peace with the princes of Italy. I assured him you had never ceased from efforts in this direction. The conversation then turned on the duke Francesco Sforza; and I urged, in opposition to his remark, that your proceedings were as favorable to the Duke as could be. He objected to the cession of Pavia and Alexandria, alleging the cruelties which had taken place at Sienna. I told him Pavia was out of dispute, as it was already given up. "Between ourselves," said he, "I think it is a great shame that whilst the Turk is in Austria, the patrimony of the Emperor, he should not rescue it, but make war upon Christians." On my urging the danger that might be expected from Sforza and the Venetians if your troops were withdrawn, he urged that neither could do anything. Shortly after, changing his tone, he said, with some emphasis, "My brother the king of France has made your Emperor a marvellous offer." This he repeated three times. I said, if it were so, he had now done a virtuous part, and kept his professions. After various other topics it grew late. Not a word was said of the Queen. After dinner he asked me if I had anything more to say.

All here are satisfied with the treaty of Cambray. As for the observance of it, the Queen, as I have already written, has expressed her doubt of its duration. It is supposed to have cost this King 800,000 ducats. He is not therefore likely to break it. People here are not very anxious to repeat the dose, as it is not to their taste. At present they seem on good terms with the French. The ambassador has been only once at court with his brother since my arrival. He has been commanded to deliver his message to the Council, and abstain from communication with the Cardinal; at which he was greatly vexed. Various ambassadors are here. The most in favour is the Milanese, on whom the King has spent money. Those who are now in most credit are the dukes of Norfolk (age 56) and Suffolk (age 45). There is not a single person about the King who is not saturated with French money; and though they profess great affection to you, their affection for money is much stronger. I have submitted the proposition to the King respecting the sea being kept free from pirates. He has ordered a good reception for Mons. Rosymbez.

The downfall of the Cardinal (age 56) is complete. He is dismissed from the Council, deprived of the Chancellorship, and constrained to make an inventory of his goods in his own hand, that nothing may be forgotten. It is said that he has acknowledged his faults, and presented all his effects to the King. Yesterday the King returned to Greenwich by water secretly, in order to see them, and found them much greater than he expected. He took with him "sa mye" (his darling-Ann Boleyn (age 28)), her [her mother] mother (age 49), and a gentleman of his chamber (Norris?) The Cardinal, notwithstanding his troubles, has always shown a good face, especially towards the town, but since St. Luke's Day all has been changed to sighs and tears night and day. The King, either moved by pity, or for fear if he should die the whole extent of his effects would not be found, sent him a ring for his comfort. He has withdrawn with a small attendance to a place ten miles off. They have sent for his son from Paris. People say execrable things of him, all which will be known at this Parliament. But those who have raised the storm will not let it abate, not knowing, if he returned to power, what would become of them. The ambassador of France commiserates him most. It was feared the Cardinal (age 56) would get his goods out of the country, and therefore a strict watch was kept at the ports, and the watch insisted on opening the coffers of cardinal Campeggio (age 54), notwithstanding his passport, and, on his refusal, broke open the locks. He said they had done him great wrong to suppose that he could be corrupted by the Cardinal, since he had been proof against the innumerable presents offered him by the King.

The Chancellor's seal has remained in the hands of the Duke of Norfolk (age 56) till this morning, when it was transferred to Sir Thomas More (age 51). Every one is delighted at his promotion, because he is an upright and learned man, and a good servant of the Queen. He was Chancellor of Lancaster, an office now conferred on the Sieur Villeury (Fitzwilliam). Richard Pace, a faithful servant of your Majesty, whom the Cardinal had kept in prison for two years, as well in the Tower of London as in a monastery (Syon House), is set at liberty. Unless his mind should again become unsettled, it is thought he will rise in higher favour at Court than ever.

There is a young man here, sent by the duke of Saxony, who has much business with the King and the bishop of London (age 55).

Of the King's affair there is nothing new to communicate, except what the bishop of London (age 55) has told me, that Dr. Stokesley (age 54) had been sent to France to consult the doctors of Paris. The Queen begs your Majesty will send some respectable person there to do the same, for without some definitive sentence the King will remain obstinate in his opinions. She thinks that delay will be more dangerous than profitable, and therefore we have thought it desirable not to consent to the postponement demanded. To avoid creating suspicion in the mind of the King, she thinks I had better cease to visit her, but she will provide means for my speaking with her in private. London, 25 Oct. 1529.

P.S.-Two days after I had written the above, the Cardinal (age 56) was definitively condemned by the Council, declared a rebel, and guilty of high treason for having obtained a legatine bull, whereby he had conferred many benefices in the King's patronage. He has been deprived of his dignities, his goods confiscated, and himself sentenced to prison until the King shall decide. This sentence was not given in his presence, but to his two proctors. This he will not find easy of digestion, but worse remains behind (mais encoures ne serat il quicte pour le prix).

Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 08 Dec 1529 [her future husband] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 38) created three Earldoms ...

[her father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde. [her mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 49) by marriage Earl Wiltshire, Countess Ormonde. His [her grandmother] mother (age 75) was the daughter of the last Earl Ormonde Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde.

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon. Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon (age 46) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 46) was created 1st Earl of Sussex by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 38). Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex 1479-1532 (age 50) by marriage Countess of Sussex.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. After the king's deliverance out of the emperor's bondage, and his two sons received in hostage to the emperor's use, and the king our sovereign lord's security for the recompense of all such demands and restitutions as should be demanded of the French king, the cardinal, lamenting the French king's calamity, and the pope's great adversity, who yet remained in castle Angell, either as a prisoner, or else for his defence and safeguard (I cannot tell whether), travailed all that he could with the king and his council to take order as well for the delivery of the one as for the quietness of the other. At last, as ye have heard here before, how divers of the great estates and lords of the council lay in await with my Lady Anne Boleyn (age 29), to espy a convenient time and occasion to take the cardinal in a brake9; [they] thought then, now is the time come that we have expected, supposing it best to cause him to take upon him the king's commission, and to travel beyond the seas in this matter, saying, to encourage him thereto, that it were more meet for his high discretion, wit, and authority, to compass and bring to pass a perfect peace among these great and most mighty princes of the world than any other within this realm or elsewhere. Their intent and purpose was only but to get him out of the king's daily presence, and to convey him out of the realm, that they might have convenient leisure and opportunity to adventure their long desired enterprise, and by the aid of their chief mistress, my Lady Anne, to deprave him so unto the king in his absence, that he should be rather in his high displeasure than in his accustomed favour, or at the least to be in less estimation with his majesty. Well! what will you have more? This matter was so handled that the cardinal was commanded to prepare himself to this journey; the which he was fain to take upon him; but whether it was with his good will or no, I am not well able to tell you. But this I know, that he made a short abode after the determined resolution thereof, but caused all things to be prepared onward toward his journey. And every one of his servants were appointed that should attend upon him in the same.

Note 9. A brake here seems to signify a snare or trap. The word has much puzzled the commentators on Shakspeare (See Measure for Measure, Act II. Sc. 1). One of its antient significations was a [?] bit to break horses with. A farrier's brake was a machine to [?] legs of unruly horses. An ancient instrument of torture was also called a brake: and a thorny brake meant [?] a thicket of thorns.

The History of Reginald Pole. [Around 1530]. He [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 38) then goes on to show, "how inexcusable the King was in pretending that a dispensation to marry his Brother's Widow was invalid, at the same time that he was suing for One, which would enable him to marry a person (age 29), whose [her sister] sister (age 31) he had corrupted, provided the nullity of his former marriage could be proved". This in a treatise inscribed to the King [See Defense of the Unity of the Church Book III], and delivered to him on the part of the noble Author, by one of his Gentlemen. He asserts it as a known truth; and, indeed, had such an imputation been slander, or even of doubtful report, it would have been utterly unworthy and inconsistent with his character who relates it; and must have raised the clamour not only of the English, but of all foreigners against him. It ought, at the same time, to be remarked, that as he gives not the least insinuation of any looseness of the behaviour in Anne Bullen, before Henry's passion for her, or of a criminal commerce between her Mother and the King, of which she has been said to be the fruit, these reports are to be looked on as destitute of foundaton. Had the facts been real, they would not have escaped the knowledge of One so well informed; nor been overlooked in a work, where every aggravation. which regards this article is set forth in all its iniquity, and heightened with all the colouring that indignation and eloquence can give. All be says of her amounts to a sarcasm, that me must needs be chaste, as the choice to be the King's wife, rather than his Mitress; but that she might have learnt, how soon he was sated with those who had belonged to him in the latter quality and, if other examples were wanting, that his own sister was enough1."

Note 1. Concubina enim tua fieri pudica mulier nolebak, uxor volebat: Didicerat, opinor, si nullâ aliâ ex re, vel Sororis suæ exemplo, quam cito te concubinarum tuatum fatietas caperet.

For the chaste woman did not want to become your concubine, she wanted to be a wife: I think she had learned, if nothing else from the matter, or from the example of her sister (age 31), how quickly she was satisfied with your concubines.

Letters and Papers 1530. 06 Feb 1530. 6199. A cousin of the Cardinal's physician told me that the lady (age 29) had sent to visit him during his sickness, and represented herself as favoring him with the King. This is difficult to be believed, considering the hatred she has always borne him. She must have thought he was dying, or shown her dissimulation and love of intrigue, of which she is an accomplished mistress. I have not been able to learn anything about the German, although I have used all sorts of arts to discover him. Gives an account of various devices for that purpose.

Letters and Papers 1530. 06 Feb 1530. 6199. The Cardinal has been ill, and some say feigned illness, in the hope that the King might visit him. He has not done so, but sent him instead a promise of pardon, on the news of which the Cardinal recovered. He will receive his patent today, retain the archbishopric of York, and a pension of 3,000 angels on the see of Winchester, for which he is to resign all other benefices. Besides 10,000 angels the King has given him tapestry and plate for five rooms. All the rest the King retains. His house in town has been taken by the King, who gives another in place to the see of York. Russell told me that in consequence of some words he had spoken to the King in favor of the Cardinal the lady (age 29) had been very angry, and refused to speak with him. [her uncle] Norfolk (age 57) told him of her displeasure, and that she was irritated against himself, because he had not done as much against him as he might. After this he asked Russell whether he thought the Cardinal had any expectation of returning to favor; and Russell told him such was the courage and ambition of the Cardinal, that he would not fail, if he saw a favorable opportunity; and that this was not unlikely if the King should require his advice. Then the Duke (age 57) began to swear very loudly that, rather than suffer this, he would eat him up alive. To prevent such a contingency, the Cardinal has been forbidden to approach the Court within seven miles.

Letters and Papers 1530. 06 Feb 1530. Bradford, 298. 6199. Chapuys to Charles V.

Since my last the bishop of Rochester (age 60) has finished revising the book which he lately wrote, and which he sent to your Majesty. Since then he has written another, which the Queen has forwarded at the request of the Bishop, to be examined at leisure, though he fears to be known as the author. His learning and piety are well known. The Queen's treatment is worse than ever. The King is always away from her as much as possible, and is here with the lady (age 29), whilst the Queen is at Richmond. He has never been so long without paying her a visit, and makes his excuse that one has died of the plague near her residence. He has renewed his attempts to persuade her to become a nun, to which she will never consent. The continual annoyance to which she is exposed constrains her to importune your Majesty to have a fixed resolution in her affairs.

Letters and Papers 1530. 06 Feb 1530. 6199. One object of Joachim's mission was to reinstate the Cardinal in the King's favor, and, but for the lady (age 29), this would be easy, for it is thought the King has no ill-will to the Cardinal. His only wish is for the Cardinal's goods; and he is not very far wrong, for the Cardinal has spent very large sums of money, and said all he accumulated was for the King; and to take administration of it before the time was not much offence; considering also that the Cardinal, since he began to suspect his fall, and since his destruction, has always said that the King could not do him any greater good than help himself to all that he had. As a proof of the King's having no ill-will, I am told the King did not wish the Cardinal's case to be determined by Parliament, as, if it had been decided against him, the King could not have pardoned him. The said Joachim lodges at a house of one of the Cardinal's servants; and soon after his arrival, the Cardinal, though unwell, sent his physician, a Venetian (De Augustinis), in whom he has much confidence, and who stayed with Joachim four or five days. The French would spare no means to reinstate the Cardinal, for, whatever they pretend, they have no confidence in the duke of Norfolk.

Letters and Papers 1530. 27 May 1530. 256. Anne Boleyn (age 29).

Warrant to Lord Windsor, keeper of the Great Wardrobe, to deliver the following parcels to the use of the lady Anne Rocheford (age 25): (1) For a saddle of the French fashion, with a pillow of down, covered with black velvet, fringed with silk and gold, the head of copper and gilt, graven with antyke works; one footstool, covered with black velvet, fringed with silk and gold; one saddle hose of velvet, lined with black buckram; one harness of black velvet, both fringed with silk and gold, with buttons pear fashion, and tassels of silk and gold; one great tuft of silk and gold upon the crupper, with buckles and pendants of copper and gilt; one slophouse of leather, lined with cotton; two girths of white twine; and two bits with two pair of gilt bosses.

Item, for a pillion for the said lady Anne (age 25), of white fustian stuffed with fine down, with leathers and buckles to the same; one pillion cloth of velvet, fringed with black silk, and lined with black buckram; one footstool, covered with black velvet, and fringed with black silk, garnished with gilt nails, with two buckles of copper and gilt; one harness to the same pillion, of black velvet, fringed with black silk, with buckles and pendants of copper and gilt; two white girths of twine of the double fashion; one pair of reins, covered with black velvet fringed with silk and gold; two buttons and one tassel of silk and gold, with two buckles of copper and gilt, for a saddle of the French fashion for the same lady Anne, with a pillow of fine down covered with black velvet, lined with black buckram, fringed with silk and gold; one head for the same, of copper and gilt, graven with antique works; one footstool covered with black velvet, fringed with silk and gold, garnished with gilt nails, with two buckles of copper and gilt; one harness of black velvet, with a false crupper, fringed with silk and gold, with buttons and tassels of silk and gold, with buckles and pendants of copper and gilt; one slophowse of leather lined with cotton; four girths of twine of the double fashion, and two bits with two pair of gilt bosses; another saddle for the said lady Anne, of the French fashion, with a head of copper and gilt, graven with antique works; one pillion of fine down, covered with black velvet, fringed with silk and gold, lined with black buckram; one footstool, covered with black velvet, fringed with silk and gold, garnished with gilt nails, with two buckles of copper and gilt; one harness of black velvet, fringed with silk and gold, with buttons and tassels of silk and gold, with buckles and pendant of copper and gilt; one slophowse of leather, lined with black cotton; four girths of twine of the double fashion, and two bits with two pair of gilt bosses.

Item, for two moylettes; two saddles of black leather, garnished with white nails, for the said lady Anne's moylettes that carry her litter, with two pair of double harness, with collars and breeches double-lined and stuffed with buff leather; two headstalls with reins of black leather, and two leading reins eight... bosis varnished... double braces of black leather; eight great pins of iron, varnished black; two double girths of twine [of] the double [fashion], and two... of twine. Richmond, 27 May 22 Henry VIII. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1530. 07 Jun 1530. Add. MS. 28,580, f. 125. B. M. 6437. Mai to Charles V (age 30).

The Pope has told me more plainly what I wrote to your Majesty that he knew very well, namely, that owing to the death of a lady to whom the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 57) had married, or intended to marry, his son, they have treated to marry the same son to the princess of Wales; for which reason [her father] Boleyn (age 53) has lost much hope of the marriage of Mrs. Anne (age 29) with the King; and the King has spent much money in buying goods and lands for the support of the Lady (age 29). This is thought to be evidence that he begins to give up hope of his suit, because, if he meant to make her Queen, she would have no need of these things. Rome, 7 June 1530.

Letters and Papers 1530. 14 Jun 1530. Add. MS. 28,580, f. 145. B. M. 6452. Mai to Charles V (age 30). Arguments used to the Pope against delay. They say it is the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk's (age 57) daughter-in-law who is dead, and that Boleyn desires to marry his (the Duke's) son to Mistress Anne (age 29),-which may be believed as being good for all parties; first, for her, as she cannot marry the King, that she should marry the greatest lord in the realm; and secondly, to the King, as he cannot marry her. This is the third version of the story; I hope the true one at last. Yesterday the auditor of the Chamber and Benet asked brother Felice de Prato to write for the King, and he refused, neither would he show them what he had written on our behalf. Rome, 14 June 1530.

Note. Unclear as to who the Duke of Norfolk's daughter-in-law is since his son Henry Howard (age 14) appears to have only married Frances Vere Countess of Surrey (age 13) who survived until 1577.

Letters and Papers 1530. Aug 1530. Vesp. F. III. 15 b. B. M. Fiddes' Coll. 255. 197. Anne Boleyn (age 29) to [Wolsey (age 57)].

Thanks him for the gift of "this benefice for Mr. Barlow." However, it is not Tonbridge, Kent [Map] but Sonridge that she desires. The former is in her father's gift, and is not vacant. Will do all she can for those who have taken pains in the King's matter.

P.S.-Begs that for her sake he will remember the parson of Honey Lane [Farman].

Letters and Papers 1537. 20 Oct 1537. Sir George Throkmorton (age 42) to [Henry VIII.].

About six or seven years ago conversed with Sir Thos. Dyngley in the garden at St. John's about the Parliament matters. Dyngley wondered that the Act of Appeals should pass so lightly, and Throgmorton said it was no wonder as few would displease my lord Privy Seal. Told Sir Thomas he had been sent for by the King after speaking about that Act, and that he saw his Grace's conscience was troubled about having married his brother's wife. "And I said to him that I told your Grace I feared if ye did marry Queen Anne (age 30) your conscience would be more troubled at length, for it is thought ye have meddled both with the mother [[her mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51)] and the sister [[her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 32)]. And his Grace said 'Never with the mother (age 51).' And my lord Privy Seal standing by said 'Nor never with the sister (age 32) either, and therefore put that out of your mind.'" This was in substance all their communication. Intended no harm to the King, but only out of vainglory to show he was one that durst speak for the common wealth; otherwise he refuses the King's pardon and will abide the most shameful death.

Was asked by my lord Privy Seal to write what other communication he may have had about the King at the Queen's Head or elsewhere; which is very hard for him to do. Reported the same conversation to Sir Thos. Englefelde at Serjeants Inn, and, he believes, to Sir William Essex; also, he rather thinks, to Sir Will. Barentyne. Essex, Barentyne, Sir John Gyfforde, Sir Marmaduke Constable and others did much use the Queen's Head at dinner and supper. Caused all servants to withdraw when they conversed of Parliament matters, but made no appointments to meet. Begs the King to have pity on his wife and children, for the service that he and his blood have done to the King's ancestors, considering how at Grafton he pardoned the writer all things concerning the Parliament, &c.

As to his unthrifty and unnatural brother, the writer met at dinner, at St. John's last Midsummer, Sir Thos. Dyngley and a young man whom he believed to dwell with Ric. Fermour. The one (he thinks the latter) told him "Your brother Michael is in good health, for I saw him of late in Antwerp in a chapel at mass." Replied that he would he had never been born. Has heard that he wrote a letter to Dr. Wotton since his departure. Has written to him since by my lord Privy Seal's mind, "which I will surely follow, both upon him and his master [Cardinal Reginald Pole (age 30)], and if it be to Rome yates, to die, upon them both in that quarrel, if your Grace's pleasure be I shall so do." Regrets having shown these matters to any man, but would rather be imprisoned for life than live at large in the King's indignation.

Explains his conduct since the beginning of the Parliament of 21 Hen. VIII. Just before that Parliament friar Peto, who was in a tower in Lambeth over the gate, sent for him and showed him two sermons that he and another friar had made before the King at Greenwich, and reported a long conversation he had had with the King in the garden after the sermon. He said he had told the King that he could have no other wife while the Princess Dowager lived unless he could prove carnal knowledge between prince Arthur and her; which he said was impossible, as she, who knew best, had received the Sacrament to the contrary, and she was so virtuous that her word deserved more credit than all the other proofs; that prince Arthur's saying that he had been in the midst of Spain was probably but a light word; and that the King could never marry Queen Anne as it was said he had meddled with the mother [Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 51)] and the daughter [Mary Boleyn (age 32)]. He moreover advised Throgmorton if he were in the Parliament house to stick to that matter, as he would save his soul. Shortly after the beginning of the Parliament, when he had "reasoned" to the Bill of Appeals, Sir Thos. More, then Chancellor, sent Saye for him to come and speak with him in the Parliament chamber, "where, as I do remember me, stood an altar, or a thing like unto an altar, whereupon he did lean; and, as I do think, the same time the bishop of Bath was talking with him." Sir Thomas said he was glad to hear that he was so good a Catholic and that, if he continued, he would deserve great reward of God and thanks at length of the King. Took so much pride of this that he went shortly after to the bp. of Rochester with whom he had much conversation about the Acts of Appeals, Annates and Supremacy, and the authority given by our Lord to Peter. The last time he was with him the bp. gave him a book of his own device on the subject; which book he delivered to my lord Privy Seal at his house at Austin Friars. The bp. also advised him to speak with Mr. Wilson, which he did at St. Thomas the Apostle's, who also showed him divers bocks noted with his own hand, to confirm the same opinion. Went afterwards to Syon to one Reynolds, of whom he was confessed, and showed him his conscience in all these causes; who advised him to stick to his opinion to the death, else he would surely be damned, and also not to hold his peace in Parliament even if he thought his speaking could not prevail. This was against the opinion of the bp. of Rochester and Mr. Wylson, but Reynolds said he did not know how he might encourage others in the house to do the same. It was these counsels that blinded him so long; but he now asks pardon, having perceived his error by reading the New Testament and The Institution of a Christian Man. Prays for the prosperous estate of the King and his little son prince Edward.

Hol., pp. 9. A blank leaf found apart, but apparently belonging to this document is docketed: Concerning Sir Thomas Dyngley.

Around 1531 [her brother] George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 28) translated a book "Les Epistres et Evangiles" for his sister Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 30). The book water damaged but its dedication remains. The dedication was thought to have been write by Anne's father-in-law Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 50) however a passage prefacing the dedication reading, ‘moost lovyng and frynddely brother’ was discovered by means of ultraviolet light leading historians to conclude the dedication was written by George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 28):

To the right honourable lady, the Lady Marchioness of Pembroke, her most loving and friendly brother sendeth greetings.

Our friendly dealings, with so divers and sundry benefits, besides the perpetual bond of blood, have so often bound me, Madam, inwardly to love you, that in every of them I must perforce become your debtor for want of power, but nothing of my good will. And were it not that by experience your gentleness is daily proved, your meek fashion often times put into use, I might well despair in myself, studying to acquit your deserts towards me, or embolden myself with so poor a thing to present to you. But, knowing these perfectly to reign in you with more, I have been so bold to send unto you, not jewels or gold, whereof you have plenty, not pearl or rich stones, whereof you have enough, but a rude translation of a well-willer, a goodly matter meanly handled, most humbly desiring you with favour to weigh the weakness of my dull wit, and patiently to pardon where any fault is, always considering that by your commandment I have adventured to do this, without the which it had not been in me to have performed it. But that hath had power to make me pass my wit, which like as in this I have been ready to fulfil, so in all other things at all times I shall be ready to obey, praying him on whom this book treats, to grant you many years to his pleasure and shortly to increase in heart’s ease with honour’

Anne Boleyn Attacked by a Mob

Calendars. Nov. 24. [1531] Sanuto Diaries, v. lv. p. 168. 701. Advices from France, received by the French Ambassador in Venice.

On the day of All Saints the King gave most gracious greeting at Compiegne to the Vice-Chancellor (Vice gran Canzelier) of England, who was accompanied by Sir Francis Bryan (age 41). On the morrow of All Souls the King went out of mourning for his mother, as did the princes, lords, and gentlemen. The Queen and the King's children did not put themselves into mourning. The Queen of Navarre and the children of the King [of Navarre] wore it from beginning to end, spontaneously. The King chose to have an exact list of all the lords, gentlemen, officials, and servants of his mother, and has provided for all of them, from the highest to the lowest, giving them the same amount of salary as they received from the deceased; placing some in his own household, others with the Dauphin and his brothers, the rest in the household of the Princesses, his daughters. The ladies of his mother's household are placed in that of the Queen, and the maids of honour with his daughters. The act was that of a magnanimous prince, such as he is.

On the 5th instant the Bishop of Bayonne returned to the Court from England, and says that the King, on hearing of the death of the late most illustrious “Madame,” made all the English princes and great lords go into mourning; and when the Bishop told this to the Legate, there was present the Emperor's ambassador, who declared that his master had done the like, which is a demonstration of great friendship.

It is said that more than seven weeks ago a mob of from seven to eight thousand women of London went out of the town to seize Boleyn's daughter (age 30), the sweetheart of the King of England, who was supping at a villa (in una easa di piacere) on a river, the King not being with her; and having received notice of this, she escaped by crossing the river in a boat. The women had intended to kill her; and amongst the mob were many men, disguised as women; nor has any great demonstration been made about this, because it was a thing done by women.

To prevent the exportation of grain from France a proclamation has been issued forbidding all millers, bakers, and usurious wheat merchants, any longer to raise the price of corn. No corn may be sold save at market, and no baker, miller, or corn merchant can purchase it two hours after the close of the market, so that the people may be enabled to buy their supply; and the granaries of Paris are to be inspected by competent and worthy men, who are to acquaint themselves with the number of persons forming the household of each proprietor, whether noblemen, councillors, citizens, or merchants, and the annual amount of grain required for their consumption; which being set apart, they will be bound to take all the rest to market and sell it to the people, by reason of the King's just fear lest the people of Paris lack the means of subsistence.

La Fère, 24th November 1531. Registered by Sanuto 18th Dec.

[Italian.]

Hall's Chronicle 1532. After supper came in the Marchioness of Pembroke (age 30), with seven ladies in masking apparel, of strange fashion, made of clothe of gold, compassed with crimson tinsel satin, owned with cloth of silver, lying loose and knit with laces of gold: these ladies were brought into the chamber, with four damsels apparelled in crimson satin, with tabards of fine cypress: the lady Marques took the French King, and the [her aunt] Countess of Derby (age 20), took the King of Navarre, and every Lady took a Lord, and in dancing the King of England, took away the lady’s visors, so that there the ladies beauties were shewed, and after they had danced a while they ceased, and the French King talked with the Marchioness of Pembroke a space, and then he took his leave of the ladies, and the King conveyed him to his lodging: the same night the Duke of Norfolk feasted all the nobles of France, being there in the castle of Calais, with many goodly sports and pastimes.

Hall's Chronicle 1532. In the beginning of this, 24th year, the Lady Anne Boleyn (age 31) was so much in the Kings favour, that the common people which knew not the Kings true intent, said and thought that the absence of the Queen was only for her sake, which was not true: for the king was openly rebuked of Preachers for keeping company with his brother's wife, Saint Solemnity which was the occasion that he eschewed her company, till the truth were tried.

Calendars. April 23 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvi. p. 167. 761. Carlo Capello to the Signory.

Received the Signory's letters of the 8th January and 11th March, with the advices from Constantinople. Went to the Court, and by the King's order conferred with the Duke of Norfolk, to whom communicated the advices, and justified the Signory for having exacted a loan from the clergy, about which the Duke appeared to know nothing, but was not sorry to hear it, because at the last session of Parliament the annats payable at Rome were abolished.

At the moment of his arrival at the Court, one of the chief gentlemen in the service of said Duke of Norfolk, with 20 followers, assaulted and killed in the sanctuary of Westminster Sir (D'no) William Peninthum (sic) chief gentleman and kinsman of the Duke of Suffolk (age 48). In consequence of this, the whole Court was in an uproar, and had the Duke of Suffolk (age 48) been there, it is supposed that a serious affray would have taken place. On hearing of what had happened, he (Suffolk) was on his way to remove the assailants by force from the sanctuary, when the King sent the Treasurer [Thomas Cromwell] to him, and made him return, and has adjusted the affair; and this turmoil displeased him. It is said to have been caused by a private quarrel, but I am assured it was owing to opprobrious language uttered against Madam Anne (age 31) by his Majesty's sister, the [her future sister-in-law] Duchess of Suffolk (age 36), Queen Dowager of France.

The affair of the divorce becomes daily more difficult. The Bishops of France and of this island replied lately that they could not assent to it without the Pope's consent, because, when created, they swear not to oppose the Pope's wishes; and the King's desire increases; whilst by letters from Rome it is heard that in all the debates the Queen may be styled King of this island, by reason of the love the people bear her, for her goodness and wisdom.

Yesterday, Monseigneur Falconetto arrived here in 15 days from the Emperor, to demand assistance against the Turk. He went this morning to the Court with another Imperial ambassador resident here.

London, 23rd April. Registered by Sanuto 31st May.

[Italian.]

Before 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn (age 31), using her father's title Anne Rochford, wrote to Bridget Wiltshire:

I pray you as you love me, to give credence to my servant this bearer, touching your removing and any thing else that he shall tell you on my behalf; for I will desire you to do nothing but that shall be for your wealth. And, madam, though at all time I have not showed the love that I bear you as much as it was in deed, yet now I trust that you shall well prove that I loved you a great deal more than I fair for. And assuredly, next mine own mother I know no woman alive that I love better, and at length, with God's grace, you shall prove that it is unfeigned. And I trust you do know me for such a one that I will write nothing to comfort you in your trouble but I will abide by it as long as I live. And therefore I pray you leave your indiscreet trouble, both for displeasing of God and also for displeasing of me, that doth love you so entirely. And trusting in God that you will thus do, I make an end. With the ill hand of

Your own assured friend during my life."

Anne Rochford

Anne Boleyn's Investiture as Marchioness of Pembroke

On 01 Sep 1532 Anne Boleyn (age 31) was created 1st Marquess Pembroke with [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 41) performing the investiture at Windsor Castle [Map]. Note she was created Marquess rather than the female form Marchioness alhough Marchioness if a modern form that possibly didn't exist at the time.

[her father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 55), Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 48), [her uncle] Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 59), Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37), Jean Dinteville, Archbishop Edward Lee (age 50), Bishop John Stokesley (age 57) were present.

Bishop Stephen Gardiner (age 49) read the Patent of Creation.

Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 13) carried Anne's (age 31) train replacing her mother Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 35) who had been banished from Court. Anne (age 31) and Mary (age 13) were cousins.

Charles Wriothesley (age 24) attended.

Annales of England by John Stow. 01 Sep 1533. The firste of September the Lady Anne Bolleine (age 32) was made Marchionesse of Pembrooke at Windsore, and then was gyuen hir by the King, one thousande pounde by yeare, [out of the Bishopricke of Durham].

Hall's Chronicle 1532. 01 Sep 1535. The King being in progress this summer, was advertised that the Pope and the French King, had appointed to meet at Marseilles in Provence, in the beginning of the next spring, wherefore the King like a wise and politic prince, thought it convenient to speak with the French King in his own person, before the Pope and he should come together, and to declare to him both the determination, of the Universities and Doctors concerning his matrimony, and also the general counsels, which ordained such causes, to be tried in the provinces and countries, where the doubt should rise, trusting that the French King should cause the Pope to incline to God’s law, and to leave his own traditions and avoid dispensations, whereupon both the princes concluded, to meet in October following, between Calais and Boulogne. Wherefore the King of England sent out his letters, to his nobility, prelates, and servants, commanding them to be ready at Canterbury, the 26th day of September, to passe the Seas with him, for the accomplishing of the interview, between him and his brother the Frenche King. Many men were sorry to hear, that the King should pass the sea in winter, and especially in October, when the seas be rough, but their sayings letted not his purpose: for he marched forward from Ampthill to Windsor, where on Sunday being the first day of September, he created the lady Anne Boleyn (age 34), Marchioness of Pembroke, and gave to her one thousand pound land by the year, and that solemnity finished, he rode to the College to Masse, and when the Masse was ended, a new league was concluded and sworn, between the King and the French King, Monsieur Pomoray the French Ambassador then being present. After which oath taken, Doctor Fox the King’s almoner, made an eloquent oration in Latin, in praise of peace, love, and amity. Which done the trumpets blew, and the King returned to the Castle, where was kept a solemn feast. From thence the King removed to Greenwich, and so forward to Canterbury, where at the day appointed, he found ready furnished, all such as were commanded to pass the sea with him, well and richly adorned, both they and their servants.

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

Hall's Chronicle 1532. [10 Oct 1532]. The 10th day of October, the King came to Dover, and on the 11th day in the morning being Friday, at three of the clock, he took ship in Dover Road, and before ten of the clock the same day, he with the lady Marchioness of Pembroke (age 31), landed at Calais, where he was honourably received with procession, and brought to Saint Nicholas church, where he heard Mass, and so to his place called The Exchequer, where he lodged. And on the Sunday after came to Calais, the Lorde Roche Baron, and Monsieur de Mountpesat, messengers from the French King, advertising the King of England, that the French King would repair to Abuile the same night marching towards Boulogne, of which tidings the King was very glad, but suddenly came a messenger, and reported that the great Master of France, and the Archbishop of Rouen, with diverse noble men of France, were come to Sandifeld, intending to come to Calais, to salute the King, from the King their Master. He being thereof advertised, sent in great haste the fifteenth day of October, the Duke of Norfolk, the Marques of Exeter, the Earles of Oxford, Derby, and Rutland, the Lord Sandys, and the Lord Fitzwater, with three hundred gentlemen, which honourably received the French Lords, at the English pale, and so brought them to the King’s presence in Calais, which stood under a rich clothe of estate of such value that they much mused of the riches. The King (as he that knew all honour and nurture) received the French Lords, very lovingly and amiably, and with them took a day and place of meeting: these Lords were highly feasted, and after diner departed to Boulogne.

Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvii. p. 279.. 824. Summary of the Interview between the Kings of England and France.

Madam Anne (age 31) is not one of the handsomest women in the world; she is of middling stature, swarthy complexion, long neck, wide mouth, bosom not much raised, and in fact has nothing but the English King's great appetite, and her eyes, which are black and beautiful, and take great effect on those who served the Queen when she was on the throne—(et li ochj, che sono neri et belli, el che ha grande modo de l'iutertenimento di servitori avesse la Regina quando era in salute).

The most Christian King will go to a distance of two leagues from Calais to meet the King of England, and then return to dine at Marquise, and sleep at Boulogne, where they will remain Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and then on Friday go to Calais, remaining there Saturday and Sunday.

These two Kings have a bitter feeling against the Pope and the Emperor. The English King purposes destroying the castle of Gravelines, which the Emperor built opposite Calais.

Madam Anne lives like a Queen at Calais, and the King accompanies her to mass and everywhere as if she was such.

The King's son is very handsome and accomplished.

On the 20th October the most Christian King, accompanied by the gentlemen of his household, went to mass at Notre Dame de Boulogne.

200 Imperial horse and 500 infantry have entered Gravelines; so the Emperor has shifted his quarters.

In the afternoon the King, accompanied by the princes, went to sleep at Marquise, between Boulogne and Calais; his three sons, the Legate, the Lord Chancellor, and the other Cardinals and Bishops remaining at Boulogne, he having solely Lorraine and Bayonne with him; and tomorrow the two kings will meet at the "Hospice" of St. Gilbert.

On the 21st October 1532, at the ninth hour, the most Christian King dined; at the 10th he mounted on horseback with all the princes and gentlemen who were at Marquise, and they went towards Calais, without servants: and all the gentlemen, who were in great number, were clad in velvet.

On arriving at St. Gilbert's, two leagues from Calais, the King of England came in sight, very well accompanied by princes and gentlemen. And when the two Kings met they embraced each other twice, and after exchanging a few words, again embraced closely, shedding a few tears of joy, and then reciprocally embraced the princes.

The Dauphin with his two brothers and the Legate, Bourbon, Tournon, and Grammont, were at a distance of half a league from Boulogne with the young Princes Nevers, the sons of Vendome, de Guise, and many other gentlemen, and the King's archer-guard and the Switzers. When the Kings met them, his English Majesty embraced them, and Angoulême's speech to him was graceful.

They then entered the town in a body; and in the evening the two Kings remained together before supper in pleasing discourse, after which all went to supper in their own apartments. And after supper the most Christian King went to visit the English King, and they discussed light topics (e parlono di cose piacevole) and then withdrew to their chambers. The chambers were richly furnished, and the halls also.

This morning, the 22nd, the most Christian King sent to give the English King a gown, a coat, and a doublet (una vesta, uno zamavo, e uno giupono) and the King also clad himself in like manner, and they went to a church. One went to one chapel, the other to another, both of which were very richly furnished; and the mass being ended, they joined company, and a "mottetto" was sung in his (sic) chapel, commencing with the words "Da pacem, Domine, in diebus nostris." All the Cardinals who were at the mass went together, after church, to the apartment (scalla) of the English King, where they remained half an hour in conversation, and then went to the apartment of the most Christian King, and the English King kept the Cardinal of Lorraine to dine with him; and after dinner they had a game at ball, and then gambled. The most Christian King dragged the King of England1 to Council, where he remained about an hour, and then went to see the English King joust. They are intent on making good cheer; the Dauphin and the Lord Steward invite some of these grandees to banquet with them. The negotiations are conducted very secretly. On coming from the game of ball in the middle of the court, compliments were exchanged about accompanying each other. Having entered their chambers, the most Christian King before supper went to visit King Henry, whom he took to sup with him, and a very handsome banquet was served, after which they gambled, and the Cardinal of Lorraine lost 1,500 crowns to the Duke of Suffolk; everyone then withdrew. The Lord Steward placed the first service before the the King, and then retired to his lodging in the Castle, taking with him all the English princes and lords, to whom he gave a very grand banquet in great state.

On the 23rd, the two Kings on quitting their chambers met in the centre of the court, and after talking together awhile, proceeded to the mass, which being ended, they returned to their apartments. The most Christian King took the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to dine with him, and the English King did the like by the Cardinal of Bourbon, Lorraine, Vendôme, St. Pol, and Guise. Even the King talked licentiously2; and they gambled for the space of two hours. After dinner the most Christian King sat in Council with the Bishop of Winchester, the Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, the Cardinal Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral; the Cardinals Grammont, Tournon, and Bayonne were in the hall but did not enter, and departed3. They remained together for an hour, and then the most Christian King came to the English King to the joust. The aforesaid again sat in Council, remaining thus for about two hours, the only persons present besides themselves being Vilander (sic) and an English secretary. The joust being ended, the two Kings went into his most Christian Majesty's chamber and had a long conversation at a window, and it was known to be of importance.

This evening the Cardinal of Lorraine gave a banquet to the English Princes. The English King gave his most Christian Majesty 13 very handsome horses of his country, and received others from King Francis.

A roll is being made of the persons who are to go to Calais.

The affairs here are conducted very secretly, nor can one hear anything.

It is understood that the Queen of France demands her share in the government of Flanders4.

It is said that the marriage of Madam Anne (age 31) will be solemnized on Sunday, and that Bayonne will sing the mass.

During the last two days the most Christian King has been in a great passion, owing to letters received from Rome, purporting that he has been the cause of the Turkish invasion, and the Pope allows sermons to be preached in Rome publicly to this effect.

On the 25th the Legate went to the King, as did also the other Cardinals. Afterwards, the two Kings being in riding gear, and with the order [of St. Michael] round their necks, [the most Christian King] gave it with very great ceremony to Suffolk and Norfolk.

After dinner the two Kings mounted on horseback on their way to Calais, accompanied by his most Christian Majesty's three sons; and the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont are being sent to Rome, for the purpose, it is said, of obtaining the tenths and annats of benefices in the same manner as conceded to the Emperor.

The marriage of Madam Anne (age 31) is announced by balls5, banquets, and masquings, but the people of England will not allow it to take place.

The King's sons remained [at Boulogne ?]; the Lord Steward went to . . .

I write nothing about the doings at Calais, but nothing was thought of but good cheer, balls, and masquings; and very great honour was paid to the most Christian King; and some Frenchmen were made Knights of the Garter.

The son of the English King is very handsome and accomplished; he came to France, and the son of the Duke of Norfolk is also coming.

The King of England has arranged to fortify Guisnes and other places distant 2½ leagues from Calais.

Boulogne ? 31st October. Registered by Sanuto 7th December.

[Italian.]

Note 1. "Il Rè Xmo il tiro in consilio dove stetey" etc.

Note 2. "Fino il Rè intrò in ragionamento di lussã" (sic) (lussuria?).

Note 3. "II Re Xmo poi disnar intrò in consilio con Monsignor di Vicestre, duca di Sopholch e di Norpholch, il Legato Cardinal Gran Metre et Admirante, li Cardinali Agrarnonte et Tornon et Bajona, erano in la salla e non introrono e se partirono."

Note 4. "La Regina di Franz a se intende dimanda il suo partagio delle coae di Fiandra." Eleanor of Austria, Queen of France, sister of Charles V., probably claimed part of the property left by her aunt Margaret, Governess of the Low Countries, who died at Mechlin on the 1st of December 1530; or it may mean "her share in the government of Flanders."

Note 5. S'è messo in balli etc.

Calendars. Oct. 31 [1532]. Sanuto Diaries v. lvii. p. 266. 822. Zuam Antonio Venier to the Signory.

All the ambassadors being here [at Abbeville] on the 18th, I wrote from Montreuil, that on the 17th the Papal Nuncio and the Imperial Ambassador caused us to remain here at Abbeville an insult to the powers we represent, we being put to cost and in confinement whilst the former ambassadors are sent for to Montreuil and Boulogne, and while others are allowed to attend the congress, which shows they are treating against our princes.1

On the 11th instant the English King crossed the Channel, and landed at Calais with from 1,500 to 2,000 horse. He brought with him the Marchioness Boleyn (age 31), his favourite, with some twenty maids of honour (damigelle). The most Christian King remained hunting in the neighbourhood of Boulogne until the 19th, when he entered the town. On the 20th he went to Marquise, and on the afternoon of the 21st proceeded towards Calais, and midway met the English King, and both their Majesties, with mutual goodwill and respect, embraced, calling each other "brother;" and coming to Boulogne, the most Christian King placed the King of England on his right hand; and passing through Marquise they refreshed themselves, the reception being as pompous and costly as possible, there being great plenty of everything requisite.

Proceeding on their way, they met the Dauphin and the Dukes of Orleans and Angouleme, and the most Christian King said to the English King, "Sire, those are the Dauphin and my other sons, who wish, and are bound, to pay their respects to your Majesty;" and he then drew a little aside, not choosing to take part in the reception. Whereupon the English King not only embraced but kissed them all three on the mouth; and the Dauphin and Orleans thanked him for what he had done, and for having released their father from captivity, declaring that their lives and their entire substance would at all times be at the disposal of his Majesty and his kingdom. Angouleme, who had not the same subject of discourse, addressed him in another form, but so sweetly and sagely, according to report, that he spoke like an angel; so that the English King again embraced him alone, kissing him several times; after which the most Christian King resumed his place beside King Henry, thanking him for his gracious reception of his sons. They were then met in succession by five cardinals, namely, the Legate [Chancellor Duprat (age 69)], Bourbon, Lorraine, Tournon, and Grammont, and by a great number of archbishops, bishops, and prelates, and by many princes and barons, all of whom were embraced by the English King, which being a tedious and fatiguing ceremony, was considered a mark of great gracious-ness on the part of his Majesty; there being, in addition to these, the 200 gentlemen of his most Christian Majesty's household, in rich and noble array, and the 400 archers, and the 100 Switzers, all in very costly liveries of silk and gold, so that the abundance of silk, gold, pearls, and jewels on the part of France was considered inestimable, most especially on account of the embroideries and brocades (brocature) now in fashion there; but on the side of England there were many cloths of silk, and gold chains without number, but not such boundless expense.

On entering Boulogne, although the English King remonstrated against it, his most Christian Majesty accompanied him to his chamber; and on the following day sent him, as a present, a coat (iuppone) a doublet (soio) and a gown (roba) such as he himself purposed wearing on that day, which apparel was embroidered with pearls and precious stones, so that it is said to be marvellous. And the various games, entertainments, and pageants were most splendid and endless; and the extreme graciousness of both the Kings was remarkable, for the most Christian King always banqueted the Englishmen, King Henry doing the like by the Frenchmen. On the 13th the most Christian King gave the English King a suit of bed furniture, wrought throughout with pearls on crimson velvet, which he purchased lately in Paris of an Italian merchant for 10,000 golden crowns; and the other day he gave him six coursers of his own breed, the handsomest he had in his stable.

It is said that on the evening of the 23rd the two Kings held a long secret conference, there being present on the part of France the Lord Chancellor Legate, the Lord Steward, and the Admiral2, and on the part of England the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the Bishop of Winchester.

The result of this conference is understood to be that the most Christian King sends the Cardinals Tournon and Grammont to the Pope about the Emperor entering Italy, and will send a personage to said Emperor (a esso Cesare) and he has despatched an ambassador to Scotland to offer his daughter to the King there, according to the request made by the Scottish ambassador, who had returned to his King without any decision. But his most Christian Majesty will give him his daughter on condition that he do forthwith form a league and understanding with his Majesty and the English King, which will be difficult.

It is said that the English King having made the Marchioness (age 31) cross the Channel with him for the purpose of marrying her, with the intervention of King Francis, (per sposarla con intervento dil Re Xmo.) his most Christian Majesty apparently modified this project at the consultation held between them; and such is the belief of the French and English.

The Reverend (sic) Casal3 arrived lately, having ridden post from Rome, where he was negotiating for the English King. No farther change was caused by his coming.

On the morning of the 25th the most Christian King gave the collar of his order of St. Michael to the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and went to Calais with the English King; and on the road, and on entering that town, the same compliments were paid as on entering Boulogne, every loving and honourable demonstration being made towards the French; nor was there less magnificence; games and pageants being exchanged for wild fowl and venison, and, moreover, for English ladies.4 Then the English King gave his most Christian Majesty a vesture (uno vestido) and six coursers, and six hobbies (chinee); and it is said, though this I do not know for certain, that he remitted and gave to the three French princes the entire debt due from their father, amounting to about 300,000 crowns. He also gave his Order of St. George to the Lord Steward and to the Admiral5; and finally gave, as servant to the most Christian King, his natural son, who is about 13 years old.

On the 29th the English King, accompanied by the most Christian King, went a distance of three leagues beyond Calais; there they took leave of each other with many mutual embraces and caresses.

It is reported that these two nations, which are by nature hostile to each other, exchanged greater marks of honour and goodwill than were expected.

Two days hence the most Christian King will go to Amiens, there to consult about the mission of these two Cardinals. It is said that these two Kings have agreed for the Cardinals to insist on the Pope's not leaguing with the Emperor, and should he make a fresh agreement with him, they will no longer allow the collation of the benefices of France and England to be referred to Rome, but will separate their clergy from the Roman See. (Si dice questi Rè kanno convenuto che li Cardinali insista ch'el Papa non conseguisca il vincolo con Cesare; et facendo nova, intelligentia non voter più che la erpeditione di Franca et Anglia vadino a Roma, ma divider il suo clero dalla Sede Romana). But this interview (vista) and conference have been a superfluous expenditure,—entertainments and pageants, and nothing else.

Abbeville6, 31st October. Registered by Sanuto, 29th November.

[Italian.]

Note 1. "Ritrovandosi tutti li Oratori quì alli 18, scrissi da Montreuil che adi 17 il Nontio Pontificio et Orator Cesareo concluseno questo atto di fame star quì apartati, e via (eon pocha consideration, et per far grande iniuria a li Principi de chi semo Oratori, li quali è sta fati venir a Montarol e Bologna), e spender, confiuandone, e a cadaun altro è sta leeito andar a vedcr i congressi."

Note 2. Philippe Chabot, Seigneur de Brion.

Note 3. Query Sir Gregory Casal. (See State Papers, vol. vii. part 5, p. 380.)

Note 4. "e non furono inferiori di splendidezza, suplendo nelli jochi spetaculi, de animali silvestri e di più dille dame Englese." See also Hall, p. 795. "I assure you he [Francis I] and his trayne, were requited at Caleis for [by?] the plentie of wylde foule, venison," etc., etc.

Note 5. Montmorency and Chabot.

Note 6. In the original "Bovilla," but see letter dated Montreuil, 17th October.

On 11 Nov 1532 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 31) met with King Francis I of France (age 38) at Calais [Map]. Henry Howard (age 16) was present.

Those listed as travelling with Henry and Anne include:

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37).

William Stafford (age 24); this may have been when he first met [her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 33).

Mary Boleyn (age 33)

Henry VIII and Francis I meet at Calais

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. 28 Oct 1532. And vpon sondaye both the kynges herde masse in theyr lodgynges. And at after-noone the kynge of Englande went to Staple hall to the frensshe kynge and there was bothe bere baytynge and bulbayting tyll nyght. And at nyght the frensshe kynge souped with our kynge and there was greate bankettynge. And after souper1 there came in a maske my lady marques of Penbroke (age 31) my lady [her sister] Mary (age 33) my lady [her aunt] Darby (age 21) my lady [her aunt] Fitzwater (age 26) my lady Rocheford (age 27) my lady Lislie (age 38) and my lady Wallop gorgyously apparayled with visers on theyr faces and so came and toke the frensshe kynge by the hande and other lordes of Fraunce and daunced a daunce or two. And after that the kynge toke of theyr visers and than they daunced with gentylmen of Fraunce an houre after. And than they departed to theyr lodgynges. And as for the apparayle of the frensshe lordes my tongue can not expresse it and in especyal the frensshe kyng his apparayle passed1 my penne to wryte for he had a dublet ouer set all with stones and rychc diamondes whiche was valued by discrete men at a hondred thousand pounde they passed ferre our lordes and knyghtes in apparayle and rychesse. They had greate chere in Caleys and louynge also and all at our kynges costes and charges. Also the same daye that the kynges came from Bulleyn the frensshe kynge made the [her uncle] duke of Norffolke (age 59) and the duke of Suffolke (age 48) of the ordre of saynt Mighill2.

Note 1. The Second Edition reads "passeth" for "passed."

Note 2. Saint Michael.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

Hall's Chronicle 1532. [14 Nov 1532]. The King after his return, married privately the lady Anne Boleyn (age 31), on Saint Erkenwaldes day, which marriage was kept so secrete, that very few knew it, til she was great with child, at Easter after.

On 25 Jan 1533 Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 Feb 1533. Vienna Archives. 180. Chapuys to Charles V.

As the Queen sees that the obstinacy of the King increases daily, and the appearances of disorder in view of the new marriage, she is compelled to employ your aid. Since my last of the 15th, the King does not cease to press the archbishops of Canterbury and York, the bishops of London, Winchester, and Lincoln, and many others, Italians as well as English, to subscribe a document he has drawn up to his taste, of a very strange nature, as you will see. The archbishop of York and the bishop of Winchester have not yet agreed to do so. The elect of Canterbury (age 43) has made no difficulty about it, and has even solicited it, as if it were his own business; and if it be true, as I am told today on good authority, that he has gone to give the Queen special notice of it, he has given good earnest of maintaining the opinion of the King in this divorce without variation. He has married (esposé) the King to the Lady (age 32), in presence of the [her father] father (age 56), [her mother] mother (age 53), [her brother] brother (age 30), and two of her favorites, and one of his priests. If it be so, the King has taken the best means of preventing him from changing his opinions when raised to his dignity, as the archbishop of York has done. It is very probable either that the said elect has solemnised these espousals, or has promised to do so for certain considerations, as I have written to your Majesty, especially as since he has been elected he has dared to say openly that he would maintain, on pain of being burned, that the King might take the Lady to wife. The bruit continues, that in order to accomplish the said marriage the King waits for nothing else except the bulls of the elect; and for this purpose he has commanded those who have the charge of it to summon a provincial synod for the 16th. It is said that the King means to demand money for a war with Scotland, and to make harbours on the coast; and the better to colour the matter, the king of France has sent him a master architect. The French ambassador had intended to visit me, but was prevented by company, and proposes to do so tomorrow. It is said that Melanchthon is in one of the King's lodgings, and has been there for eight days, but it is kept such a secret that I can find no one who knows the certainty of it. The King has written for him expressly, I think merely for the Queen's affair, for he favors her, and because he pretends and wishes to have in his hands all ecclesiastical ordinances,—not only the synodical ones of this kingdom, but the papal as well. And in order the better to conduct the affair, last year he induced the prelates, by menaces and devices, to submit to whatever should be decided by 40 persons, of whom one half should be appointed by himself, and the other by the prelates, and himself above all. For this reformation, or rather deformation, it seems he could find no fitter instrument than Melanchthon, so as to give the utmost possible trouble to the Pope, that his previous boasts might not be without effect.

Letters and Papers 1533. 07 May 1533. Add. MS. 28,585, f. 244. B. M. 454. Count Of Cifuentes to Charles V.

Was told by the Pope that he had letters from his Nuncio [in England] of April 12, saying, that the King had married "la Anna (age 32)" publicly, with all the usual ceremonies. A few days previously he had convoked the Estates for this purpose, and many opposed the King in both Houses (?) (asi de unos como de otros); and this was in the first Parliament. At the second the same thing happened, and the King rose to his feet, bidding those of his party help him, as he wished to marry. The opposition of the other party was at last overcome by money, promises, and threats. To give a colour to what the King wished to do, it was determined that all cases of tithes, marriages, or wills should be decided in the kingdom before ordinary judges, of whom the chief was the principal Archdeacon (archidiano mayor) of London1. The judge of the first and second appeal was the archbishop of Canterbury, with certain prelates. The King summoned the Archbishop, and told him that he should marry (casasse) this Anna. The dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk were sent to intimate this to the Queen.

Note 1. William Clyff, LL.D.

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 May 1533 Lanz, II. 66. 523. Charles V. to Ferdinand of Hungary.

I wrote on the 12th what I had learned about the marriage (l'esposement) of the king of England to Anne Boleyn (age 32). I have since received letters from my ambassador, by which you will see that the said marriage is accomplished, and that the King holds her as his wife and queen of England. Although the injury done to the Queen and Princess is extreme, and there is little hope of bringing Henry to reason, considering the delays and subterfuges used by him and the Pope, yet after careful consideration it has been thought best to persist in the demand for justice, as you will see by the copy of our despatches to Rome and England; and that you also should send some one to Rome to urge the matter. I write also to the king of Portugal to do the like. Barcelona, 23 May 1533. Fr.

Letters and Papers 1533. 24 May 1533. Granvelle Papers, II. 30. 534. Charles V. to his Ambassador in France.

Since his last, touching the marriage of Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn (age 32), has received letters from his ambassadors, stating that it has certainly taken place, and that the Queen has been forbidden to call herself Queen, and the Princess to write to her, &c. The people of England are scandalised at the King's barbarity. Is to show these things to Francis, and urge him as a Christian prince, and as related to Katharine by his wife, to denounce this marriage, or at least not to countenance it in any way or interfere with justice. He is also to deliver the Emperor's letters to the Queen, and urge her to use her best efforts in the matter. De Leyva writes that Montferrat is reduced all but Alba. Barcelona, 24 May 1533. Fr.

Letters and Papers 1533. 01 Jan 1533. R. O. 6. Anne Boleyn (age 32).

Warrant under the King's sign manual to Cromwell, master of the Jewels, to deliver to the lady of Pembroke these parcels of gilt plate, late of Sir Henry Guldeford, controller of the Household:—2 gilt pots with round knobs behind the lids, which came to Sir Henry as executor to Sir William Compton, weighing 133 oz.; a pair of gilt flagons with the arms of France, 147 oz.; 6 gilt bowls without a cover, 200½oz.; 3 gilt salts with a cover of Parres touch," which belonged to Sir Will. Compton, 77 oz.; 12 gilt spoons with demi-knops at the end, 18 oz.; a pair of parcel-gilt pots, 99½ oz.; another, 97¾ oz.; another, 71 oz.; 6 parcel-gilt bowls without cover, 199¼ oz.; the cover of the same, 19¾ oz.; a basin and ewer, parcel-gilt, 77 oz.; another basin and ewer, parcel-gilt, 64 oz.; 11 white spoons with roses at the ends, 20¼ oz.; 4 candles, white, with high sockets, 86½ oz.; "a round bason of silver for a chamber, and a silver pot to the same, weighing together 138½ oz."; and a chafing dish, parcel-gilt, 39¾ oz. "And that ye make entry of the foresaid parcels of plate into our book of Extra for the rather noticing the same hereafter." Greenwich, 1 Jan. 24 Hen. VIII.

Letters and Papers 1533. 26 Jan 1533. S. B. 74. For Anne, Marchioness Of Pembroke (age 32).

Commission to George Tayler, John Smyth, and Wm. Brabazon to take possession, in her name, of the lands in North and South Wales, lately granted to Anne marchioness of Pembroke. Greenwich, 26 Jan. 24 Hen. VIII.

Letters and Papers 1533. 04 Feb 1533. Cleopatra, E. IV. 28*. B. M. Ellis, 3 Ser. II. 245. 115. Ric. Lyst, lay brother among the Friars at Greenwich, to Anne Boleyn (age 32).

I wrote to you of a certain chance happened among us here, since which I have sent word thereof to the King and your father privily by Dr. Goodryche. I marvel that the matter is so slenderly looked upon as yet. I heard, more than a year ago, that the King was minded to move us from Greenwich to Christchurch in London, and make this place a college. I think it may be done without any offence against God or great note of the people, considering how some of our company have used themselves against God, the King, and you. If there had been a place of our religion in London, many inconveniences would have been avoided. It would be a meritorious deed if you could help to bring it to pass. I was in some trouble by reason of the piteous chance happened amongst us, and my trouble increases so, that I can scarcely take my natural rest two nights a week. If it continues I fear disease will ensue. I beseech you to pray for me, for I do daily for you. By God's grace and prayer I trust to have remedy, for I have some learning and intelligence. I have often spoken and answered in the King's cause and yours, for which I have suffered rebuke and trouble, but it has been rather comfort than otherwise, and so it should be to every true lover in the cause of his friend. I have often been called in derision your chaplain, but I have not yet taken priest's orders, though I intend to do so, and trust, within two years and less, to say 100 masses for your prosperous state, spiritual and corporal. I am now at liberty to be a priest, for a young woman to whom I was made sure by way of marriage before I came to religion, is departed to the mercy of God. I am 40s. in debt for clothes and other things necessary for my mother, but I am half ashamed and more to beg any more of you, because you have been so good to her in times past. Nevertheless, if it shall please you to remember her, the alms can be delivered either to Dr. Goodryche, one of the King's chaplains, or to Master Cole, sub-dean of the Chapel Royal. 4 Feb.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: "[To the mo]st onerabyll lady [marquesse] of Penbroke." Endd.

Letters and Papers 1533. 09 Feb 1533. 142. The King and the Lady (age 32) have never before spoken so much nor so openly of the accomplishment of their matrimonial purpose. The other day the Lady (age 32) told a priest who wished to enter her service that he must wait a little until she had celebrated her marriage with the King. She keeps the Queen's jewels, and there is nothing said about returning them.

The month fixed in the brief sent to the King is nearly passed, and there are no signs of his obeying it. A sentence only would be of effect. If, meanwhile, the Pope would decree a good excommunication against the Lady if she did not stay away from Court, the King would have less occasion to complain than if it were decreed against himself, and the people more liberty of speaking against her, and remonstrating with the King "se pouvant declairer interdict partout ou elle passeroit" * * * 9 Feb. 1533.

Fr., pp. 12. From a modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1533. 09 Feb 1533. 142. On hearing this the Nuncio did not declare the condition which your Majesty sent me, partly because he had not been informed of it by the Pope, and partly because he judged it impossible to induce the King to leave the Lady (age 32), without whom he cannot live for an hour. He feared also incurring the displeasure of her, the King and her relations.

Yesterday, for the second time, the King went to the House of Parliament. He took his seat on his throne, the Nuncio being on his right and the French ambassador on his left. Behind there were all the Lords dressed like the King in their scarlet Parliament robes (chappez). The deputies of the Commons, also in scarlet, presented to the King a lawyer, who had been elected as Speaker (parlamenteur aux estatz), the office being vacated by the promotion of the new Chancellor. The King received him, and conferred on him the Order of knighthood. Nothing else has been done since Parliament met on the 3rd. When the King left, the Nuncio and Ambassador accompanied him to the water, and then were taken back by the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk to the house, where they dined with the Lords of the Council, and were shown over the house.

Letters and Papers 1533. 09 Feb 1533. 142. A sentence is the sovereign and only remedy, and the Queen says that the King would not struggle against it, if only from fear of his subjects, who are not only well disposed to your Majesty and the Queen, but for the most part good Catholics, and would not live in excommunication and under an interdict. The King would, therefore, be forced to obey the sentence. If a tumult arose, I do not know if the Lady (age 32), who is hated by all the world, would escape with her life and jewels. If the Pope does not take care, and that soon, he will lose his authority here little by little, and his censures will not be regarded. Besides, the sentence could not come at a better time than now, when there is war with Scotland; for if, in consequence of the interdict, they could have no intercourse with Flanders and Spain, there would be such excitement against the King and his Council as never was before. Would not have written thus, as your Majesty knows the importance of affairs better than any one else, but the Queen commanded me to do so.

It appears clearly that the King only demands the remission of the cause to cause delay, and make it immortal; for while it was before the Cardinals here, he took no trouble to produce witnesses or instruments, but only insisted on a sentence, as the process must have ended in a sentence in his favor. What can he add now, except that he wishes to examine witnesses as to the consummation of the first marriage, for which there would be no reason to insist on the scheme proposed, as the Rota would grant demissoria to examine them here, if he wished?

As to what the Pope said to your Majesty, that if the King wished to appear at Rome, he would be heard, notwithstanding his previous contumacy, and his Holiness would be obliged to give him long delays:—this is true and reasonable, but, on the other hand, there is a point which the King well knows, and which counterbalances nearly everything else, as the King knows. It is this: if he appears and demands such things, he must first obey the brief. On this hangs the key of the whole matter.

To increase the Queen's suspicion that the sudden promotion of the archbishop of Canterbury was for the purpose of attempting something against her, she has recently been informed that the King boasted more than twice that, if the Pope did not grant what he sent Dr. Bonart to ask, who is going tomorrow, he would have his case tried directly the bulls arrived here. She has also heard that four days ago one of the King's chief councillors had assembled several doctors, both clerical and lay, and had proposed to them, on behalf of the King, that the opinion of all theologians was that if the first marriage was consummated, the second was null; and that to prove the consummation, besides the presumption the King had found an instrument, which he showed them, containing an assertion thereof by the King Catholic and the King's father. Having seen this, the whole company said that it only remained for the King to proceed to his purpose by the authority of the archbishop of Canterbury. Since the Queen heard of this, and of the King's joy since the Nuncio has begun to treat of the proposal already mentioned, she has been in the greatest perplexity, and yesterday sent me three messengers one after another, and today two, to urge me to send off the present courier, and write about these matters, as she could not do so herself in consequence of the perturbation of her spirits. The remedy would be for the Pope to defer the expedition of the bulls till the sentence is given or nearly given. I think pretext enough may be found to do this, or an express condition can be put in the bulls, or the form of oath which he has to take, not to hinder the affair. I have spoken to the Nuncio, who says he has previously informed the Pope, and has just done so again. If the Pope knew the report that was current here about the new Archbishop being a Lutheran, he would not be too hasty to admit and confirm him. I hear that he has taken into his service two priests who have several times preached against the Queen, in recompense of the certain danger they were in of being burnt, if it had not been for the lady's father.

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Feb 1533. 160. The Lady (age 32) within the last eight days, dining in her chamber, has said several times she felt it as sure as death that the King would marry her shortly; and her [her father] father (age 56) told the earl of Rutland two days ago that the King did not mean to be so dilatory (respectif) as he had been, but would complete the marriage with his daughter, which being once done by the authority of Parliament, they could pacify objectors more easily than now. And on his asking the Earl whether, if it were set forth in Parliament, he would oppose the King, he being the King's kinsman, the Earl replied that the affair was spiritual, and could not be decided in Parliament. The father (age 56) on this attacked him with abusive language (rechargea de grosses parolles), as if he had uttered some great blasphemy, and compelled him to say that he would consent to whatever the King wished; of which things the said Earl sent to inform me immediately, in order that some remedy might be found, without trusting that any of the Parliament would dare to contradict. The Lady's father (age 56) has not declared himself until the present time; but, as the [her uncle] duke of Norfolk (age 60) has told me several times, has rather dissuaded the King from it than otherwise. This thing throws the Queen into great doubt, connected with other appearances, as that of a new Chancellor whom the King has made, suited to his purpose; and for this reason the King has required that three bishops who held the Queen's side should be excused from it, and he has deputed as proctors those who pleased him; of which the Queen has charged me to write to you.

Cranmer appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

Letters and Papers 1533. 22 Feb 1533. Add. MS. 28,585, f. 222, B.M. 178. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Letters have come from Flanders of 24 Jan., stating that the brief has been received, and will be notified. The Emperor sends to order it to be notified at once.

Eustace Chapuis writes from England that on Christmas Eve Master Abel and another preacher were let out of the Tower, where they were confined, with orders not to preach or write until five days after Easter (Pascua). The truce between England and Scotland came to an end on St. Andrew's Day (por Santandres), and the English have invaded Scotland in three places and done much damage, taking more than 300 prisoners.

The Scotch ambassador in England had returned. It is feared there will be war. The Emperor has sent the count of Cifuentes here as ambassador.

Since writing the above, letters have arrived from the ambassador in England, dated 9 Feb., stating that the brief has been notified in Flanders, and that the king of England has given the archbishopric of Canterbury to a chaplain (age 43) of "this Ana (age 32)," which has been taken ill by many. Bolonia, 22 Feb. 1533.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1533. 24 Feb 1533. Granvelle, Papiers d'Etat, II. 1. 182. Clement VII. and Charles V.

Treaty for defence against the Turk, with a clause that if the Pope treat for the marriage of Katharine de Medici with a son of Francis I. he shall take security that France shall assist in a council for religion and defence against the Turks. Also a clause touching duke Alexander; and another that the English divorce be not tried anywhere but at Rome, but that the Pope shall give no countenance to the king of England's relations with Anne Boleyn (age 32), but shall act upon the brief he lately issued. Bologna, 24 Feb. 1533. Lat.

Letters and Papers 1533. 07 Mar 1533. 7 March. Add. MS. 28,585, f. 229. B. M. 208. Mai to Cobos.

"Memorial de lo que pase con los Cardenales Franceses."

Visited the card. of Agramont (Grammont), who has been ill, and the cardinal of Tornon, who lodged near him. Was told by them that they were surprised to hear so much about war, and also at what was now newly published, that the kings of France and England would meet again (que se habian de ver otra vez los Reyes, &c.), for this was the greatest lie in the world. The Emperor should only believe what his Ambassador wrote. Assured them that the Emperor did not believe this, as he considered the French king as his good brother and ally, but there was cause for suspicion, which they could remedy. Referred to his former negotiation with the duke of Albany.

The Cardinals complained of their not having access to the Emperor, while his Ambassadors in France were always well treated. They complained also of Imperial influence in the election of Cardinals, and that the cardinal of Siguenca had said to them that the Emperor would not regard their wishes. They said they spoke in the matter of the Auditor of the Chamber, because they had orders from their King to treat the affairs of the king of England as his own.

Said they might have had a more honorable commission than that, supposing they meant the divorce. They replied they said nothing about that, and Francis did not wish to meddle in it, except that justice might be done; —that he had already endeavored to dissuade Henry, and would still dissuade him as far as possible, from marrying the Lady (age 32), which it is to be feared he will do in fact. Does not believe them.

Endd.: Al Comendador Mayor—de Micer Mai, vij. Março de 1533. Sp., pp. 6. Modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1533. 08 Mar 1533. 212. On St. Matthias' Day the Lady (age 32) received the King at dinner in her chamber richly ornamented with tapestry, and the most beautiful sideboard of gold that ever was seen. The Lady (age 32) sat close on the right of the King, and the old duchess of Norfolk (age 56) on his left. At the lower end of the table, where there was another contiguous and transverse table, sat the Chancellor, Suffolk and many other lords and ladies. During dinner the King was so much occupied with mirth and talk that he said little which could be understood; but he said to the duchess of Norfolk, "Has not the Marchioness (age 32) got a "grand dote and a rich marriage, as all that we see, and the rest of the plate" (with which they had been delighted), "belongs to the Lady (age 32)?" Your Majesty will perceive the King's obstinacy, who, since the execution of the brief, goes on worse than before, as well in this matter as in that of the Queen (age 47), whom he has lately banished 40 miles from here in very great haste, notwithstanding her great entreaty for a delay of eight days, that she might give order for her necessities; and there is no hope that he will do otherwise until he sees sentence given, for the reasons I have already written to you.

Letters and Papers 1533. 08 Mar 1533. 212. On the 23rd the Nuncio received from the Pope the briefs to be presented to the King for summoning the Council. He was at Court to present them; but as it was a day when the Lady (age 32) gave a banquet the King would not give him audience, but deputed [her uncle] Norfolk (age 60) to hear his charge. Since then he has asked many times for an audience and for an answer, and after waiting from day to day he was told yesterday that the King was busy, and it was no use for him to wait, for the King would write in three days to his ambassadors at Rome.

Letters and Papers 1533. 08 Mar 1533. Vienna Archives. 212. Chapuys to Charles V.

I wrote on the 23rd ult. On the 24th I received your Majesty's letters of the 28th Jan. The same day Langez arrived from France, and a French gentleman named Beauvoix from Scotland, who have been, as usual, well received, and dined at the King's table with the other Ambassador the day after their arrival, which was Shrove Tuesday, when the Lady (age 32) took the place usually occupied by the Queen; and there were present the [her uncle] duke of Norfolk (age 60) and other great masters, except Suffolk, although he had been expressly called to come with the order of France. The said Langez and Beauvoix were here but four days, and were every day in Court and in communication with the King and Council, "mays non poinct fort griemant;" and it seems that their hasty despatch was either because Langez could not arrange anything important, or to hasten the settlement of their dispute with Scotland. I think one of the chief objects of Langez's coming has been to take resolution with those here about the Council, which both parties desire to prevent. I am led to think this, because, in talking with Langez, he suddenly said to me that your Majesty had obtained your desire, viz., the said Council, and that the Pope had no mind to refuse you anything since he had been punished by your Majesty by imprisonment and otherwise. And on my declaring to him the displeasure you had felt at his Holiness's imprisonment, and his sudden deliverance as soon as you were informed of it, he intimated that a ransom had been paid for the said deliverance, although it was more honorable and gracious than his Holiness deserved. This I could not allow to pass after declaring the respect you had always felt for his Holiness, and showed that the Pope had done more for his master than for your Majesty, pointing out also the necessity of the said Council, which the Pope must have promoted without being asked. On this Langez retracted what he had said. He told me his master had written to the Pope that a Council was reasonable and necessary, but that two conditions ought to be observed: first, that it must be in a suitable place where all could attend, and if it were held in Italy he should have the right of bringing as many forces as you had brought; and (2) that it should treat of nothing but what concerned the Faith, and enter into no particular quarrels. He did not enter fully into the said conditions, for Brian had just come for him and the other Ambassadors to conduct them to Court, taking no particular pleasure in my conversation with him. Suggests reasons for these conditions; among others, the fear they have lest it should be proposed to restore to the Empire the temporalities now held by the Pope, doubting that your Majesty would grow too great thereby.

Langez proceeded to justify the course he had taken at Paris about the divorce, saying he had not done any bad turn there, as people thought, and that he no more desired the divorce than I did. And he said that last year, when he was in Germany, he had found certain of your ministers very little inclined to the preservation of peace with his master; for that they said that his master had promoted the coming of the Turks. Further, in the course of conversation he said that you had used certain words at an assembly at Ratisbon not honorable to the King his master, stating that when he had been asked for succour against the Turk he had replied that he would not hazard his people.

In consequence of their hurry to go to Court, I had no leisure to treat with the gentleman who returned from Scotland. Conversation with Langez on the peace there, who professed ignorance of what this gentleman has done. Asked Norfolk (age 60), but could get no information. He told me that Langez had talked to the King and his Council, as he had done to me, but did not say much, as Suffolk and [her father] Wiltshire (age 56) were standing by while he had to go to the King, who had sent for him already three times. I hope I shall find out some of the particulars of Langez's charge. As to the other, I have learned that since the Scotch king received the Order (of the Golden Fleece) from your Majesty, the Scots are no longer inclined to France, and have proceeded so far as to beat down the arms of France, and put up the Imperial arms in their room. On being informed of this, the French king had sent him to James, explaining that he had not put off giving his daughter in marriage to him. To which the Scotch king made a gracious and prudent answer, expressive of his affection for France; and as to the reception of the Order, he had merely acted in conformity [with your liberality], of which he could not repent; and he spoke much in praise of you.

Letters and Papers 1533. 11 Mar 1533. R. O. St. P. VII. 427. 230. Instructions for [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 30), sent to the French Court.

Is to present Francis with the letters written by the King's own hand, and express the delight he feels in his friendship and offers of service made by De Langeais, especially with regard to his asking the King's advice concerning the marriage of the duke of Orleans with the Pope's niece. Has declared it already by De Langeais at his return; which Rochford is to enlarge upon, touching on the low extraction of the lady (age 32), which the King thinks is a great obstacle. Is to tell Francis that, according to his advice given at their last interview, and from his anxiety to have male issue for the establishment of his kingdom, he has proceeded effectually to the accomplishment of his marriage, trusting to find that his deeds will correspond with his promises, and that he will assist and maintain the King in the event of any excommunication from the Pope. That, in full consideration of the friendship of Francis, the King has opened to him his mind entirely, and asked his advice from time to time; and, considering he is now following the French king's counsel, he hopes that he will, as a true friend and brother, devise whatever he can for the establishment of the said marriage, preventing any impediment to it, or of the succession, which please God will follow, and which, to all appearance, is in a state of advancement already, as the King himself would do for Francis in like case. That, considering the Pope, in the violation of the rights of princes, has unjustly appointed a day for the King to appear before him (to which he does not intend to submit, it being dishonorable to his royal dignity, especially as the Pope refused to admit the excusator), if kings and princes were to allow this, he would extend his usurpation over all the rest, to their great dishonor. Ought a prince to submit to the arrogance and ambition of an earthly creature whom God has made his subject? Ought a King to humble himself, and pay obedience to him over whom God has given him the superiority? This would be to pervert the order which God has ordained, and would be as prejudicial to Francis as to Henry himself. The King will therefore be glad if Francis will despatch an agent to the Pope to intimate to him the following points: —1. That if he refuses to admit the King's excusator, and proceeds against the King, Francis will not allow it, but both will resist it to his great disadvantage; but if he will maintain the King's privileges, and not intermeddle in the cause, he will find us his true friends; otherwise, we will never enter into any alliance with him. 2. That he will never consent to the marriage of the Pope's niece with his son, except, without delay, the Pope admits the King's excusator, as he is bound to do. Furthermore, if any one, as is likely to be the case, should endeavour to alienate him from our cause, notwithstanding that we are assured of the alliance between us, and that such attempts would be fruitless, we hope he will excuse us for suggesting that if such a case arises he should reply that he considers our cause to be just, seeing that we are so straitly allied with him in amity and friendship, that, if it were infringed, it would turn to his dishonor, and give the world occasion to suppose that the friendship of princes is nothing but dissimulation.

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Mar 1533. Vienna Archives. 235. Chapuys to Charles V.

Since my last letters of the 8th, the King has got a priest of his to preach before him and the lady (age 32), that all the while he had lived with the Queen he had been guilty of adultery, and that all his good subjects ought to pray God to pardon his offence, and enlighten him at once to take another lady; to which the Lords of his Council should solicit and even constrain him, without any regard to the censures or other provisions that the Pope could make, who ought not to be obeyed in this matter, commanding what was against God and reason. He said also that it would be no wonder if he took a wife of humble condition in consideration of her personal merits, like Saul and David. This was said with such vehemence and warmth that not only were the Queen's servants scandalised, but the Queen herself, who, for this and other bad symptoms that she sees here, is again compelled to implore by her letters sent herewith the aid and favor of your Majesty.

Letters and Papers 1533. 16 Mar 1533. Camusat, 82 b. 242. Montmorency (age 40) to the Bailly Of Troyes.

The King sends a memoir which has come from the cardinals of Tournon and Grammont, to be shown to the king of England and the duke of Norfolk. He will reply fully to what Langey and [her brother] Rochefort (age 30) have brought. As to the prize which the Scotch have taken to Dieppe since the Bailly wrote, such good order has been taken on the coasts of Normandy, Picardy, and Brittany that the king of England has good reason to be contented. Desires him to tell Norfolk of this. The King sends Beauvais to Scotland in a few days. He will pass through England, to try and bring this war to an amicable end. The Emperor does what he can to stir them up. The King will spend Easter at Paris, which is inconvenient, considering the journey he intends to take. Expects that the first news from Italy will be the Emperor's embarcation. Sends a letter in the King's hand to Madame la Marquise (age 32). Desires to be recommended to her. Has news that the Bailly's brother is better. The King has sent to Denmark to preserve friendship with the King there, who is the present possessor. Thinks he will remain friendly, though the Emperor has tried to draw him away. Coussy, 16 March. Fr.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 12 Apr 1533. Memorandum: the 12th day of Aprill, Anno Domini 1533, beinge Easter eaven, Anne Bulleine (age 32), Marques of Pembroke,d was proclaymed Queene at Greenewych, and ofired that daie in the Kinges Chappell as Queene of England.e

Note d. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was raised to the dignity of Marchioness of Pembroke on Sunday, September 1st, 1532, at Windsor Castle, an honour which had never before been conferred on any unmarried female.

Note e. She had been some months preriously married to Henry VIII in great privacy by Dr. Rowland Lee (age 46), afterwards Bishop of Lichfield and Coyentry, but whether the marriage took place, as Sanders says, November 14th, 1532, on their arrival at Dover from France, or was deferred, as Cranmer (age 43) [?] supposed, to January 25th, 1533, still remains uncertain.

Hall's Chronicle 1533. After the King perceiving his new wife Queen Anne (age 32), to be great with child, caused all officers necessary, to be appointed to her, and so on Easter eve, she went to her Closet openly as Queen, with all solemnity, and then the King appointed the day of her Coronation, to be kept on Whit Sunday next following, and writings were sent to all Shires, to certify the names of men of forty pound, to receive the Order of Knighthood, or else to make a fine: the assessment of which fines, were appointed to Thomas Cromwell, Master of the Kings Jewel House, and counsellor to the king, and newly in his high favour, which so politicly handled the matter, that he raised of that seizing of fines, a great sum of money to the Kings use. Also the King wrote letters to the city of London, to prepare pageants against the same coronation.

On 12 Apr 1533, Saturday, Easter Eve, Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) made her first appearance as Queen attending mass at the Queen's Closet at Greenwich Palace [Map]. She was accompanied by sixty ladies including Margaret "Madge" Shelton.

The Venetian Ambassdor reported ... "This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne went with the [her husband] King (age 41) to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament.".

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Apr 1533. 351. On Saturday, Easter Eve, dame Anne (age 32) went to mass in Royal state, loaded with jewels, clothed in a robe of cloth of gold friese. The daughter (age 14) of the duke of Norfolk (age 60), who is affianced to the [her illegitimate step-son] duke of Richmond (age 13), carried her train; and she had in her suite sixty young ladies, and was brought to church, and brought back with the solemnities, or even more, which were used to the Queen. She has changed her name from Marchioness to Queen, and the preachers offered prayers for her by name. All the world is astonished at it for it looks like a dream, and even those who take her part know not whether to laugh or to cry. The King is very watchful of the countenance of the people, and begs the lords to go and visit and make their court to the new Queen, whom he intends to have solemnly crowned after Easter, when he will have feastings and tournaments; and some think that Clarencieux went four days ago to France to invite gentlemen at arms to the tourney, after the example of Francis, who did so at his nuptials. I know not whether this will be before or after, but the King has secretly appointed with the archbishop of Canterbury that of his office, without any other pressure, he shall cite the King as having two wives; and upon this, without summoning the Queen, he will declare that he was at liberty to marry as he has done without waiting for a dispensation or sentence of any kind.

Letters and Papers 1533. 12 Apr 1533. 12 April. Granvelle Papers, II. 22. 331. Charles V. to his Ambassador in France.

Has received his letters of 15 March and 4 April, and those of the Queen, &c.... Has written already of his disembarcation at Marseilles, and the treatment shown him there. As to the king of England's marriage with Anne Boleyn (age 32), the Imperial ambassador had written of it as a rumor before Easter, but he did not know it for certain. Has heard nothing from him since. Knows not if his letters have been detained. Praises the honest expressions of Francis about this marriage, the good counsel he had given the King, and the sympathy he had expressed for Katharine. Thought the proposed interview of the Pope and Francis had been dropped, &c. Barcelona, 12 April 1533. Fr.

Calendars. April 12. [1533] Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 81.

On the Monday in Passion week1 Parliament (il Parlamento) [and Convocation ?] assembled. They decided that the marriage of Queen Catharine to the King is null, and that he may marry (poter prender moter); and they have abolished (lecato) the appeal to the Pope. Henceforth, no one may contract marriage by dispensation, but solely as conceded by holy writ, and the sacred canons; so that the dispensation of Pope Julius is void. They have also abrogated the dispensation for holding a plurality of benefices with cure of souls, and for nonage, and other things. They have prohibited obedience to papal monitions and interdicts. The Bishop of Rochester [John Fisher] having publicly opposed these measures, on Palm Sunday [6th April], he was arrested, and given in custody to the Bishop of Winchester [Stephen Gardiner (age 50)]; and three days ago he was sent to reside at a place of his (ad uno locho suo) and is not to go more than a mile beyond it.

Parliament has been prorogued (si levò) until Whitsuntide, which will be on the 6th of June.

Three days ago, the King; sent the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk and the Marquis of Exeter (il Marcheze di Anal sic) to notify to the Queen the decision made in Parliament about the divorce, and the new marriage; exhorting her to yield, and secede (rinmorersi) from the judgment of the “Rota.” She replied that she knew not, and was unable to imagine, how such a matter could have been terminated, the decision not having been made by a legitimate judge; and with regard to a new marriage, she believed nothing whatever, knowing the King her husband to be most sage and holy supientissimo et suntissimo. As to yielding to the sentence, she said that although it was her wish to satisfy his Majesty in everything, yet is it beyond her power to do so on this occasion not choosing to peril the salvation of her soul, and disobey the law of God who united her to his Majesty; and that recourse must be had to the true judge and vicar of the Lord. Subsequently the Imperial Ambassador went to the King, and spoke to him molto altamente.

This morning of Easter Eve, the Marchioness Anne (age 32) went with the King to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament [Convocation ?].

I hear on good authority that the conclusion of the peace with Scotland is expected.

I am assured that some months ago, his Majesty espoused her, and that she bore him a son who is several months old. (Mivien afirmato za più mezi questa Mta averla sposata, e aver uno fiol di qualche meze con lei).

Four days ago, Mons. de Beove [Beauvoir] arrived here with the [her brother] son (age 30) of the Earl of Wiltshire (age 56), and he told me he hoped the affairs between his Majesty and Scotland will be adjusted; and Dom. Silvestro Dario, the papal nuncio late in Scotland, tells me King James will be satisfied with fair terms, without which he will do nothing, and the Scots would rather die than submit; they plunder the English daily, and their King is dependent on the Emperor.

On the 5th a gentleman came hither to the King from the Duke of Saxony his cousin (germano suo), with letters from Frederick Count Palatine—who last year commanded the troops sent in favour of the Emperor by the Free Towns and other potentates of Germany—to request his Majesty to join their League; and they are holding a Diet, in which, should his Majesty choose, he will have great authority. This envoy went first to France, and he has not yet been despatched.

London, 12th April. Registered by Sanuto 8th May.

[Italian.]

Note 1. In the year 1533 the 13th of April was Easter day, so the case was decided by the “Convocation” or Parliament on the 7th April 1533.”

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

After this, coming to the principal object of my visit, I told [her husband] him plainly that, although for several days past I had heard of the attempt made both at the convocation of the prelates and in Parliament to impugn the Queen's (age 47) rights, and greatly injure her just cause, I had taken no notice of the facts, inasmuch as I could not be persuaded that so wise, virtuous, and Catholic a prince could possibly authorize or sanction such things, and also because I thought and believed that such practices (menees) could in no wise impair the Queen's (age 47) right or cause her harm. Yet that having lately been apprized from various quarters that such an attempt was really being made, I considered that I could not acquit myself of my duty towards God, towards Your Imperial Majesty, and towards himself if I did not remonstrate at once against such behaviour, and entreat him by his virtue, wisdom, and humanity patiently to listen to my observations as proceeding from my desire for his service, for that though he might disregard and despise man, he would at least respect God. To which the King (age 41) answered that so he had done, and that God and his conscience were perfectly agreed on that point.

Hearing the King (age 41) express himself in this manner and wishing to bring him back to the subject as gently as possible, I observed that my colleague and I could not but be very much flattered at the familiar way in which he had expressed his sentiments, as if we were his own servants, which sentiments, I added, proceeded no doubt from his heart not from his mouth. He assured me, however, that such was not the case, and that what he had just said had been said without dissimulation. Upon which I again said to him that I could not believe that Christianity, being so agitated and troubled by heresies, he could possibly set so bad an example and contravene the treaties of peace and amity which, as he himself, who had been the principal promoter and mediator in them ought to know best, had cost so much time and trouble to make. He ought to know that even supposing no inconvenience arose therefrom in his lifetime there would be most serious ones after his death with regard to the succession. There had never been such a case, I continued, nor did we read of it in history, as for a prince to divorce his legitimate wife after five and twenty years, and marry another woman. Not knowing what to answer to my observations, the King (age 41) gladly seized the opportunity which I gave him by this last statement to contradict me, and said: "Not so long, if you please; and if the world finds this new marriage of mine strange, I find it still more so that the Pope [Julius] should have granted a dispensation for the former." I then mentioned to him five popes who had dispensed in similar cases, and declared that I was unwilling to dispute that matter with him, but that there was no doctor in his kingdom, who after such a debate would not confess that pope Julius was authorized to dispense in the case. After this, coming to speak about the manner in which his solicitors had procured the votes of the university of Paris, on which he founds his principal argument, I offered to produce the letters I had received relating the whole affair, as well as the names of those who had held for the Queen (age 47), but he said there was no necessity at all for that. I, moreover, told him that neither in Spain, nor in Naples, nor in any other country could one single prelate or doctor be found to assert the contrary, and that even in his own kingdom every canonist and lawyer was of the same opinion, with the exception of the few who had been gained over to the other side, and I proposed, in confirmation of my statement, to exhibit other letters, which he likewise refused to see.

At last, wishing to turn the conversation, the King (age 41) said that he wished to ensure the succession to his kingdom by having children, which he had not at present, and upon my remarking to him that he had one daughter, the most virtuous and accomplished that could be thought of, just of suitable age to be married and get children, and that it seemed as if Nature had decided that the succession to the English throne should be through the female line, as he himself had obtained it, and therefore, that he could by marrying the Princess to some one secure the succession he was so anxious for, he replied that he knew better than that; and would marry again in order to have children himself. And upon my observing to him that he could not be sure of that he asked me three times running: "Am I not a man like others?" and he afterwards added: "I need not give proofs of the contrary, or let you into my secrets," no doubt implying thereby that his beloved Lady (age 32) is already in the family way.

Catherine Aragon Demoted to Princess

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

The name and title which the [her husband] King (age 41) wishes the Queen (age 47) to take, and by which he orders the people to call her, is the old dowager princess (la vielle et vefve princesse). As to [her step-daughter] princess Mary (age 17) no title has yet been given to her, and I fancy they will wait to settle that until the Lady (age 32) has been confined (que la dame aye faict lenfant).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Wednesday the said [her uncle] Duke (age 60), and the others of whom I wrote to Your Majesty in my last despatch, called upon the Queen (age 47) and delivered their message, which was in substance as follows: "She was to renounce her title of Queen, and allow her case to be decided here, in England. If she did, she would confer a great boon on the kingdom and prevent much effusion of blood, and besides the [her husband] King (age 41) would treat her in future much better than she could possibly expect." Perceiving that there was no chance of the Queen's (age 47) agreeing to such terms, the deputies further told her that they came in the King's name to inform her that resistance was useless (quelle se rompist plus la teste), since his marriage with the other Lady had been effected more than two months ago in the presence of several persons, without any one of them having been summoned for that purpose. Upon which, with much bowing and ceremony, and many excuses for having in obedience to the king's commands fulfilled so disagreeable a duty, the deputies withdrew. After whose departure the lord Mountjoy (age 55), the Queen's (age 47) chamberlain, came to notify to her the King's intention that in future she should not be called Queen, and that from one month after Easter the King (age 41) would no longer provide for her personal expenses or the wages of her servants. He intended her to retire to some private house of her own, and there live on the small allowance assigned to her, and which, I am told, will scarcely be sufficient to cover the expenses of her household for the first quarter of next year. The Queen (age 47) resolutely said that as long as she lived she would entitle herself Queen; as to keeping house herself, she cared not to begin that duty so late in life. If the King (age 41) thought that her expenses were too great, he might, if he chose, take her own personal property and place her wherever he chose, with a confessor, a physician, an apothecary, and two maids for the service of her chamber; if that even seemed too much to ask, and there was nothing left for her and her servants to live upon, she would willingly go about the world begging alms for the love of God.

Though the King (age 41) is by nature kind and generously inclined, this Anne has so perverted him that he does not seem the same man. It is, therefore, to be feared that unless Your Majesty applies a prompt remedy to this evil, the Lady (age 32) will not relent in her persecution until she actually finishes with Queen Catharine (age 47), as she did once with cardinal Wolsey, whom she did not hate half as much. The Queen (age 47), however, is not afraid for herself; what she cares most for is the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 17).

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

On Saturday, the eve of Easter, Lady Anne (age 32) went to mass in truly Royal state, loaded with diamonds and other precious stones, and dressed in a gorgeous suit of tissue, the train of which was carried by the daughter (age 14) of the [her uncle] duke of Norfolk (age 60), betrothed to the [her illegitimate step-son] Duke of Richmond (age 13). She was followed by numerous damsels, and conducted to and from the church [Map] with the same or perhaps greater ceremonies and solemnities than those used with former Queens on such occasions. She has now changed her title of marchioness for that of Queen, and preachers specially name her so in their church prayers. At which all people here are perfectly astonished, for the whole thing seems a dream, and even those who support her party do not know whether to laugh or cry at it. The [her husband] King (age 41) is watching what sort of mien the people put on at this, and solicits his nobles to visit and pay their court to his new Queen, whom he purposes to have crowned after Easter in the most solemn manner, and it is said that there will be banqueting and tournaments on the occasion. Indeed some think that Clarence, the king-at-arms who left for France four days ago, is gone for the purpose of inviting knights for the tournament in imitation of the Most Christian King when he celebrated his own nuptials. I cannot say whether the coronation will take place before or after these festivities, but I am told that this King (age 41) has secretly arranged with the archbishop of Canterbury (age 43), that in virtue of his office, and without application from anyone he is to summon him before his court as having two wives, upon which, without sending for the Queen (age 47), he (the Archbishop) will declare that the King (age 41) can lawfully marry again, as he has done, without waiting for a dispensation, for a sentence from the Pope, or any other declaration whatever.

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

About a week ago the [her brother] sieur de Rochefort (age 30) (George Boleyn) returned from France with the sieur de Beauvoes (Beauvoir), who started yesterday for Scotland for the purpose of inducing king James to place his differences with this [her husband] King (age 41) into his master's hand, and making him judge and arbiter of their differences. I have been told by a very worthy man that the duke of Albany's secretary returning from a visit to the said Beaulvoys (sic) had assured him that the said ambassador would be unable to accomplish his mission in Scotland, and that war would go on fiercer than ever. Indeed it would seem as if the Scots at this moment more prosperous than ever, for instead of being as before on the defensive, they are continually making raids on the borders. For this purpose did Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30) go to France as it is now ascertained. These people, as I am told, wish immensely for peace with Scotland, but God, as I said above, has taken away their senses, and they cannot see how to bring it about. The said Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30), as his own servants assert, has been presented in France with 2,000 crs., no doubt for the good tidings of his sister's (age 32) marriage, to whom the Most Christian King has now written a letter addressing her as Queen. I fancy, moreover, that the French consider this good news, firstly: because it is likely to be the means of breaking off the friendship between Your Majesty and this king, and also, because it might ultimately be the cause of freeing the French from their debt and payment of pensions, either through sheer necessity, or for fear these people may have of their ultimately joining you, should the Pope proceed to sentence the case and have the censures executed-a thing which, in my opinion, Your Majesty ought to urge in every possible way-the French would be released from all their bonds and pecuniary obligations to this king.

Letters and Papers 1533. 21 Apr 1533. Add. MS. 28,585, f. 236. B. M. 365. Count Of Cifuentes to Charles V.

Received his letter of April 8, at Vulsena. Entered Rome on Thursday 17th. Had an audience of the Pope on Saturday. He told me he had heard that the English ambassadors and other persons on the King's behalf had urged him to revoke the brief sent for the separation of the King and "La Anna (age 32);" which he would not do, out of respect to the Emperor, though there are errors in the brief which would justify it. He has remitted it to the cardinals De Monte and Campeggio, the auditors Capisucha and Simoneta, and the Datary. Said I was not a lawyer, but I did not think the Pope ought to hear any one on the King's part, as they showed no power; they only wish to protract the case, and give the King an opportunity of marrying, which he has promised the Lady to do before St. John's Day. His Holiness said he believed this, as he had the same news from France, and that the reason was the Lady's pregnancy. He said also, if the marriage took place, the remedy of the case remained. Replied that he should do justice at once, as the Queen thought so much of it; that although the King spoke those words he would not do it if the Pope decided the case, but the delay they see here gives them occasion to say such words, and may lead them to do it in deed. He replied that he would do justice, and order it to be done, and asked what the Emperor would do if this marriage took place. Said your Majesty would act as became a powerful and wise prince. He finished the conversation by saying he would do justice.

Rome, 21 April 1533.

Sp., pp. 6. Modern copy.

Hall's Chronicle 1533. After which divorce sued, many wise men said, that the king was not well counselled, to marry the lady Anne Boleyn (age 32), before the divorce were adjudged, for by marrying before the first marriage was dissolved, they said, that the second marriage might be brought in question, and verily they said true, for so it was in the month of May, three year following, as you shall here after, when I come to the time. Of this divorce every man spoke, as his discretion and wisdom was, for wise men said that it was Godly and honourably done, for the discharge of the King’s conscience, and profitable for the surety of the realm, and that God loved this marriage, considering that the new Queen, was so soon with child. Other said that the bishop of Rome, would curse all Englishmen and that the emperor and he, would invade the realm, and destroy the people, and especially the Spaniards boasted much, but thanks be to God, their doings were much less than their words: but after every man had talked enough, there was no more communing of the matter, but all was in peace.

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Letters and Papers 1533. 27 Apr 1533. 391. Preparations are making for the coronation of the Lady, which will exceed in sumptuousness all previous ones. It is said that it will take place on Ascension Day. The said Lady (age 32) will be bravely crowned, seeing she has all the Queen's jewels, with which she adorns herself every day; and it seems a very strange thing to every one, and very cruel, that the King should allow the Queen to be so despoiled of her jewels, and give them to another; which will certainly increase confusion. London, 27 April 1533.

Hol., Fr., pp. 6. From a modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1533. 28 Apr 1533. Harl. MS. 283, f. 96. B. M. Ellis, 1 Ser. II. 32. 395. Henry VIII. to Lady Cobham.

Has appointed her to attend on horseback at the coronation of "the lady Anne our Queen (age 32)," on the feast of Pentecost, at Westminster.

Desires her to be at Greenwich on the previous Friday, to accompany the Queen to the Tower; on the next day to ride through London to Westminster; and on Whitsunday to attend at the coronation in the monastery. She must provide white or white grey palfreys or geldings for herself and her women. The apparel for her own horse will be furnished by the Queen's master of the Horse, except the bit and bosses. Her robes and liveries shall be delivered by the keeper of the Great Wardrobe. Greenwich, 28 April. Stamped. P. 1. Add.

Letters and Papers 1533. 28 Apr 1533. Egerton MS. 985, f. 57 b. B. M. Add. MS. 6,113, f. 33 b. B. M. 396. Queen Anne Boleyn (age 32).

"For the Quenes coronacion."

[To appoint the day for the coronation, and to prepare all things for the same.] Letters from the King to be sent to the nobles, lords, knights, ladies, and others to attend; and to those who will be created knights of the Bath, [whose names Garter is to have]. Commissions to be made for the Great Steward and Constable. The day when the Steward shall sit in the White Hall. All noble men who hold land by service royal to bring in their claims. The mayor, aldermen, commoners, and crafts of London are to meet the Queen before she comes to the Tower. The King will meet her at the Tower. A kirtle and mantle of cloth of gold furred with ermines. A lace of silk and gold with tassels for the mantle. A circlet of gold garnished with precious stones. A litter of timber covered with cloth of gold. Down pillows covered with cloth of gold, for the litter.

A lady [appointed by name] to bear her train. The mayor, aldermen, and crafts of London are to do their service accustomed, and the streets between the Tower and Westminster are to be garnished with tapestry, arras, silk, &c., [and the banners, standard, and pennons of crafts to be ready to garnish the barges and stand where the wardens be of each occupation.]

Memorandum.—The Lords, the High Steward, Constable of England, Garter, the Mayor of London, and the two squires of honor to be in crimson velvet and "beket" (fn. 4) hats. The tipstaves of the marshals in their liveries, to avoid the press of people. A canopy of gold with valance to be borne by 16 knights. [Two esquires of honor to be appointed to represent the dukes of Normandy and Aquitaine.] A horse of estate, saddled, [to be led by the Master of the Queen's horse]. Six henchmen on palfreys harnessed with cloth of gold. Two chairs covered with cloth of gold, and ladies of the highest estate to sit in them, clothed in crimson velvet. Six ladies on palfreys with saddles and harness like those of the henchmen. Two other chairs richly garnished for the Queen's ladies. A great number of ladies and gentlewomen on palfreys dressed according to their estates. A void to be prepared for the Queen at Westminster. A kirtle and mantle of purple velvet furred with ermines, with a lace, &c., for the day of the coronation. A circlet. A cloth of estate in Westminster Hall. The procession. A ray cloth [to go from the Hall to Westminster]. A canopy borne by the barons of the Cinque Ports. Two bishops to go every side of the Queen. The verge of ivory [to be borne]. The sceptre. A rich crown of gold. Liveries to be given according to the precedents of the Wardrobe. The archbishop of Canterbury to do as appertaineth. The seat royal or pulpit to be dressed with cloth of gold and cushions. The Queen to be howseled, and after to have a secret refection [of such meat as she likes best]. A stage to be made, latticed and covered with rich cloths, for the King and others to see the solemnity. [The mayor, aldermen, and commoners of London, with their crafts, to meet the Queen before she comes to the Tower. The King to meet her, and welcome her at the Tower.] The service to the Queen at dinner, and the ordering of the hall, to be committed to those who have authority. A stage in Westminster Hall for minstrels and trumpets. The kings of arms, heralds, [and pursuivants] to keep their accustomed stage at the right end of the table, [and to have a cloth on the table with proper service.] The Treasurer and Comptroller to go on foot, and the three high estates [Constable, Marshal, and Steward], on horseback, [their horses trapped.] A stage on the left side of the Hall latticed and garnished for the King. The surnap, and who shall draw it; [the marshal to be named.] The void after. [The Mayor to bear the cup of gold.] Jousts and tourneys. [To appoint the number of challengers and defenders for the jousts, to go before the Queen from the Tower to Westminster Hall on their steryng horses, garnished with bells and devices.] The Lord Steward, Treasurer, and Comptroller must give warning overnight to those who shall do any service.

Two copies; pp. 3 each.

Letters and Papers 1533. 18 May 1533. 508. The Londoners wish to make all the inhabitants contribute to the costs of the coronation, which will be a charge to them of about 5,000 ducats, of which 3,000 are for a present to the Lady (age 32), and the rest for the ceremonial. Formerly there was no opposition to the said contribution; now they compel even foreigners to contribute; but I hear they will have the decency in this case to exempt the Spaniards. The Easterlings, as being subjects of your Majesty, would like to be excused, but the great privileges they enjoy here prevent them from objecting. London, 18 May 1533.

Hol., Fr., pp. 6. From a modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1533. 31 May 1533. MS. L. f. 1. Coll. of Arms. 563. Anne Boleyn (age 32).

On Thursday, 29 May 1533, 25 Hen. VIII., the lady Anne marchioness of Pembroke (age 32) was received at Greenwich, and conveyed to the Tower of London, and thence to Westminster, where she was crowned queen of England.

Order was taken by the King and his Council for all the Lords spiritual and temporal to be in the barge before Greenwich at 3 p.m., and give their attendance till the Queen took her barge. The mayor of London, Stephen Pecocke, haberdasher, had 48 barges in attendance richly decked with arras, hung with banners and with pennons of the arms of the crafts in fine gold, and having in them trumpets, shallands, and minstrels; also every barge decked with ordnance of guns, "the won to heill the other troumfettly as the tyme dyd require." Also there was the bachelor's barge sumptuously decked, and divers foists with great shot of ordnance, which went before all the barges. Order given that when her Grace's barge came "anontes" Wapping mills, knowledge should be given to the Tower to begin to shoot their ordnance. Commandment given to Sir Will. Vinstonne (Kingston), constable of the Tower, and Sir Edw. Wallsyngham, lieutenant of the Tower, to keep a space free for her landing. It was marvellous sight how the barges kept such good order and space between them that every man could see the decking and garnishing of each, "and how the banars and penanntes of armis of their craftes, the which were beaten of fyne gould, yllastring so goodly agaynste the sonne, and allso the standardes, stremares of the conisaunsys and devisis ventylyng with the wynd, allso the trompettes blowyng, shallmes and mistrielles playng, the which war a ryght symtivis and a tryhumfantt syght to se and to heare all the way as they paste upon the water, to her the sayd marvelles swett armone of the sayd ynstermentes, the which soundes to be a thinge of a nother world. This and this order hir Grace pasyng till she came a nontt Rattlyffe."

The Queen was "hallsyd with gones forth of the shippes" on every side, which could not well be numbered, especially at Ratcliffe. When she came over against Wapping mills the Tower "lousyd their ordinaunce" most triumphantly, shooting four guns at once.

At her landing, a long lane was made among the people to the King's bridge at the entrance of the Tower. She was received on coming out of her barge by Sir Edw. Walsingham, lieutenant of the Tower, and Sir Will. Kinston, constable of the Tower. The officers of arms gave their attendance; viz., Sir Thos. Writhe, Garter king-of-arms, Clarencieux and Norroy kings-of-arms, Carlisle, Richmond, Windsor, Lancaster, York, and Chester heralds; the old duchess of Norfolk bearing her train; the lord Borworth (sic), chamberlain to her Grace, supporting it, &c. A little further on she was received by lord Sandes, the King's chamberlain, lord Hause (Hussey), chamberlain with the Princess, the lord Windsor, the lord Nordunt (Mordaunt?), and others; afterwards by the bishops of Winchester and London, the earl of Oxford, chamberlain of England, lord Will. Haworth, marshal of England, as deputy to his brother Thos. duke of Norfolk, the earl of Essex, &c.

Somewhat within the Tower she was received by the King, who laid his hands on both her sides, kissing her with great reverence and a joyful countenance, and led her to her chamber, the officers of arms going before. After which every man went to his lodging, except certain noblemen and officers in waiting. The King and Queen went to supper, and "after super ther was sumptuus void."

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 29 May 1533. The Thursdaye nexte before the feaste of Pentecost, the [her husband] Kyng (age 41) and the Queene (age 32) beyng at Grenewyche, all the Craftes of London thereunto well appoynted, in severall bargis deckyd after the most gorgiouse and sumptuous maner, with dyverse pagiantes thereunto belongyng, repayred and wayted all together upon the Mayre of London; and so, well furnysshed, cam all vnto Grenewiche, where they taryed and wayted for the Queenes commyng to her barge: which so done, they brought her unto the Tower, tromppets, shambesa2 and other dyverse instrumentes all the wayes playng and makyng greate melodic, which, as ys reported, was as combly donne as neuer was lyke in any tyme nyghe to our rememberaunce. And so her Grace cam to the Tower on Thursdaye at nyghte, abowte v. of the clocke, where also was suche a pele of gonnes as hathe not byn harde lyke a great while before.

Letters and Papers 1533. 29 May 1533. 556. The Duke left two hours after I had returned, so that neither he nor his company, among which is the [her brother] brother (age 30) of the Lady (age 32), have delayed one day to see the triumph in which the Lady (age 32) has today come from Greenwich to the Tower. She was accompanied by several bishops and lords, and innumerable people, in the form that other queens have been accustomed to be received; and, whatever regret the King may have shown at the taking of the Queen's barge, the Lady has made use of it in this triumph, and appropriated it to herself. God grant she may content herself with the said barge and the jewels and husband of the Queen, without attempting anything, as I have heretofore written, against the persons of the Queen and Princess. The said triumph consisted entirely in the multitude of those who took part in it, but all the people showed themselves as sorry as though it had been a funeral. I am told their indignation increases daily, and that they live in hope your Majesty will interfere. On Saturday the Lady will pass all through London and go to the King's lodging, and on Sunday to Westminster, where the ceremony of the coronation will take place. London, 29 May 1533.

Fr., pp. 9. From a modern copy.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 29 May 1533. Memorandum, Thursdaie, the 29th daie of Maie, 1533, Ladie Anne, Marques of Pembroke (age 32), was receayed as Queene of Englande by all the Lordes of Englande.c And the Majord and Aldermen, with all the craftes of the Cittie of London, went to Greenewych in their barges after the best fashion, with a barge also of Batchlers of the Majors crafte rytchlie behanged with cloath of golde and a foyste to wayte on her. And so all the Lordes, the Major, with all the craftes of London, brought her by water from Greenewych [Map] to the Tower of London [Map], and ther the [her husband] Kinges grace (age 41) receaved her at her landinge; and then were shott at the Towre above a thousand gunnes, besides other shotts that were shott at Lymehowse, and in other shipps lying in the Thammes. And the morrowe after being Fridaief their were made divers Knightes of the Bath.

Note c. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was descended through both parents from the royal stock of King Edward I; paternally, from Elizabeth, daughter of that monarch, and, maternally, from Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, son of the same King.

Note d. Sir Stephen Pecocke

Note e. A light and fast-sailing ship.

Note f. May 30.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 30 May 1533. And the same nyghte, and Frydaye aldayeb2 , the [her husband] Kyng (age 41) and Queene (age 32) taryed there; and on Frydaye at nyght the Kyngs Grace made xviij knyghts of the Bathe, whose creacion was not alonly so strange to here of, as also their garmentes stranger to beholde or loke on; whiche said Knightes, the nexte daye, whiche was Saturday, rydde before the Queene's grace thorowte the Citie of London towards Westminster palice, over and besyds the moste parte of the nobles of the Realme, whiche lyke accompanied her grace thorowe owte the said citie; she syttyng in her heere, upon a Horse Lytter, rychely appareled, and iiij knyghtes of the v. ports beryng a Canapye over her hedd. And after her cam iiij. riche charettes, one of them emptie, and iij. other furnysshed with diuerse auncient old lades; and after them cam a great trayne of other Ladies and gyntillwomen: whyche said Progresse, from the begynnyng to thendyng, extendid half a myle in leyngthe by estimacion or thereabout. To whome also, as she came alongeste the Citie, was shewid many costely pagiants, with diverse other encomyes spoken of chyldren to her; wyne also runyng at certeyne Condits plentiously. And so procedyng thorowte the streats, passid furthe vnto Westminster Hall, where was a certeyn banket prepared for her, which donne, she was conveyd owte of the bake syde of the palice into a Barge and so vnto Yorke Place, where the Kyng's grace was before her comyng, for this you muste ever presuppose that his Grace came allwayes before her secretlye in a Barge aswell frome Grenewyche to the Tower as from the Tower to Yorke place.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 31 May 1533. And on Saturdaie, the last daie of Maie, shee (age 32) rode from the Towre of London [Map] throwe the Cittie,a with a goodlie companye of Lordes, Knightes, and Gentlemen, with all the Peares of the Realme, rytchlie apparailed, and also eightene Knightes of the Bath newlie made, ridinge in blewe gownes with hoodes on their sholders purfeled with white, and white laces of silke knitt on the left sholders of their gownes. And she herself riding in a rytch chariott covered with cloath of silver, and a rich canapie of cloath of silver borne over her heade by the fower Lordes of the Portes,b in gownes of Scarlett, and fower chariotts, with ladies followinge after her rytchlie behanged; and also divers other ladies and gentlewomen riding on horscbacke all in gownes made of crymson velvett; and their was divers pageants made on skaffoldes in the Cittie; and all the craftes standing in their liveries everie one in order, the Major and Aldermen standinge in Cheepeside; and when she came before them the Recorder of London made a goodlie preposition to her, and then the Majorc gave her a purse of cloath of golde, with a thousand markes of angell nobles in it, for a presente for the whole bodie of the Cittie; and so the Lordes brought her to the Palace at Westminster, and their left her that night.

Note a. The City on this occasion appears to hare been decorated in a more somptaoos manner than at any time heretofore. — Maitland's "History of London," p. 188.

Note b. Cinque Ports.

Note c. According to Stow, it was Master Baker, the Recorder of London, who presented to Anne Boleyn (age 32) the City purse, containing one thousand marks of gold.

On 01 Jun 1533 the six months pregnant Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) was crowned Queen Consort England by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 43) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. See Coronation of Anne Boleyn.

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 62) bore the Crown. Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) carried the Salt. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) rode in the procession. William Coffin (age 38) was appointed Master of the Horse. Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 50) served as Lord Sewer. Henry Parker (age 20) and William Coffin (age 38) were knighted. Thomas Berkeley 6th Baron Berkeley (age 28), Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 26) and Henry Capell (age 27) were created Knight of the Bath. Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) rode in the procession. Arthur Hopton (age 44) attended.

Thomas More (age 55) refused to attend. Shortly thereafter, More was charged with accepting bribes, but the charges had to be dismissed for lack of any evidence.

Anne Braye Baroness Cobham (age 32) was the attendant horsewoman.

Charles Wriothesley (age 25) attended.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 01 Jun 1533. Nowe than on Soundaye was the Coronacion, which allso was of such a maner.

In the mornynge ther assembled withe me at Westminster Churche the bysshop of Yorke, the Bishop of London (age 58), the Bishop of Wynchester (age 50), the Bishop of Lyncoln (age 60), the Bishop of Bathe, and the Bishop of Saint Asse (age 58), the Abbote of Westminstre with x or xij moo Abbottes, whiche all revestred ourselfs in our pontificalibus, and, soo furnysshed, withe our Crosses and Crossiers, procedid oute of th' Abbey in a procession unto Westminstre Hall, where we receyved the Queene (age 32) apareled in a Robe of purple velvet, and all the ladyes and gentillwomen in robes and gownes of scarlet accordyng to the maner vsed before tyme in such besynes: and so her Grace sustayned of eche syde with ij to bysshops, the Bysshope of London (age 58) ande the Bysshop of Wynchester (age 50), came furthe in processyon unto the Churche of Westminster, she in her here, my Lord of Suffolke (age 49) berying before herr the Crowne, and ij to other Lords beryng also before her a Ceptur and a white Rodde, and so entred up into the highe Alter, where diverse Ceremoneys used aboute her, I did sett the Crowne on her hedde, and then was songe Te Deum, &c. And after that was song a solempne Masse, all which while her grace sjatt crowned upon a scaffold whiche was made betwene the Highe Alter and the Qwyer in Westminstre Churche; which Masse and ceremonyes donne and fynysshed, all the Assemble of noble men broughte her into Westminstre Hall agayne, where was kepte a great solempne feaste all that daye; the good ordre therof were to longe to wrytte at this tyme to you. But nowe Sir you may nott ymagyn that this Coronacion was before her mariege, for she was maried muche about sainte Paules daye last, as the condicion therof dothe well appere by reason she ys nowe sumwhat bygg with chylde. Notwithstandyng yt hath byn reported thorowte a greate parte of the realme that I (age 43) maried her; whiche was playnly false, for I myself knewe not therof a fortenyght after yt was donne. And many other thyngs be also reported of me, whiche be mere lyes and tales.

Other newys have we none notable, but that one Fryth, whiche was in the Tower in pryson, was appoynted by the Kyngs grace to be examyned befor me, my Lorde of London, my lorde of Wynchestre, my Lorde of Suffolke, my Lorde Channcelour, and my Lorde of Wylteshere, whose opynion was so notably erroniouse, that we culde not dyspache hym but was fayne to leve hym to the determynacion of his Ordinarye, whiche ys the bishop of London. His said opynyon ys of suche nature that he thoughte it nat necessary to be beleved as an Article of our faythe, that ther ys the very corporall presence of Christe within the Oste and Sacramente of the Alter, and holdethe of this poynte muste after the Opynion of Oecolampadious. And suerly I myself sent for hym iij or iiij tymes to perswade hym to leve that his Imaginacion, but for all that we could do therin he woulde not applye to any counsaile, notwithstandyng nowe he ys at a fynall ende with all examinacions, for my Lorde of London hathe gyven sentance and delyuerd hym to the secular power, where he loketh every daye to goo unto the fyer. And ther ys also condempned with hym one Andrewe a taylour of London for the said self same opynion.

And thus farr you well, from my manor of Croydon the xvij. daye of June.

Note a. Hall, Chron. edit. 1809. p. 794. Holinsh. edit. 1808. vol. iii. p. 777.

Note b. Queen Elizabeth was born on September the 7th. 1533.

Note c. Stow, Ann. edit. 1631. p. 562.

Note d. Herb. Life of Hen. VIII. edit. 1649. p. 341. Bumet in his History of the Reformation has likewise fallen into this error.

Note e. Lingard's Hist Engl. 1st. edit. vol. iv. p. 190.

a1. re-journying.

a2. shaums.

b2. all day.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 01 Jun 1533. Memorandum, the first dale of June,d Queene Anne (age 32) was brought from Westminster Hall to the Abbey of Sainct Peeter's [Map] with procession, all the monkes of Westminster going in rytch copes of golde with 13 abbotts mitred; and after them all the Kinges Chappell in rych copes with fower bushopps and tow archbishopps mittred, and all the Lordes going in their Perliament roabes,e and the crowne borne afore her by the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and her tow scepters by tow Earles, and she herself going under a rytch canapie of cloath of golde, apparailed in a kirtell of crymson velvett powdred with ermyns, and a robe of purple velvett furred with powdred ermines over that, and a rich cronett with a calla of pearles and stones on her hedde, and the olde Dutches of Norfolke (age 56)b bearing upp her traine in a robe of scarlett with a cronett of golde on her bonett, and the Lorde Boroughe,c the Queenes Chamberlaine, staying the traine in the middes; and after her tenne ladies following in robes of scarlett furred with ermins and rounde cronettes of golde on their heades; and next after theim all the Queenes maides in gownes of scarlett edged with white lettushe furre; and so was shee brought to Sainct Peeters Church [Map] at Westminster, and their sett in her seate riall, which was made on a high scaffolde before the highe aulter; and their shee was anoynted and crowned Queene of Englande by the Archbishopp of Canterberied1 and the Archbishoppe of Yorke, and so sate crowned in her seate riall all the masse, and offred also at the said masse; and the masse donne, they departed everie man in their degrees to Westminster Hall [Map], she going still under the cannapie crowned with towe septers in hir handes, my Lorde of Wilshire, her father,e1 and the Lorde Talbottf leadinge her, and so theire dynned; wheras was made the most honorable feast that hath beene seene.

The great hall at Westminster was rytchlie hanged with rych cloath of Arras, and a table sett at the upper ende of the hall, going upp twelve greeses,a2 where the Queene dyned; and a rytch cloath of estate hanged over her heade; and also fower other tables alongest the hall; and it was rayled on everie side, from the highe deasse in Westminster Hall to the scaffold in the church in the Abbaj.

And when she went to church to her coronation their was a raye cloath,b2 blew, spreed from the highe dessesc of the Kinges Benche unto the high alter of Westminster, wheron she wente.

Note B. the [her uncle] Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 23), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

And when the Queenes grace had washed her handes, then came the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), High Constable that daie and stewarde of the feast, ryding on horsebacke rytchlie apparailed and trapped, and with him, also ridinge on horsebacke, the Lorde William (age 23) Howarde as deputie for the Duke of Norfolke (age 60) in the romthd2 of the Marshall of Englande, and the Queenes servicee2 following them with the Archbishopps, a certaine space betwene which was bornef2 all by knightes, the Archbishopp sitting at the Queenes borde, at the ende, on her left hande.g2 The Earle of Sussex (age 50) was sewer, the Earle of Essex carver, the Earle of Darbie (age 24) cuppbearer, the Earle of Arrondell (age 57) butler, the Viscount Lisle (age 69) pantler, the Lord Gray almoner.

Att one of the fower tables sate all the noble ladies all on one side of the hall, at the second table the noble men, at the thirde table the Major of Londonh2 with the Aldermen, att the fowerth table the Barons of the Fortes with the Masters of the Chauncerie. The goodlie dishes with the delicate meates and the settles which were all gilt, with the noble service that daie done by great men of the realme, the goodlie sweete armonie of minstrells with other thinges were to long to expresse, which was a goodlie sight to see and beholde.

And when shee had dined and washed her handes she stoode a while under the canopie of estate, and behelde throwghe the hall, and then were spices brought with other delicates, which were borne all in great high plates of gold, wherof shee tooke a litle refection, and the residue geavinge among the lordes and ladies; and that donne she departed up to the White Hall, and their changed her apparell, and so departed secreetlie by water to Yorke Place [Map], which is called White Hall, and their laie all night.

Note d. Whitsanday. Compare this with the account of the receiving and coronation of Anne Boleyn in MS. Harleian. Cod. 41, arts. 2-5, and MS. Harleian. 543, fol. 119.

Note e. [her husband] Henry's (age 41) first wife, Katharine of Aragon (age 47), was crowned with him, and a magnificent ceremony was ordained for her successful rival Anne Boleyn, but none of the other wives of Henry were honoured with a coronation.

Note a. A caul was a kind of net in which women inclosed their hair.

Note b. Grandmother (age 56) of Anne Boleyn, being widow of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, whose daughter Elizabeth (age 53) married Sir [her father] Thomas Boleyn (age 56), afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, the father of Anne.

Note. b, immediately above, appears to be a mistake? The grandmother of Anne Boleyn was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey, first wife of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He, Thomas, married secondly his first wife's first cousin Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) who must be the old Duchess of Norfolk referred to since Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey died in Apr 1497.

Note c. Thomas, Lord Bnrgh of Gainsboroogh (age 45).

d1. In Sir Henry Ellis's Collection of Original Letters occurs a very interesting letter written by Cranmer to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, giving his own account of the pronouncing of sentence on Katharine and of the coronation of Anne Boleyn (age 32).

e1. Anne Boleyn's father (age 56) had been created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond on the 8th December, 1529.

a2. Steps or stain, Latin gressus.

b2. Striped cloth.

Note c. Desks.

d2. Room.

e2. Suite.

f2. Occupied.

g2. Stow expressly states that Archbishop Cranmer sat on the right hand of the Queen at the table's end. Ed. 1631, p. 567.

h2. Sir Stephen Pecocke.

Letters and Papers 1533. 27 Apr 1533. Vienna Archives. 391. Chapuys to Charles V.

This feast of Easter the prior of the Augustines1 in his sermon recommended the people expressly to pray for queen Anne (age 32); at which they were astonished and scandalized, and almost every one took his departure with great murmuring and ill looks, without waiting for the rest of the sermon. The King was greatly displeased, and sent word to the Mayor that on dread of his displeasure he should take order that nothing of the kind happened again, and that no one should be so bold as to murmur at his marriage. The Mayor hereupon assembled the trades and their officers of the several halls, and commanded them, on pain of the King's indignation, not to murmur at his marriage, and to prevent their apprentices from so doing, and, what is worse and more difficult, their wives. The King in vain forbids and makes prohibitions, as it only makes the people speak more against it in private, and these prohibitions only serve to envenom the heart of the people. Four days ago the King sent to the Queen to forbid her and her servants from using the title of Queen; and, not content with this harshness, he has forbidden the Princess either to write or send any message to the Queen; and though the Princess begged of him to depute an express messenger who might testify that she sent no message to the Queen except of how she did, or who might first show the King all the letters that passed between them, she could not obtain this. This prohibition was sent to her the same day that the King sent to her to inform her of his new marriage; at which she was a little sad, and then, like a wise woman as she is, she dissembled the matter, showing herself glad; and without saying a single word of the marriage, suddenly after she had dined, without communicating her intentions to any one, she sat down to write a letter to the King; and when those who brought the news were urgent for a verbal answer, according to their commission, she would not say a single word to them, referring them to her letter; at which I hear the King is well satisfied, and praises highly her prudence. Notwithstanding the execution of this project, the King resolved to go on with the process, and the Queen has been cited to appear before the archbishop of Canterbury on the first of next month, at an abbey 30 miles from here. This being a solitary place has been chosen for secrecy, as they fear that if the affair were managed here, the people would not refrain from speaking of it, and perhaps from rioting. The citation at first threw the Queen into great perplexity, not knowing what to do; but after I had given her my advice she did not care for it. There is no danger for the Queen in anything they can do, if she does not renounce her appeal, expressly or tacitly, and by some indirect means, which the King and his ministers are attempting by various methods. To remedy this I have drawn up certain protestations, whereby I hope that the Queen will not fall into the net of their calumnies and malice.

Note 1. George Browne, D.D.

Ellis' Letters S1 V2 Letter CXIV. 17 Jun 1533. Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury, to Mr Hawkyns the Ambassador at the Emperors Court; upon the divorce of Queen Catherine, and the Coronation of Queen Anne Boleyn. A. D. 1533.

[MS. HARL. BRIT. MUS. 6148.]

The following Letter from Cranmer (age 43) to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, is taken from the archbishop's rough copy-book of his own Letters.

The passage in it which concerns the secret marriage of Henry (age 41) and Anne Boleyn (age 32) is, perhaps, the most important of the whole; as tending to throw light upon the real time of a transaction on which our historians have differed.

Hall and Hollinshed both name ST. ERKENWALD's day for the marriage, November the fourteenth; the very day on which Henry and Anne arrived at Dover from the Interview with Francisa. But this was a time ill-adapted to concealment; and was probably fixed upon at a later moment, only that the world might believe that the fruit of the marriage was conceived in wedlockb

Stow fixes the twenty-fifth of January following, that is ST. PAUL'S day, for the time; and says the ceremony was performed by Dr . Rowland Lee, afterwards bishop of Chesterc. Cranmer merely says it was much about ST. PAUL'S day.

At all events the marriage was celebrated before even Cranmer's divorce had been pronounced. Lord Herbert asserts, with what truth the present Letter will declare, that Cranmer himself was at the marriaged.

Whether the following Account of this transaction came from the fictions of Sanders, or from the manuscript History of the Divorce presented to Queen Mary thirty years before the work of Sanders was published, matters not: it is to be regretted that, uncorroborated, it should have found its way into a work, in many points of view so valuable as Lingard's History of England.

"On the 25th of January at an early hour, Dr. Rowland Lee, one of the royal chaplains, received an order to celebrate mass in a garret at the western end of the palace at Whitehall. There he found the King attended by Norris and Heneage, two of the grooms of chamber, and Anne Boleyn accompanied by her train-bearer Anne Savage, afterwards Lady Berkeley. We are told that Lee, when he discovered the object for which he had been called, made some opposition: but Henry calmed his scruples with the assurance that Clement had pronounced in his favour, and that the Papal instrument was safely deposited in his closet. As soon as the marriage ceremony had been performed, the parties separated in silence before it was light"e.

Note a. Hall, Chron. edit. 1809. p. 794. Hollinsh. edit. 1808; vol. ili.-p. 777

Note b. Queen Elizabeth was born on September the 7th 1533.

Note c. Stow, Ann. edit 1631. p. 562.

Note d. Herb. Life of Hen. VIII. edit. 1649. p. 341. Burnet in his History of the Reformation has likewise fallen into this error.

Note e. Linguard Hist Engl. 1st edit vol. iv. p. 196.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 07 Sep 1533 [her daughter] Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland was born to [her husband] Henry VIII (age 42) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 07 Sep 1533. Memorandum, the viith daie of September, 1533, being Sonndaie, Queene Anne (age 32) was brought to bedd of a faire [her daughter] daughterc at three of the clocke in the after noune;d and the morrowe after, being the daie of the Nativitie of Our Ladie, Te Deum was songe solempnlie at Powles, the Major and Aldermen being present, with the head craftes of the Cittie of London.

Note c. The Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of England.

Note d. Between three and four of the clock at afternoon. — Stow, p. 569.

Marriage of Henry Fitzroy and Mary Howard

On 28 Nov 1533 [her illegitimate step-son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 14) and Mary Howard Duchess Richmond and Somerset (age 14) were married. She by marriage Duchess of Richmond and Somerset. Another coup for the Howard Family especially in view of Henry Fitzroy being considered by some as a possible heir in view of Anne Boleyn having given birth to a girl. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60) and Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36). He the illegitmate son of King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42) and Elizabeth "Bessie" Blount Baroness Clinton and Tailboys (age 35). They were third cousins.

Around 1580 based on a work of around 1534. Unknown Painter. Portrait of (possibly) Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 33).

In 1534 William Stafford (age 26) and [her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 35) were married in secret. The marriage was discovered when she, Mary, attended Court, when pregnant, angering both the [her husband] King (age 42) and her sister the Queen (age 33). They was banished from Court. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 57) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 54).

In 1534 [her husband] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 42), Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 33) and [her daughter] Princess Elizabeth visited Chenies Manor House, Buckinghamshire [Map].

Around 1534 Hans Holbein The Younger (age 37). Drawing of Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 33). The attribution is contentious.

Letters and Papers 1535. 1535R. O. 1123. Henry Long to Cromwell.

One Hugh Holdecroft, late servant to John Newborow, my son-inlaw, dwelling in Barkeley, Some., has spoken against the Queen (age 34), and my lady her [her mother] mother (age 55) my lady of Wiltshire; on hearing of which my son-in-law had him arrested, intending to send him unto your mastership. Since then he has found sureties, and has been let to bail, and cannot now be heard of. My son-in-law is grieved to be thus used, as he was his grandfather's and father's and his servant. The rector of Edington desired me to write to you to have liberty to walk with his brother up the hills by his house. Since the visit of your officer he cannot out of the precinct of his monastery, and none of his brethren. He desires also that one of his brethren, who must account for the collection of the last disme, [may have the same liberty to go abroad?]. I am steward of the house. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 01 Jan 1535. 1. I doubt not he will be very glad to hear that the Earl of Northumberland (age 33) is not too well pleased either with the King or with his ministers, as the said Earl's physician informed me two days ago, declaring that his master had said the whole realm was so indignant at the oppressions and enormities now practised, that if the Emperor would make the smallest effort, the King would be ruined. The King's only hope was in the Turk, of whose strength those here shamefully boast. The Earl then began to enlarge on the arrogance and malice of the King's lady (age 34), saying that lately she had spoken such shameful words to the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62) as one would not address to a dog, so that he was compelled to quit the chamber. In his indignation he declared himself to one to whom he did not generally show good-will, and uttered reproaches against the said Lady (age 34), of which the least was to call her "grande putain1".

Note 1. great whore.

Visit of Chabot the French Admiral

Letters and Papers 1535. 14 Jan 1535. 48. Nothing is known about news from Ireland, except that about three days ago Cromwell delivered a good sum of money to two Irishmen, and said to some who were present that they had already taken one of the principal of those who had caused trouble there, and that Kildare would be taken and brought hither in a few days. Cromwell also mentioned that the king of France was raising lanceknights about Lorraine and the county of Montbeliard. Kildare has long been threatened, and will take as good care of himself as hitherto. It is true many fear that his men may betray him if he has not money to maintain them. I am told by a good man that about 60 English harquebusiers had entered some tower, but were surprised and driven out by Kildare, leaving their arms behind. I hear the King and Council are much disappointed at hearing nothing from France on the subject of the negotiations between the King and the Admiral (age 43), and they fear some intelligence with your Majesty. The King hopes that at an interview with Francis, which he reckons will be very soon, he will break off all other understandings. And to persuade Francis the better to this assembly, in order that he may not excuse himself, as last year, I am told that the King has come to no determination on any of the matters proposed by the Admiral (age 43), but put off his answer till the meeting. That was the answer given (among other things) as to the marriage of this princess with the duke of Angouleme; which the Admiral (age 43), I am told, took very ill; and still worse what occurred at the feast the King gave him on the eve of his departure, when he, being seated next the Lady (age 34), while they were dancing, she burst into a fit of incontrollable laughter without any occasion. The Admiral (age 43) frowned, and said, "What, madam, do you laugh at me?" On which she excused herself by saying it was because the King had told her he was going to ask for the Admiral's (age 43) secretary to amuse her, and that the King had met on the way a lady who made him forget the matter. I don't know if the excuse was accepted as satisfactory. The King, on the other hand, and the Lady were much disappointed that the Admiral (age 43) showed no pleasure at any attention that was shown to him, even at the Tower of London and the Ordnance.

Letters and Papers 1535. 25 Feb 1535. 263. Today the Duke of Suffolk (age 51) leaves secretly for Suffolk, I know not for what purpose. [her uncle] Norfolk (age 62) withdrew to his house 15 days ago very ill-pleased. The day before he left he complained to lord Montague (age 43) that he was held in no esteem, "et par avant avoit nulle choses de la dame du Roy1." The Marquis has been [word omitted] and only regrets that he has no opportunity of shedding his blood in the service of the Queen and Princess; "sil estoit question de quelque chose il ne seroit des derniers, et unyroit petite suyte2." The young lady who was lately in the King's favor is so no longer. There has succeeded to her place a cousin german of the concubine (age 34), daughter [either Margaret "Madge" Shelton, Anne Shelton or Mary Shelton (age 25)] of the present [her aunt] gouvernante (age 59) of the Princess. The Queen has been informed on good authority that the Waywode's man was seeking the marriage of the Princess with his master; but there is no great probability that he will succeed either in this or in obtaining money. I will inform your Majesty hereafter of whatever I may hear about this and about a gentleman lately come from the Duke of Holstein. I am informed letters have come from Gregory de Casale, who says the Pope told him that if the King would replace matters of the Church as they were, other things could be arranged; but all that is lost labor. So great is the obstinacy and avarice of the King, that he would sooner take back the Queen than restore what is due to the Church, from which he has taken, within the last month, 50,000 ducats, "emolument d'eslus"3.

Note 1. "and before had nothing of the King's lady."

Note 2. if it were a question of something it would not be among the last, and straight small continuation?

Note 3. first-fruits.

Letters and Papers 1535. 23 Mar 1535. Vienna Archives. 431. Chapuys to [Granvelle].

[Granvelle] will understand by Chapuys' last letter to the Emperor, and by the present, what the desire and hope of these men is. They think day and night of getting rid of these good ladies. Since there has been a talk of friendship they have been more determined to devise something against them, and speak of it without shame. It is more than ever necessary to consult for their protection. The Queen, as he writes to the Emperor, has no doubt that their amiability to her and the Princess is dangerous. Having heard that Cromwell had been to Chapuys, she wrote to her licentiate Medain the enclosed, and, if she had dared to write more, would have shown her reasons. In the letter "la seulle" means Cromwell, "Del Sobrino" is Chapuys, and "celluy que n'a dens" is the French king. Sends another letter from the Queen, which ought to have done wonders, considering how Cromwell had praised her; "sed induratum est cor Pharaonis."

Does not know how Granvelle interprets the coming of the King to where the Princess was without speaking to or sending to her, but it is spoken of here in various ways. The Princess is well, better than some would have her. She may be called the paragon of beauty, goodness and virtue.

The concubine (age 34) has suborned a person to say that he has had a revelation from God that she cannot conceive while the said two ladies are alive. Doubts not she has spoken of it to the King, and she has lately sent the man to Cromwell. She constantly speaks of them as rebels and traitresses deserving death, and Cromwell would willingly say what Caiaphas did. London, 23 March.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Letters and Papers 1535. 08 Apr 1535. R. O. 516. John Husee to Lord Lisle (age 70).

Has received his letter by John Broke. As for the £100 the King is cessed at, has delivered his Lordship's letter to Mr. Treasurer, who is in doubt how the King will take it, and says Mr. Secretary knows not but that his Lordship has paid the £135 already. Will do his best to show Mr. Secretary the full contents of his Lordship's pleasure; but Fowler refuses to meddle with the account if Lisle's request be granted, as it will have to be audited before the Commissioners. Smyth is in the country. Will ask Hidd's bonds of him on his return. The patent of £10 is at your pleasure. Mr. Densell has promised I shall have by Sunday next the minute for the assurance of the £120 Mr. Saymer must pay you yearly. Will endeavour to get it finished before he departs, and bring Lisle's part of the award and Saymer's bond with him. Has spoken for six pair of hose to be sent by next ship. Has received the King's letter and Mr. Secretary's, touching Oye Sluice, and will do his best therein. As for Buck's confession against Fryer, he goes now with my Lady to Calais, and cannot tarry to depose before my Lord Chancellor. He will always abide by what he has said. Cannot get Lisle's bill of victualling signed, but hopes to have it on Saturday. The King was at supper with Mr. Secretary on Wednesday last, and is now at Hackney; will be here on Saturday, and so to Hampton Court, whither the Queen (age 34) is removed, as one of her gentlewomen has got the measles. Mr. Secretary says you shall have the Staple Inn, and he will cause the King to write in it. Can get no answer of Bryan touching your patent. The saddle and harness is ready to be sent by next ship. Thinks it will turn out that Norfolk, Mr. Secretary, Mr. Treasurer, and Mr. Almoner or Mr. Comptroller of the King's house, go to the French king about Whitsuntide. London, 8 April.

Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 20 Apr 1535. R. O. 567. [John Hale, Vicar of Isleworth, to the Council.]

I fell and hurt my leg at Wyngham, at Allhallowtide was twelvemonth, and remained till about Candlemas next. On Saturday after Ash Wednesday I fell into a fervent ague. How long I continued, with various relapses, the parishioners of Isleworth know, so that I took not my journey through whole five weeks before Michaelmas last, and lost "our Lady's quarter" ended the Midsummer before that by my sickness. I had several falls from my horse, from one of which I was troubled in my wits, as also by age and lack of memory. Will nevertheless report, as well as I can, with whom I talked, and in what manner, of the King's grace. I remember, about two years ago, the fellow of Bristow showed, both to me and others of Syon, the prophecies of Marlyon; for, by my truth, Master Skydmore showed me also the same, with whom I had several conversations concerning the King's marriage and other behaviours of his bodily lust. Once Cownsell the porter "sayd that our suffren had a short of maydons over oon of his chambyres at Farnam while he was with the oold lord of Wynchester." Had also conversations with Skydmore, with Sir Thomas my priest, and with Master Leeke; and once, I think, about two years ago, of the Acts of Parliament made against churchmen, with the prior of Hounslow, who offered to show me a prophecy; but we had no leisure to speak together further, for we only met at the new inn, where Mr. Yowng, Awnsam and his wife, and others, dined with us. Skydmore also used to speak of young Sir Rice, saying that Welshmen and priests were sore disdained nowadays. As to Mr. Ferne, my wits were so troubled with sickness that I cannot perfectly remember what he rehearsed; but by Mr. Bydyll's rehearsal, Mr. Steward of Syon told me it was likely to be enacted that no more tithe corn should be made. I was sick long after, and, being aged and oblivious, did not see him till we met at the Secretary's at the Rolls. Also Mr. Waren, old surveyor, and the master of Ashford, in Kent, sometime steward to the bp. of Canterbury, spoke in the churchyard of Istleworth of the hard statutes made and to be made against the Church. Finally, I confess the four bills by Mr. Feerne, Mr. Leeke, Mr. Skydmore, and Sir Thomas Mody to be true, and that by such seditious ways I have maliciously slandered the King and Queen and their Council; for which I ask forgiveness of God, king Henry VIII., and queen Anne, and shall continue sorrowful during my life, which stands only in the King's William "Moreover, Mr. Skydmore dyd show to me yongge Master Care (age 9), saying that he was our suffren Lord the Kynge's son by our suffren Lady the Qwyen's (age 34) [her sister] syster (age 36), whom the Qwyen's (age 34) grace myght not suffer to be yn the Cowrte."

Pp.3. Headed: Jhus Salvator Mundi, miserere mei quia timor mortis conturbat me. Endd.:

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 May 1535. 666. And it is to be feared that if the King is getting so inured to cruelty he will use it towards the Queen and Princess, at least in secret; to which the concubine (age 34) will urge him with all her power, who has lately several times blamed the said King, saying it was a shame to him and all the realm that they were not punished as traitresses according to the statutes. The said concubine (age 34) is more haughty than ever, and ventures to tell the King that he is more bound to her than man can be to woman, for she extricated him from a state of sin; and moreover, that he came out of it the richest Prince that ever was in England, and that without her he would not have reformed the Church, to his own great profit and that of all the people. Some time ago the Queen suspected that foul dealing had been used towards the Princess, as appears by a letter which she caused to be written to me, and which I send to Granvelle.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. Cromwell told me that if the King's lady (age 34) knew the freedom with which we conversed together she would procure some trouble, and that only three days ago they had had words together, and that she had said she would like to see his head cut off, but he had such confidence in the King, his master, that he thought she could do nothing to him. I suspect he invented this to raise the value of his goods; for I told him all the world regarded him as her right hand, although I am informed on good authority that the said lady does not cease night or day to procure the disgrace of the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62), whether it be because he has spoken too freely of her or because Cromwell, desiring to lower the great ones, wishes to commence with him.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. Vienna Archives. 826. Chapuys to Charles V.

After the two first communications between the deputies of these two Kings, [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 32) left Calais, and arrived here on the 25th ult. Before speaking to the King he went to the Lady (age 34), his sister, and conversed with her a long time. He could not have brought back from Calais anything agreeable to himself; for, as I am told by the Grand Esquire (age 39)1, both then and several times since she has been in a bad humour, and said a thousand shameful words of the King of France, and generally of the whole nation. On the 25th and on the 27th, Corpus Christi Day, the King and his Council were exceedingly busy, consulting, as it is supposed, on the message brought by Rochford (age 32), and were unable to dissemble their great dissatisfaction. The French ambassador has had his share of dissatisfaction also, because Rochford (age 32) did not bring him any news, and because he was not called to Court, although on Corpus Christi Day he waited at Cromwell's lodging till 10 at night, expecting that Cromwell would return from Court and tell him the news. Indeed, Cromwell himself informs me he despatched him in two words, and he left greatly dissatisfied.

Note 1. Otherwise called Master of the Horse, Sir Nicholas Carew (age 39).

Execution of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Letters 1536. 11 Jun 1535. Add. MS. 28,588 f. 289. B. M. 1122. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

On the first day of Whitsuntide the convocation of the Council at Mantua was promulgated.

Chapuys writes that "La Ana (age 34)" and her five lovers, one of them being her brother, were imprisoned in the Tower on May 2. They were beheaded on May 17, and she on the following Friday. The King has ordered Parliament to be summoned after Whitsuntide. It is hoped that many good things will be done. The Princess has been suffering in her head and molar teeth, but it is not of much consequence.

La Ana (age 34) was beheaded before many people. She took the Sacrament in prison before her execution, and complained that she had not been executed on Wednesday with her brother, saying that she hoped to have gone to Paradise with him, and that she died by the laws of the kingdom. Two of the five confessed their guilt. One, who was the principal gentleman of the King's chamber, said a great deal about the justice of his death, and that a favoured servant ought not to flatter his prince and consent to his desires as he had done. Rome, 11 June 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 17 May 1536. 908. Today1 [her brother] Rochford (age 33) has been beheaded before the Tower, and the four others above named, notwithstanding the intercession of the Bishop of Tarbes, the French ambassador resident, and the sieur de Tinteville, who arrived the day before yesterday, in behalf of one named Weston (age 25). The Concubine (age 35) saw them executed from the Tower, to aggravate her grief. Rochford (age 33) disclaimed all that he was charged with, confessing, however, that he had deserved death for having been so much contaminated and having contaminated others with these new sects, and he prayed everyone to abandon such heresies. The Concubine (age 35) will certainly be beheaded tomorrow, or on Friday at the latest, and I think the King feels the time long that it is not done already. The day before the putain's condemnation he sent for Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] by the Grand Esquire and some others, and made her come within a mile of his lodging, where she is splendidly served by the King's cook and other officers. She is most richly dressed. One of her relations, who dined with her on the day of the said condemnation, told me that the King sent that morning to tell her that he would send her news at 3 o'clock of the condemnation of the putain (age 35), which he did by Mr. Briant, whom he sent in all haste. To judge by appearances, there is no doubt that he will take the said Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] to wife; and some think the agreements and promises are already made.

Note 1. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

On 19 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Green, Tower of London [Map]. Unusually a sword was used. Her execution was witnessed by Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Catherine Carey (age 12) and [her illegitimate step-son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16). Marquess Pembroke extinct.

She was buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map]. There is myth that her corpse was subsequently removed for burial at the Boleyn family church Church of St Peter and St Paul, Salle [Map].

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. Having written the above the day before yesterday, thought it well to delay the despatch to inform the Emperor of the execution of the Concubine (age 35), which was done at 9 o'clock this morning within the Tower, in presence of the Chancellor, Cromwell, and others of the Council, and a great number of the King's subjects, but foreigners were not admitted. It is said that although the bodies and heads of those executed the day before yesterday have been buried, her head will be put upon the bridge, at least for some time. She confessed herself yesterday, and communicated, expecting to be executed, and no person ever showed greater willingness to die. She requested it of those who were to have charge of it, and when the command came to put off the execution till today she appeared very sorry, praying the Captain of the Tower that for the honor of God he would beg the King that, since she was in good state and disposed for death, she might be dispatched immediately. The lady who had charge of her has sent to tell me in great secresy that the Concubine, before and after receiving the sacrament, affirmed to her, on the damnation of her soul, that she had never been unfaithful to the King. London, 19 May 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 10. The original endorsed: A Lempereur —De lambassadeur en angleterre du xixe de May, receues a Asti le ve de Juing.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. Vienna Archives. 911. Anne Boleyn (age 35), [her brother] Rochford (deceased), &c.

"Execution criminal hecha en Inglatierra el 16 de Mayo 15361."

The count (Viscount) Rochefort (deceased), brother of the Queen (unjustly so called) Anne Boleyn, was beheaded with an axe upon a scaffold before the Tower of London. He made a very catholic address to the people, saying he had not come thither to preach, but to serve as a mirror and example, acknowledging his sins against God and the King, and declaring he need not recite the causes why he was condemned, as it could give no pleasure to hear them. He first desired mercy and pardon of God, and afterwards of the King and all others whom he might have offended, and hoped that men would not follow the vanities of the world and the flatteries of the Court, which had brought him to that shameful end. He said if he had followed the teachings of the Gospel, which he had often read, he would not have fallen into this danger, for a good doer was far better than a good reader. In the end, he pardoned those who had condemned him to death, and asked the people to pray for his soul. After him Norris (deceased) was beheaded, then Weston (deceased) and Brereton, and Marc (deceased), the player on the spinnet, who said scarcely anything except to cry mercy of God and the King, and beg people to pray for their souls. Brereton and Marc (deceased) were afterwards quartered.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 918. Today the Queen (age 35) was put to death within the Tower in the presence of a thousand people. London, 19 May.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 919. The Queen (age 35) suffered with sword this day within the Tower, upon a new scaffold, and died boldly.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 920. "The late Queen (age 35) suffered this day in the Tower, who died boldly; and also her [her brother] brother (deceased), Mr. Noreys (deceased), Bruirton, Weston (deceased), and Markes (deceased) suffered the 17th day of this instant upon Tower Hill; all which died charitably. God take them to his mercy if it be his pleasure. Mr. Paige and young Wyat (age 15) are in the Tower. What shall become of them God best knoweth."

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 19 May 1536. But the Queen (age 35) was with a sword beheaded within the Tower. And these following were the words that she spoke the day of her death which was the nineteenth day of May, 1536.

Good Christen people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the King and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and Sovereign Lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. And then she kneeled down saying: To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul diverse times, till that her head was stricken of with the sword. And on the Ascencion day following, the King wore white for mourning.

Calais in the Hands of the English. 19 May 1536. The nineteenth of May Queen Ann Boleyn (age 35) was behedyd in the Towre of London, by the hands of the hangman of Calais, withe the swerde of Calais.

Letters 1536. 24 May 1536. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 252. B. M. 956. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to Mons. Ambrogio.

According to information from England, received by the King yesterday, on the 15th inst. the Queen (deceased) was degraded, and the following day was to be executed,—either burnt or beheaded; but first her [her brother] brother (deceased), four gentlemen, and an organist (deceased), with whom she had misconducted herself, were to be quartered in her presence. It is not true that her [her father] father (age 59) and mother were imprisoned, but the former (age 59), being on the Council, was present at his daughter's (deceased) sentence. All was done in the presence of the French ambassador only. It is said that the King has been in danger of being poisoned by that lady (deceased) for a whole year, and that her [her daughter] daughter (age 2) is supposititious, being the child of a countryman (villano); but these particulars are not known for certain, according to what the King said today. The discovery was owing to words spoken by the organist (deceased) from jealousy of others. They are expecting now the declaration of the true daughter to reinstate her and annul what was done in favor of the other. Has not omitted to show what may be done on this occasion for the honor of God, &c. The French king answered that he ardently desired to bring back Henry to the Church, and that he would not fail in endeavouring to do so. He knows that the Imperialists have offered the king of England the queen of Hungary as a wife, but it is thought he will not take her, as she is in bad health, and not fit to bear children. He has today sent a person to his Ambassador about these affairs. He thinks it would be easy to bring back the King if it were not for his avarice, which is increased by the profit he draws from Church goods. The English ambassadors here are in very great joy. Knowing that one of them was a good man, and a friend of his, caused the opportunity and advantage of the King's coming back to the Pope to be shown to him; and that he should be neutral, and give the Emperor and (French) king to understand that he would oppose whoever refused peace; that there was not a better opportunity of wiping out the stains on his character, and making himself the most glorious King in the world; that every one should do his duty, and they would find in the Pope that true piety and goodness which ought now to be known to all the world. The Ambassador, and Winchester also, who is the other, thanked him, saying, with many tears, that this was their only desire, and they would do their part, so that they hoped we should soon embrace each other.

Ital., modern copy, pp. 6. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio, Da Lione, li 24 Maggio 1536.

Letters 1536. 25 May [1536]. R. T. 145, No. 8. Gachard's Analectes Historiques, 1 S. 17. 965. Mary of Hungary to Ferdinand King of the Romans.

I hope the English will not do much against us now, as we are free from his lady (deceased), who was a good Frenchwoman. That the vengeance might be executed by the Emperor's subjects, he sent for the executioner of St. Omer, as there were none in England good enough.

Letters 1536. 26 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 281. B. M. 973. [Hannaert] to Charles V.

There is news from England that the so-called Queen (deceased) was found in bed with her organist (deceased), and taken to prison. It is proved that she had criminal intercourse (hazia el maleficio a si mismo) with her [her brother] brother (deceased) and others, and that the [her daughter] daughter (age 2) supposed to be hers was taken from a poor man. The English ambassador says that she and her brother are condemned to be burnt, and a valet (camarero) of the King's, who was very intimate with him, and three others, to be beheaded, for conspiring the death of the King. The King has sent for the Princess, made much of her, and given her many jewels belonging to the unjust Queen. De Leon Solarrona (Lyon sur le Rhone), 26 May 1536.

Sp., pp. 5. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 01 Jun 1536. Corpus Reform. iv., 1036. 1035. Melancthon to Wolfgang Bock.

Has not a copy of Bucer's opinion, and it is not fit that it should be published yet, as nothing is yet settled about agreement. The matter is to be referred to more on both sides. He may tell the Prince that there is good hope of concord, and that Bucer declared the same opinion that he had previously written to the people of Munster (Monasterienses), and which some people in Silesia have followed. Thinks the word of revocation should be avoided; there are many serious things. Does not wish him to disturb lightly the Prince's mind. Hopes the Prince will be pleased with Bucer's declaration. The last queen of England (deceased) has been beheaded in May for adultery, with others. Lat.

Letters 1536. 2 June. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 286. B.M. 1044. [Hannart] to the Empress.

Wrote last on the 27th ult. * * * Supposes the Empress has heard how Ana de Bolan has been sent to the Tower with her brother "el conde de Sefort" (Rochford), and three other gentlemen of the King's chamber, named Norris, Wasten, and Brecton, and an organist. On the 16th they were publicly beheaded for adultery with the Queen and conspiracy against the King. The Queen's head and body were taken to a church in the Tower, accompanied by four ladies. The other bodies were quartered. It is now said that her pretended daughter was taken from poor parents.

The king of Scotland seems to be putting off his marriage with the daughter of the duke of Vendome. De Leon Solarrona (Lyons), 2 June 1536.

Sp., pp. 5. Modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1535. 17 Jun 1535. Vatican Archives. 891. Bishop of Faenza to M. Ambrogio.

Two hours ago the Admiral arrived. Thinks the negociation with England is broken off because the French refuse to allow the duke of Angoulême to go to England, or to defend against the Church or a declaration of Council the cause of the King's second wife (age 34). These, he understands, are the principal points, though the French are as silent as they can, and pretend that it has not affected their friendship. Will write again more fully about it. Nothing is yet known of what has become of Fisher since the news of his promotion. Those who have recently been to Calais are sure that evil has happened to him. Du Bellay proposes to leave in six days, though his hat has not yet arrived.

Ital., modern copy, from a decipher, p. 1. Headed: "Decifrato del Vescovo di Faenza de li xvij di Giugnio da Amiens." Another copy is in the B. M., Add. MS. 8715 f. 76.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Jun 1535. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 76 b. B. M. 909. Bishop of Faenza to M. Ambrogio.

The Admiral (age 43), who was 22 days at Calais, returned on the 17th, though it was said everywhere that he would go on to England. [her brother] Mons. de Ricciafort (age 32) (Rochford), the brother of the new Queen (age 34), came here for eight days, but, as far as could be seen, did nothing. It is only from his relation to the Queen that he is employed, for the King has very few to trust in. All business passes through the hands of people who depend on the new Queen, and must therefore be settled according to her purpose. This was the case in the negociations with the Admiral (age 43), which were broken off on account of his refusal to allow the duke of Angoulême to go to England until the girl was old enough to be married, and because he would not declare in any way against the Church, or in favour of the King's second wife (age 34) (ne voler difendere in alcun modo contro la chiesa o declaratione del concilio la causa della seconda moglie1). Every one knows that the alliance (parentado) has not been concluded, as both sides confidently affirmed it would be, but that the ambassadors separated very ill satisfied, and the English are guarding Calais more carefully than they have done, even when the French were there in greater numbers. However, both sides affirm the friendship to be firmer than ever. The French king and Council say that their respect to the Holy See and the Pope has been the principal cause of their not coming to some other understanding (ad altro ristretto) with the king of England, who is a most bitter enemy of the Church, and so firm in his opinion that he intends to die in it, and tries to have this kingdom for company. The [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62), according to the Admiral (age 43), affirms that he would sooner die than see any change as regards the King or the new Queen; which is not unlike what the writer has heard in other ways of Norfolk, viz., that this breaking off might reasonably have been expected, matters depending very much on his dexterity, and the affairs of England being commonly managed more than barbarously. For he, being one of the greatest men in the kingdom, and having sons, and the [her illegitimate step-son] Duke of Richmond (age 16) for his son-in-law, might hope one day to have that daughter for one of his sons, or, if disorders ensued, to get the rule into his own hands. The French lords are not too well contented with the English, who, since Norfolk's return, have despatched a courier, and show themselves displeased that nothing was concluded at Calais. The Admiral (age 43), though he takes Fisher's (age 65) case much to heart, has great fears for his life, especially as the Pope says in the brief that the created him a cardinal to make use of him in the Council. He says also that the English pretended that he could not live much more than a month, being a valetudinarian of 90; which shows what they mean to do with him, reckoning him 25 years older than he is, although they declare there is no hope in any case of his coming out of prison. These are truly the most monstrous things seen in our time. The French make great account with the Pope of not listening to anything proposed to them by the English which might turn to the damage of the Holy See.

Ital., pp. 9, modern copy. Headed: In Amoien, al Sig. M. Ambrogio, alli 12 (sic) ut supra.

2. An extract copy from the original is in the Vatican transcripts, dated Amiens, 22 June 1535. Pp. 3.

Note 1. nor want to defend the cause of the second wife in any way against the church or declaration of the council

Letters and Papers 1535. 24 Jun 1535. R. O. 919. Sir William Kyngston (age 59) to [Lord Lisle (age 71)].

I thank you and my Lady for my "puetts," "which made the King merry in Waltham forest," and also for your letters. The hawk you sent to my lord of Carlisle has not yet come, "bot when she comys you apounted a gud keper fro hyr for Johnnies may now keper well, for my lord his master fell yowt with hym for playing at penny gleke and never will play with hym agayn." No news here worth writing. The King and Queen (age 34) are well, "and her Grace (age 34) has a fair belly as I have seen." Master Treasurer was never better, and thanks you for your continual kindness. You wrote me for Master Elmer. I have not yet spoken with him, but will do for him as for my brother. Master Radcliff recommends him to you and my lady and so does my poor wife, who has had little health since your departure. Do not forget me to my good bedfellow Master Porter (my lady is here), and to Master Marshall and my lady. Greenwich, St. John's Day.

Hol., p. 1. Endd.: 24 June.

On 25 Jun 1535 [her illegitimate brother-in-law] Roland de Velville (age 64) died. He was buried at Beaumaris.

Letters and Papers 1535. 28 Jun 1535. R. O. Archæol. ix. 244. 937. Henry VIII. to the Lord Windsor, Keeper of the Great Wardrobe.

Mandate to make payment to John Malte, the King's "tillor;" Th. Addington, the King's skinner; Lettice Worsop, his silk-woman; Wm. Crofton, his "hoosyar;" Henry Cornelys and Henry Johnsone, his cordwainers; and to Wm. Sporyar, for making robes, doublets, &c., and for stuff for the King; for satin, &c., delivered to the Queen (age 34); for gowns, coats, &c. for Culpepir, the King's page; the three officers of the King's robes; the two royal barbers; the five grooms of the privy chamber; Mark Philip, and Culpepir of the privy chamber; the said Wm. Crofton; the King's "sporyar;" 67 yeomen of the guard; and Wm. Somar, the King's fool. Given under the sign manual, at Windsor Castle, 28 June 27 Hen. VIII.

To our trustie, &c., counsaillor the lorde Windsore, keper of oure greate warderobe."

Facsimile of the King's signature.

Letters and Papers 1535. 30 Jun 1535. Vienna Archives. 949. Chapuys to [Granvelle].

Sends a gallant and notable interpretation of a chapter of the Apocalypse which was played on the eve of St. John. To see it, the King went thirty miles from here, walked 10 miles at 2 o'clock at night with a two-handed sword, and got into a house where he could see everything. He was so pleased at seeing himself cutting off the heads of the clergy, that in order to laugh at his ease, and encourage the people, he discovered himself. He sent to tell his lady (age 34) that she ought to see the representation of it repeated on the eve of St. Peter.

Letters and Papers 1535. 04 Jul 1535. 985. Francis also spoke three days ago of the new Queen of England (age 34), how little virtuously she has always lived and now lives, and how she and her [her brother] brother (age 32) and adherents suspect the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62) of wishing to make his son King, and marry him to the King's legitimate daughter, though they are near relations. It seems to him there can be little friendship between the two kingdoms.

The King spoke of the marriage of the king of Scotland with the duke of Vendome's daughter as certain, but said the king of England was displeased at it, and now would wish to give him his eldest daughter. His inconstancy was incredible. Sends the copy of a proclamation issued in England.

Ital., pp. 11, modern copy. Headed; Al S. Mons. Ambrogio, ali 4 di Luglio, data alla Fiera.

Letters and Papers 1535. 25 Jul 1535. 1105. I have also written how the affairs of Kildare prospered, and that the English were sending two persons to Lubeck and Denmark. At the request of the Princess I lately sent a message to Cromwell to know if she could be placed with the Queen; but he told me that the King his master would never consent to it, and there was no occasion for it, except that the said Queen was too papistical. He said the true means to get the Princess removed from where she was, and cured of her illness, would be to find a suitable match for her, provided it was not the Dauphin, to whom they had no intention of giving her, however much your Majesty might desire it; and that they were importuned by several petty princes of Germany, but this would degrade her too much. I think the King is not over anxious to marry, her; and, if we may trust the concubine (age 34), the dower will not cost much, because she is incessantly crying after the King that he does not act with prudence in suffering the Queen and Princess to live, who deserved death more than those who have been executed, and that they were the cause of all. Since Shrovetide I have sent a servant once or twice every week to the said Princess, but lately her gouvernante told my man that she was charged not to let him come in again. On this I have asked Cromwell to know the will of the King his master.

On 21 Aug 1535 Nicholas Poyntz (age 25) visited by [her husband] Henry VIII (age 44) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 34) at Acton Court Iron Acton, Gloucestershire [Map].

Letters and Papers 1535. 01 Sep 1535. Add. MS. 28, 588, f. 12. B. M. 249. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Is glad to hear of the Emperor's safe arrival in Sicily. Yesterday, Aug. 31, a chamberlain of the king of England, named Thomas Petiple, left Rome to go to the Emperor with letters from the King and Chapuis. He said that before his departure he spoke to the Queen (age 49), and that she was very well at Bugden1, and that she had liberty and much service, for which the King paid, although she is only called Princess of Wales (Cales), because, according to the King's statutes, everyone, though unwillingly, calls "la Ana (age 34)" Queen. The latter is said to be very ugly. All the people are frightened because they do not know from what side God's judgment will fall upon them.

Note 1. Apparently a mistake of the writer, as Katharine certainly had been removed from Bugden to Kimbolton, u a house belonging to the heirs of Sir Richard Wingfield, "as early as May 1534. See Vol. VII., p. 254.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

Letters and Papers 1535. 06 Sep 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 20. B. M. 295. Viscount J. Hannart to the Empress.

The queens of France and Hungary met at Cambray on 16 Aug. There were present the daughters and daughter-in-law of the King, Madame de Vendome, the cardinals of Borvon (Bourbon) and Tornon, the Admiral, the duke of Albany, and the marchioness of Zenete. The Empress probably knows that the king of England has separated from the Church of Rome, and put to death many persons who will not obey him as head of the Church after God. Since the death of the Cardinal of Rochester and More, twentyeight persons have been executed, among them nine Carthusians. The King has given the Carthusian Monastery in London to his new wife (age 34) for a palace, and others to his daughter and [her father] father-in-law (age 58).

The king of Scotland has sent ambassadors to conclude his marriage with the daughter of Mons. de Vandôme, and to conduct her to Scotland.

* * * 6 Sept. 1535. Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1535. 13 Sep 1535. Titus, B. xi. 429. B. M. St. P. i. 445. 358. Lord Chancellor Audeley to [Cromwell].

Has drawn a proviso for the surety of the King, the Queen (age 34), and the [her father] Earl of Wiltshire (age 58), &c., and inserted it in the end of the Act that the Earl of Ossory (age 68) desires to have pass, because if it were in a schedule it might be craftily withdrawn. Sends the Acts, with the commission to the Deputy for holding Parliament after the old custom. Sends also a copy of the proviso to the Earl of Wiltshire. Has drawn up the commission for the Deputy only, else it might take away part of his reputation among the people. Desires him to report to the King the number of Acts annexed. Has also made two patents for barons for Sir Richard Power and Thomas Ewstace; and, hearing from Cowley that the old course is to have letters from the Chancery here in England, has sealed them, and sends them to Cromwell.

Letters and Papers 1535. 27 Sep 1535. R. O. 450. Sir Thomas Audeley to Cromwell.

Has received his letter, with the books of Bath and Winchester for valuation of the spiritualities. Only 12 or 13 books have yet come to his hands. Wonders the Commissioners are so negligent. Has lain at Old Ford only for this cause these 14 or 15 days, and cannot proceed till all the books come in. Intends to write letters, in the names of Cromwell and himself, to the Commissioners of the shires where they lack. and send them with the writs of the prorogation of Parliament, and with the commissions and proclamations for wheat, which will all be ready tomorrow. Wishes to know the King's pleasure about proclamations for clothiers. Must ride to the burial of Sir David Owen, who has named him one of his executors. Wishes to know what Cromwell has done for London, Middlesex, and Surrey. Thanks him for moving the Queen (age 34) for her house, and desires him to thank her Highness for lending it to him. Would be glad to gratify Cromwell about the nomination of the under-sheriff of Middlesex, "and am right well content ye take your pleasure in it, praying you to consider that it is given me, and that of good congruence and reason ye cannot take it from me." You have done me much greater pleasures, and this is not for my own profit, but for my poor servant's, to whom I can give nothing. Remember, I moved you once for poor Dyne to have the controllership of the dispensations, "with poor £10 fee. Ye have his bill." Each of us must have a clerk, with 20 marks' fee, to make up books of benefices, as it will be a great business. I shall be near the Court when I go to Mr. Owen's burial, but dare not approach the King's presence till I know his pleasure. I have long wished to see his Grace, "but I have a little resorted to London, and some suitors of London daily have come to my house." Can never be rid of them. Sends humble recommendations to the King and Queen. Old Ford, Monday before Michaelmas Day.

Hol., pp. 2. Add.: Thomas Crumwell, Esq., Chief Secretary to the King's Highness. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 02 Oct 1535. R. O. 525. Sir Richard Graynfeld to Lord Lisle (age 71).

Came to the Court on Michaelmas eve, intending to take leave of the King and to have been with you on the 6 Oct.; but on taking my leave the King told me that Rensele desired to continue in his office. I told him I had paid him £400, and had his bond in 800 marks to surrender his patent by Bartholomew's Day; and I appealed to Master Secretary, who was called and spoke in my favor, and said this agreement was made before him. Dares not press the matter further till he knows the King's pleasure. Thinks that Edward Rensele has caused Norfolk and Master Treasurer to labor for him. Many think the writer has been wronged, insomuch that my lord of Norfolk, my lord Chamberlain, and Master Secretary called him before them, and promised he should not be injured. And Master Secretary said he would be as earnest in that matter with the King as ever he was, and that he would not leave his friend so. Does not fear of his succeeding, and will consider himself amply repaid for the great trouble he has had by being henceforth in Lisle's company. Hampton, Saturday after Michaelmas.

P.S.—It is said the King intends going on Monday to Porchester in your ship. Fitzgarret is committed to the Tower. My lord Leonard is returned into Ireland. "The King and the Queen (age 34) is merry and hawks daily, and likes Winchester and that quarter, and praises it much."

Hol., pp. 3. Add.

Letters and Papers 1535. 06 Oct 1535. R. O. 555. John Bishop of Exeter to Sir Thomas Arundell.

Complains of having often written to Arundel's deputy, Weymont Carewe, for the "tithe tyne" (tin) of Cornwall, which has been unpaid for three years and amounts to £51, and for which Carewe has allowance from the King's auditors. Has records to show that it has been continually allowed and paid since before king John's days. Shaftesbury, 6 Oct.

Thanks him for the venison, wine, and other gifts. Was with the King on Friday last. He, the Queen (age 34), and all other nobles of the Court were in good health and merry. Signed.

The P.S. in his own hand, p. 1. Add.

Letters and Papers 1535. [08 Oct 1535]. Camusat, 21. 566. [The Bishop of Tarbes to the Bailly of Troyes.]1

He is to state to the King (Francis) that the Emperor's ambassador has sent word to the old Queen (Katharine) and her daughter that his master has commanded him to inform them that he will not re-enter his kingdom of Spain until he has restored them to their estates and rights. The people is so greatly devoted to them that in order to restore them it will join any prince who espouses their quarrel. This is common opinion among noblemen, the lower people, and the King's own servants. All the people is marvellously discontented; most of them, excepting the relations of the present Queen (age 34), because of the old Queen and her daughter, others because of the subversion of religion. Others fear war, and foresee that commercial intercourse will cease, both within the realm and without, in Flanders, Spain, Italy, and other countries where the cloths, kerseys, hides, tin, lead, and other merchandise of this kingdom have been sold, and that navigation will be so dangerous that there will be no English merchant who will dare to transport merchandise into foreign countries without many ships equipped for war. The strangers of the lands of the Emperor, and those who will be his friends and under the obedience of the Pope, will be unable to traffic to the said country, nor any others without great danger of encountering the Emperor's troops and other enemies of England. The weather has been so bad the whole of the summer that not half of the necessary corn has been reaped. The King (Francis) should consult whether he ought to prohibit the exportation in order to prove to them how necessary to them is his aid and friendship. The lower people, in consequence of these things, are greatly exasperated against the Queen (age 34), saying concerning her a thousand ill and improper things, and also against those who support her in her enterprises, charging upon them all the inconveniences which they foresee will arise from war. It is held to be quite certain that if war takes place the people will rebel against the governors, from fear of what has been said above and from the affection which they bear to the old Queen and her [her step-daughter] daughter (age 19), and especially to the Princess (age 19), who has such a hold on the hearts of the people that, notwithstanding the laws made at the last Parliament, they do not cease to regard her as Princess, saying that the laws of Parliament cannot do away her being the King's daughter, and born during the marriage, and that the King and everyone so regarded her until that Parliament. Lately, when she was removed from Greenwich, a great troop of citizens' wives and others, unknown to their husbands, presented themselves before her, weeping and crying that she was Princess, notwithstanding all that had been done2. Some of them, the chiefest, were placed in the Tower, constantly persisting in their opinion. These things are so well known, and the fear of war so great, that many of the greater merchants of London have recommended themselves to the Emperor's ambassador, and said that if the Emperor make war, the people will surrender themselves to him.

Note 1. Printed by Camusat immediately after the paper No. 1479 in Vol. VI., with the heading: "Autre memoire non datte lequel semble avoir este escript peu apres le precedent." It appears to be a paper of instructions given by the bp. of Tarbes to the Bailly of Troyes on his return to France in Oct. 1535.

Note 2. In the margin: "Millor de Rochesfort et millord de Guillaume."

Letters and Papers 1535. 09 Oct 1535. R. O. 571. Sir Anthony Wyndesore to Lord Lisle (age 71).

By a letter in your own hand, written on Midsummer Day last, you desired me to see Sir Edward Seymour (age 35) paid £100 at the feast of All Saints, according to the award of my Lord Chancellor and Master Secretary, and to take a statute of him. I never saw the award, and can get no knowledge how the money should be paid. I wrote to Leonard Smith what to do, but have had no answer from him yet. I beg to know your pleasure as soon as possible, for you wrote that you trusted Sir Edward Seymour (age 35) would allow the £60 in part of the £100. Your audit shall begin at Kingston Lisle on the 18th Oct. I have been obliged to attend the King since he came into Hampshire, and have had no leisure to write to you or my Lady. His Grace has been in Hampshire from about the 10th Sept., and intends to be till 19th Oct., except four days that he lieth in Salisbury, and returneth to Hampshire again. He will be at Windsor on Allhallows Eve. He was at Portsmouth and Porchester, but I was not there, for I was then commanded to cause the weirs to be plucked down upon the rivers through the whole shire. The King and Queen (age 34) were very merry in Hampshire. I enclose a letter for the Purrege (Purbeck) stone sold by Gillot, and have taken account of him before Jas. Hauxhed, which I have written in the end of the letter. Est Meon, 9 Oct. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 19 Oct 1535. R.O. 639. Sir Francis Brian to Cromwell.

Sends a letter which he has received from Dr. Neckam, who has got the rule of the priory of Worcester. Neckam and his brethren are still troubled by the cellarer, notwithstanding Cromwell's letter, and Brian requests Cromwell to write again. The King's Grace is "mery;" he and the Queen (age 34) remove from the Vyne to Mr. Comptroller's to-day, and on Thursday to Bramsell House, on Friday to Esthamsted, and on Tuesday to Windsor. From the Vyne, 19 Oct. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Oct 1535. R. O. 663. W. Lord Sandys to Cromwell.

The King and Queen (age 34) came to my poor house on Friday the 15th of this month, and continued there till Tuesday. I expected to have seen you, which would have been a great comfort to me and my poor wife. Please to remember that on behalf of my friend, John Awdelett, of Abingdon, you were pleased to befriend him; but I hear from him that the matter at variance betwixt the abbot and him has not been committed, as you promised, to be decided by certain indifferent persons. The Vine, 22 Oct. 27 Hen. VIII. Signed.

Letters and Papers 1535. 24 Oct 1535. 681. In the Charterhouse of London, revelations have been had from a deceased person, showing the glorious crown of martyrdom obtained by the cardinal of Rochester and the other martyred saints in England. Cromwell, who procures everything that Anne (age 34) wishes, has forbidden these revelations to be published. Rome, 24 Oct. 1535.

Sp., pp. 5. Modern copy.

1535 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1535. 28 Oct 1535. R. O. 700. John Graynfyld to Lord Lisle (age 71).

I have received your letter by your servant Bryant, and sped him of your requests. My Lord Chancellor prays you not to be so liberal in granting these petitions. I told him it was usual with your predecessors. He said, Never came so many; and told me to inform you that the certificate of the spiritualty was not correct, and that displeasure would be taken if it were known. I told him you would not certify from any partiality. He asked me why you had not certified Stanyngfyld. I told him "hit wasse a neuter;" and he said you ought to certify it as within the English pale, and that the King's subject was master of the house; also that you had omitted to certify the house of the sisters by the walls of Calais. Your lease of Sybberton is made sure. Please remember the matter between Golfon (Golston) and me. My Lord Leonard Graye (age 56) has gone into Ireland again, and many gunners with him. The King gave him 500 marks and £100 land to him and his heirs, besides his previous grant of 300 marks land. Also the King gave him a ship well trimmed, and the Queen (age 34) a chain of gold from her middle, worth 100 marks, and a purse of 20 sovereigns. The death is well stopped in London. All manner of grain is at a great price. St. Simon and St. Jude's Day.

Commends himself to his brother Sir Ric. Graynfyld and Mr. Porter.

Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 16 Dec 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 87. B. M. 983. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Wrote last on Nov. 22. Is glad to hear the good news that the Turk has been defeated by the Sophi, with a loss of 40,000 horse (de acaballo) and 40 great pieces of artillery, his army having been 70,000.

In the cause of the Queen of England (age 50), the Consistory has ordered of itself a monitory to be issued, fixing a space of two months for the King to turn from his heresy and schism and public adultery, and then he will not be declared deprived of his kingdom.

The Imperial ambassador writes that he has not leave to visit or send any person to see the Queen and Princess. Those with the Queen are guards and spies, not servants, for they have sworn in favor of Anne (age 34), not to call her highness Queen, nor serve her with royal state. So, not to give them cause to sin, the Queen has not left her chamber for two years; and perhaps if she wished to, it would not be allowed, "y que no manda un ducado," nor has she any of her old servants except her confessor, physician, and apothecary. The King always asks those who wish to join him (se quisieren juntar con el) to renounce obedience to the Apostolic See, and he who formerly appealed to a Council now wishes it not to be held.

Letters and Papers 1535. 01 Nov 1535. Vienna Archives. 733. Chapuys to [Granvelle].

As Granvelle will see by his letters to the Emperor, nothing has happened worth writing since his man left. Sends a copy of a letter from Cromwell which he forgot.

The French ambassador said lately that it was publicly reported in the Court that the king of Tunis had been compelled to recall Barbarossa to put down rebellion among his subjects, and had retaken Goletta, Bona, and the rest. The King, the Lady, and their party, are rejoiced. The Princess has sent to tell me the same, the news being sent to her to annoy her. The French ambassador thinks it strange that, as matters are now, they should allow corn to be obtained from Flanders for England. He was sure these people would never have any help from France. Has already informed the Queen (of Hungary?). Thinks notice should be taken of it in Spain. There is a great likelihood of famine, which will help towards setting matters right. The people murmur. The King and his concubine (age 34), who had previously caused it to be preached that God showed his approval of their Government by sending a good season, now make the preachers say that it is clear God loves the people because he sends adversity. Sometimes they say that the adversity is on account of those who object to this new marriage, and this new sect. London, 1 Nov. 1535.

The French pension has not been paid this year. From the French ambassador's manner in speaking of it, does not think it will be paid soon. He insinuated that the Pope would pay for them, when the executorials came. The Almain of whom he lately wrote, who said he was sent by the duke of Saxony and his Council, came principally to bring a book of Melancthon's, dedicated to the King, called "Loci Communes." He has been given 50 ducats, and Melancthon 200. It is said that the ambassador sent to Almain will go to Melancthon and his accomplices and try to make them sing his master's tune.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Letters and Papers 1535. 06 Nov 1535. Vienna Archives. 777. Chapuys to Anthony Perrenin, Secretary of State to the Emperor.

Since writing on the 1st, something else has happened, as he will see in the letters to the Emperor. Cannot write more on account of the courier's haste. "Cette diablesse de concubine (age 34)1" will never be satisfied till she is freed from these poor ladies, for which she works by all possible means. Desires to be recommended to the Secretary Martyrano. London, 6 Nov. 1535.

Fr. From a modern copy. P. 1.

Note 1. This devil of a concubine.

Letters and Papers 1535. 21 Nov 1535. 861. The personage who informed me of what I wrote to your Majesty on the 6th about the Queen and Princess, viz., that the King meant to have them dispatched at this next Parliament, came yesterday into this city in disguise to confirm what she had sent to me to say, and conjure me to warn your Majesty, and beg you most urgently to see to a remedy. She added that the King, seeing some of those to whom he used this language shed tears, said that tears and wry faces were of no avail, because even if he lost his crown he would not forbear to carry his purpose into effect. These are things too monstrous to be believed; but, considering what has passed and goes on daily,—the long continuance of these menaces—and moreover that the concubine (age 34), who long ago conspired the death of the said ladies and thinks of nothing but getting rid of them, is the person who governs everything, and whom the King is unable to contradict,—the matter is very dangerous. The King would fain, as I have already written, make his Parliament participators and even authors of such crimes, in order that, losing all hope of the clemency of your Majesty, the whole people should be the more determined to defend themselves when necessary.

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Nov 1535. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 47. B. M. 873. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Wrote on Sept. 1 and 8 and Oct. 24. The Ambassador in England wrote on the 14th Oct. that the Queen and Princess were well, and sent a servant of his here, who left on the 5th to go to the Emperor. He brought letters from the Queen, which she said she sent as her last testament, because, considering her present state and the orders made in the Parliament of this November, it appears likely that she and the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 19) will be sentenced to martyrdom, which she was ready to receive in testimony of the Holy Faith, as the cardinal of Rochester and other holy martyrs had done. She only grieves that her life has not been as holy as theirs, and she is in great sorrow for the multitude of souls who are daily condemned.

The Princess with only three women is in the same house as the daughter of the Wench (age 34) ("la Manceba"), under the charge of the Wench's [her aunt] aunt (age 60). Formerly the Ambassador was allowed to send to her two days a week, but now this leave has been taken away. When she asked to be allowed to live with her mother she was refused, because it would make her more obstinate in disobeying the statutes, which was not safe in consequence of the penalty imposed by them. The King told his mistress that while he lived (viniere, error for viviere?) the Princess should not marry. She has told the King several times that it is the Princess who causes war, and that it will be necessary to treat her as the cardinal of Rochester has been treated. She has often said of the Princess "She is my death and I am hers; so I will take care that she shall not laugh at me after my death." When the Ambassador asked for certain money due to the Queen from the time she held the lands "de sus arras," it was refused, and he was told that he should see if the Queen would consent to live at less expense, and that the King bore her expenses.

Letters and Papers 1535. 18 Dec 1535. R. O. 991. Thomas Broke to Lady Lisle (age 41).

I have delivered your token to Mrs. Margery Horsman, who says she knows not the man she sent to your Ladyship, but was desired by a near friend to write in his favor. She says also the Queen (age 34) sets much store by a pretty dog; "and her Grace (age 34) delighted so much in little Purkoy, that after he was dead of a fall there durst nobody tell her Grace of it." But she values a dog more than a bitch. Mr. Smythe says it would have been no use speaking of £160 or £180, for they would not agree to more than £120, but preferred that it should go to law. Jas. Roberts is come to London this day, but I cannot meet with him. As soon as I receive the cap I will have it sent to the prioress of Winchester. My bedfellow has been three times at Mr. Judd's, but has failed to find him. London, 18 Dec.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: At Calais.

Defense of the Unity of the Church Book III. You, a man of your age and with such experience, are miserably burning with passion for the love of a girl [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 34)]. She, indeed, has said that she will make herself available to you on one condition alone. You must reject your wife whose place she desires to hold. This modest woman (age 34) does not want to be your concubine! She wants to be your wife. I believe that she learned from the example of her sister [[her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 36)] if in no other way, how quickly you can have your fill of concubines. She, however, was anxious to surpass her sister (age 36) by retaining you as a lover. This woman, pleasing to the one by whom she appeared to be so ardently loved, desired to be joined to you by an indissoluble bond. She desired to remain with you perpetually. And in this passionate longing you responded mutually. In fact you actually surpassed her so that you thought it would be the greatest achievement of your fortunes, the height of happiness, if your legitimate and just wife were cast out of your marriage and it were permitted you to be united with this woman in matrimony and to live with her forever.

Defense of the Unity of the Church Book III. But there is something else that makes your intention here all the more clear. For this matter concerning your brother's wife is much less important! Why is this so? Because, although you married your wife whose nakedness the law forbade you to uncover before the sight and eyes of the Church, nevertheless she came to you as a virgin. I do not think that you will say that the sister [[her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 36)] of this woman [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 34)] whom you now possess was left a virgin by you. Now whatever the law might seem to do regarding your first wife, it has no effect at all if it can be established that your first wife was untouched by your brother. For that law forbids you to uncover the nakedness of your brother. This precept applies to a situation where the bodies were joined in the marriage act. Therefore, by the words "uncover the nakedness of your brother" it was forbidden that she should be your wife. But where there were not bodies joined in the marriage act, there was no nakedness of your brother that might be uncovered. Here the prohibition of the law does not hold. But how greatly it does hold in the case of her whose sister you clearly violated!

Defense of the Unity of the Church Book III. If you abandoned your wife because the law persuaded you that it was necessary to pronounce such a marriage abominable, should you not take the greatest care not to contaminate yourself again with a similar marriage? Should you not abstain absolutely from such persons who were in a similar or even worse condition than your first wife was? Surely you cannot act otherwise if the reason of a law is to influence you in any way. They who suggested such a marriage to you or who mentioned it in any way should be objects of hatred to you. For what kind of a woman [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 34)] is this one with whom you are now associating in place of your repudiated wife? Is she not the sister of the girl [[her sister] Mary Boleyn (age 36)] whom you first violated and whom you kept with you for a long time afterward as a concubine?2 How, therefore, do you inform us you are seeking refuge from an illicit marriage? Are you here ignorant of the law that no less explicitly forbids you to marry the sister of her with whom you have been made one body, than it forbids you to marry her who has been made one body with your brother? If one is to be abominated, so is the other. Do you not know this law? But you do know it best of all! How do I know this? Because at the same time you rejected the dispensation of the pontiff to marry the wife of your brother, you were striving with great effort to obtain from this same pontiff permission to marry the of her who had been your concubine.3 Could you have so made this petition, if previously it was not established that the pontiff had the right of giving a dispensation in the first case? Therefore, does not this woman whom you now consider your wife, show most clearly what your intentions were? Does not God, by her character alone even if she were silent, make it certain to all that you mentioned this law not to be restrained by the mandate of God but to honor your own passionate longing?

Note 2. This inconsistency in Henry VIIl's "divorce" plea arose from the fact that on his own admission he had previously had illicit relations with Anne Boleyn's (age 34) sister Mary (age 36). On the basis of grounds that Henry was using in his request to Pope Clement VII, Henry VIIl was actually asking Pope Clement to admit that Pope Julius Il had no authority for granting the very same request that Henry was asking Pope Clement to grant.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 08 Jan 1536. And the eighth day of January following died the Princess Dowager (deceased) at Kimbolton and was buried at Peterborough. Queen Anne (age 35) wore yellow for the mourning.

Letters 1536. 09 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 59. Chapuys to Charles V.

Just after having finished my last letter of 30 Dec. I mounted horse to go with all possible haste "selon la grande compagnie que menvoie" to see the Queen (deceased). On my arrival she called roe at once, and that it might not be supposed her sickness was feigned and also because there was a friend of Cromwell's whom the King had sent to accompany me, or rather to spy and note all that was said and done, the Queen thought best, with my consent, that my conductor and the principal persons of the house, such as the chamberlain and steward, who had not seen her for more than a year, and several others, should be at our first interview. After I had kissed hands she took occasion to thank me for the numerous services I had done her hitherto and the trouble I had taken to come and see her, a thing that she had very ardently desired, thinking that my coming would be salutary for her, and, at all events, if it pleased God to take her, it would be a consolation to her to die under my guidance (entre mes braz) and not unprepared, like a beast. I gave her every hope, both of her health and otherwise, informing her of the offers the King had made me of what houses she would, and to cause her to be paid the remainder of certain arrears, adding, for her further consolation, that the King was very sorry for her illness; and on this I begged her to take heart and get well, if for no other consideration, because the union and peace of Christendom depended upon her life. To show this I used many arguments, as had been prearranged with another person between the Queen and me, in order that my conductor and some of the bystanders might make report of it, so that by this means they might have the greater care of her life. After some other conversation, the Queen bade me rest after the fatigue of the journey, and meanwhile she thought she could sleep a little, which she had not done for two hours altogether during the six days previous. Shortly afterwards she sent for me again, and I spent full two hours in conversation with her, and though I several times wished to leave her for fear of wearying her, I could not do so, she said it was so great a pleasure and consolation. I spent the same period of time with her every day of the four days I staid there. She inquired about the health of your Majesty and the state of your affairs, and regretted her misfortune and that of the Princess, and the delay of remedy by which all good men had suffered in person and in goods, and so many ladies were going to perdition. But, on my showing her that your Majesty could not have done better than you had done hitherto, considering the great affairs which had hindered you, and also that the delay had not been without advantages (for, besides there being some hope that the French, who formerly solicited the favour of this King, would now turn their backs, there was this, that the Pope, by reason of the death of the cardinal of Rochester, and other disorders, intended to seek a remedy in the name of the Holy See, and thus, preparations being made at the instance of the Holy See, the King could not blame her as the cause), she was quite satisfied and thought the delay had been for the best. And as to the heresies here [I said] she knew well that God said there must of necessity be heresies and slanders for the exaltation of the good and confusion of the wicked, and that she must consider that the heresies were not so rooted here that they would not soon be remedied, and that it was to be hoped that those who had been deluded would afterwards be the most firm, like St. Peter after he had tripped. of these words she showed herself very glad, for she had previously had some scruple of conscience because [the heresies] had arisen from her affair.

Having staid there four days, and seeing that she began to take a little sleep, and also that her stomach retained her food, and that she was better than she had been, she thought, and her physician agreed with her (considering her out of danger), that I should return, so as not to abuse the licence the King had given me, and also to request the King to give her a more convenient house, as he had promised me at my departure. I therefore took leave of her on Tuesday evening, leaving her very cheerful; and that evening I saw her laugh two or three times, and about half an hour after I left her she desired to have some pastime (soy recreer) with one of my men "que fait du plaisant." On Wednesday morning one of her chamber told me that she had slept better. Her physician confirmed to me again his good hope of her health, and said I need not fear to leave, for, if any new danger arose, he would inform me with all diligence. Thereupon I started, and took my journey at leisure, lest any further news should overtake me on the road; but none came. This morning I sent to Cromwell to know when I could have audience of the King his master to thank him for the good cheer he had caused to be shown me in my journey, and also to speak about the said house. He sent to inform me of the lamentable news of the death of the most virtuous Queen, which took place on Friday the morrow of the Kings, about 2 p.m. This has been the most cruel news that could come to me, especially as I fear the good Princess will die of grief, or that the concubine (age 35) will hasten what she has long threatened to do, viz., to kill her; and it is to be feared that there is little help for it. I will do my best to comfort her, in which a letter from your Majesty would help greatly. I cannot relate in detail the circumstances of the Queen's decease, nor how she has disposed of her affairs, for none of her servants has yet come. I know not if they have been detained.

This evening, on sending to tell (qu. ask?) Cromwell what they had determined to do, that I might for my part do my duty, he told my man that just as he was entering the gate he had dispatched one of his own to inform me, on the part of the King and Council, that it was determined to give her a very solemn and honorable funeral both on account of her virtue and as having been wife of Prince Arthur, and, moreover, for her lineage and relationship to your Majesty, and that, if I wished to be present, the King would send me some black cloth for myself and my servants, but that the time and place had not yet been arranged. I replied that, presuming that everything would be done duly, I agreed to be present, and that, as to the cloth, the King need not trouble himself about it, for I was provided. It is certain that they will not perform her exequies as Queen, but only as Princess, and for this reason I despatch in haste to Flanders one of my servants who will have time to go and come, that I may know how to conduct myself, for nothing will be done for 18 or 20 days. The Queen's illness began about five weeks ago, as I then wrote to your Majesty, and the attack was renewed on the morrow of Christmas day. It was a pain in the stomach, so violent that she could retain no food. I asked her physician several times if there was any suspicion of poison. He said he was afraid it was so, for after she had drunk some Welsh beer she had been worse, and that it must have been a slow and subtle poison1 for he could not discover evidences of simple and pure poison; but on opening her, indications will be seen. London, 9 Jan. 1535. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 4.

Note 1. "Poison aterminec (qu. atermoiee ?) et artificieuse."

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the [her husband] King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the [her father] earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his [her brother] son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His [her daughter] bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the [her sister-in-law] Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Letters 1536. 29 Jan 1536. Some days ago I was informed from various quarters, which I did not think very good authorities, that notwithstanding the joy shown by the concubine (age 35) at the news of the good Queen's death, for which she had given a handsome present to the messenger, she had frequently wept, fearing that they might do with her as with the good Queen. This morning I have heard from the lady (age 33) mentioned in my letters of the 5th November1, and from her husband (age 40), that they were informed by one of the principal persons at Court that this King had said to some one in great confidence, and as it were in confession, that he had made this marriage, seduced by witchcraft, and for this reason he considered it null; and that this was evident because God did not permit them to have any male issue, and that he believed that he might take another wife, which he gave to understand that he had some wish to do. The thing is very difficult for me to believe, although it comes from a good source. I will watch to see if there are any indications of its probability. Yet I have not forborne to give some little hint of it by a third hand to the Princess' [her aunt] gouvernante (age 60), so as to warn her to treat the Princess a little better; and I have advised the latter to be as familiar as possible with her gouvernante (age 60) so as to make her feel that when the Princess comes to her estate she will not regard her with disfavor.

Note 1. The Marchioness of Exeter (age 33). See Vol. IX., No. 776.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. 141. Now the King and Concubine (age 35) are planning in several ways to entangle the Princess in their webs, and compel her to consent to their damnable statutes and detestable opinions; and Cromwell was not ashamed, in talking with one of my men, to tell him you had no reason to profess so great grief for the death of the Queen, which he considered very convenient and advantageous for the preservation of friendship between your Majesty and his master; that henceforth we should communicate more freely together, and that nothing remained but to get the Princess to obey the will of the King, her father, in which he was assured I could aid more effectually than anybody else, and that by so doing I should not only gratify the King but do a very good office for the Princess, who on complying with the King's will would be better treated than ever. The Concubine (age 35), according to what the Princess sent to tell me, threw the first bait to her, and caused her to be told by her aunt, the [her aunt] gouvernante (age 60) of the said Princess, that if she would lay aside her obstinacy and obey her father, she would be the best friend to her in the world and be like another mother, and would obtain for her anything she could ask, and that if she wished to come to Court she would be exempted from holding the tail of her gown, "et si la meneroit tousjours a son cause" (?); and the said gouvernante (age 60) does not cease with hot tears to implore the said Princess to consider these matters; to which the Princess has made no other reply than that there was no daughter in the world who would be more obedient to her father in what she could do saving her honor and conscience.From what the Princess has sent to tell me, it seems probable that the King will shortly send to her a number of his councillors to summon her to give the oath. She requested me to notify to her what to reply, and I wrote that I thought she had best show as good courage and constancy as ever with requisite modesty and dignity (honesteté), for if they began to find her at all shaken they would pursue her to the end without ever leaving her in peace; and that I thought they would not insist very much on her renouncing her right openly, nor abjuring the authority of the Pope directly, but that they might press her to swear to the Concubine (age 35) as Queen, alleging that as the Queen was dead there could be no excuse for opposition. I wrote to her to use every effort to avoid any discussion with the King's deputies, beseeching them to leave her in peace that she might pray to God for the soul of the Queen, her mother, and also for His aid, and declaring that she was a poor and simple orphan without experience, aid, or counsel, that she did not understand laws or canons, and did not know how then to answer them; that she should also beseech them to intercede with the King, her father, to have pity on her weakness and ignorance; and, if she thought it necessary to say more, she might add that as it is not the custom to swear [fealty] here to Queens, and such a thing had not been done when her mother was held as Queen, she cannot but suspect that it would be directly or indirectly to her prejudice; also that if she (Anne Boleyn) was Queen, her swearing or refusing to swear did not matter, and likewise if she is not; and that she remembers well one thing,—that in the Consistorial sentence by which the first marriage had been declared valid, this second marriage was annulled, and it was declared that this lady could not claim the title of Queen, for which reason she thought in conscience that she could not go against the Pope's command, and that by so doing she-would prejudice her own right. I also suggested to the Princess that she might tell her gouvernante (age 60) it was but waste of time to press such matters upon her, because she would lose her life ten times before consenting to it without being better informed and her scruple of conscience removed by other persons than those of this realm whom she held "suspects," and that, if the King, her father, would give her time till she came "en eaige de perfection," from which she was perhaps not far removed, God would inspire her to devote herself entirely to him and enter religion, in which case she considers her honor and conscience might be preserved; or she might be meanwhile otherwise informed;—that this delay could be no disadvantage to the King, her father, but rather the contrary, for if she came to consent to matters the act at such an age would be of more validity. This I wrote to her, not as a positive instruction, but only as matter for consideration. I will think more at large of other means for putting the matter off in case of extremity, but if they have determined to poison her (luy donner a manger), neither taking the Sacrament nor any other security that can be invented will be of much avail.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 141. Chapuys to Charles V.

My man has sent me from Flanders, where the Queen has kept him some days, your Majesty's letters of the 13th ult., to which I must delay replying till his return. I thank you for writing that I shall not be forgotten when the time of distribution of benefices arrives. Must not omit to say that the enterprise mentioned in the said letters is becoming more difficult every day, especially since the death of the Queen (deceased), as they have kept more company than before ("lon a tenu plus de court et en plus de regard que par avant"). I have also received your Majesty's letters of the 29th, with your most prudent discourse touching the perplexity of the affairs of the late good Queen (deceased) and of the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 19), the substance of which considerations, though not so well put, has been already at times communicated to the said ladies. Moreover, I added another point, viz., that what was chiefly to be feared, if they were compelled to swear all that the King wished (besides the bad effect mentioned in your Majesty's letters, that so many would lose heart and join the new heresy), the danger would be, not that the King would proceed by law to punish daily disobedience, but that, under color of perfect reconciliation, if he were to treat them well,—I don't suppose the King but the Concubine (age 35) (who has often sworn the death of both, and who will never be at rest till she has gained her end, suspecting that owing to the King's fickleness there is no stability in her position as long as either of the said ladies lives), will have even better means than before of executing her accursed purpose by administering poison, because they would be less on their guard; and, moreover, she might do it without suspicion, for it would be supposed when the said ladies had agreed to everything that the King wished and were reconciled and favorably treated after they had renounced their rights, there could be no fear of their doing any mischief, and thus no suspicion would arise of their having received foul play.

The King and Concubine (age 35), impatient of longer delay, especially as they saw that proceedings were taken at Rome in good earnest, and that when your Majesty goes thither the provisions will be enforced, determined to make an end of the Queen's process, as you will see by what follows. It must have been very convenient for them that she died before the Princess, for several reasons, and, among others, because it was at her instance that proceedings were taken at Rome, and because they had less hope of being able to bring her over to their opinions, reckoning more upon her constancy by reason of age than on that of her daughter, especially because, not being naturally subject to their laws, they could not constrain her by justice as they could her daughter. Further, I think the cupidity which governs them has led them more to anticipate the death of the mother, as they will not be obliged to restore the dowry.

Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

Annales of England by John Stow. 29 Jan 1536. The twentie nine of Januarie, Queene Anne (age 35) was delivered of a man Childe before her time, which was borne deade.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 29 Jan 1536. This yeare also, three daies before Candlemasd, Queene Anne (age 35) was brought a bedd and delivered of a man chield, as it was said, afore her tyme, for she said that she had reckoned herself at that tyme but fiftene weekes gonne with chield; it was said she tooke a fright, for the King ranne that time at the ring and had a fall from his horse, but he had no hurt; and she tooke such a fright withall that it caused her to fall in travailee, and so was delivered afore her full tyme, which was a great discompfort to all this realme.f

Note d. As Candlemas Day is the 2nd of February, our Author must have calculated three full days, exclusive of the 29th January, 1536.

Note e. Another account is that her miscarriage was occasioned by the shock which she received upon discovering that Henry VIII had transferred his affections to Jane Seymour (age 27).

Note f. Her miscarriage was thought to have made an ill impression on the King's mind, who from thence concluded that this marriage was displeasing to God. Burnet, i. p. 196.

The History of the Reformation Volume 1 Book III. [29 Jan 1536.] This was the last public good act of this unfortunate queen (age 35); who, the nearer she drew to her end, grew more full of good works. She had distributed in the last nine months of her life between fourteen and fifteen thousand pounds to the poor, and was designing great and public good things. And by all appearance, if she had lived, the money that was raised by the suppression of religious houses had been better employed than it was. In January, she brought forth a dead son. This was thought to have made ill impressions on the king; and that, as he concluded from the death of his sons by the former queen, that the marriage was displeasing to God; so he might, upon this misfortune, begin to make the like judgment of this marriage. Sure enough the popish party were earnestly set against the queen, looking on her as a great supporter of heresy. And at that time Fox (age 40), then bishop of Hereford, was in Germany, at Smalcald, treating a league with the protestant princes, who [?]sisted much, on the Ausburg Confession. There were many conferences between Fox and doctor [?]arnes, and some others, with the Lutheran divines, for accommodating the differences between them; and the thing was in a good forwardness: all which was imputed to the queen. Gardiner was then ambassador in France, and wrote earnestly to the king, to dissuade him from entering into any religious league with these princes; for that would alienate all the world from him, and dispose his own subjects to rebel. The king thought the German princes and divines should have submitted all things to his judgment; and had such an opinion of his own learning, and was so puffed up with the flattering raises that he daily heard, that he grew impatient of any opposition, and thought that his dictates should pass for oracles. And because the Germans would not receive them so, his mind was alienated from them.

Letters 1536. 29 Jan 1536. 282. On the day of the interment the Concubine (age 35) had an abortion which seemed to be a male child which she had not borne 3½ months, at which the King has shown great distress. The said concubine (age 35) wished to lay the blame on the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, saying he frightened her by bringing the news of the fall the King had six days before. But it is well known that is not the cause, for it was told her in a way that she should not be alarmed or attach much importance to it. Some think it was owing to her own incapacity to bear children, others to a fear that the King would treat her like the late Queen, especially considering the treatment shown to a lady of the Court, named Mistress Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)], to whom, as many say, he has lately made great presents. The Princess's [her aunt] gouvernante (age 60), her daughters, and a niece, have been in great sorrow for the said abortion, and have been continually questioning a lady who is very intimate with the Princess whether the said Princess did not know the said news of the abortion, and that she might know that, but they would not for the world that she knew the rest, meaning that there was some fear the King might take another wife.

Calendars. On the same day that the Queen (deceased) was buried this King's concubine (age 35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the [her husband] King (age 44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (age 35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the [her uncle] duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named Miss Seymour (age 27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents-is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne's miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.

Letters 1536. 10 Feb 1536. Vienna Archives. 283. Chapuys to Granvelle.

This notable and good Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, in his preaching on Sunday last, among other blasphemies against the Pope, proposed to prove that all the passages in Scripture about Antichrist referred to his Holiness, and, to injure at a blow the Holy See and the Imperial authority, cited one author who said that Antichrist should come when the empire was ruined. This, he said, it was now, because of all the monarchy only a small portion of Germany obeyed the empire; and he decried the Imperial authority as much as he could, ending by saying that the Pope was the true Antichrist, and no other need be looked for. Thus you may see the virtue and honesty of this apostate, and what has come of the good treatment shown him when he was with his Majesty, and what good cause I had to send my man to Bologna when his Majesty was there to prevent the Pope from allowing his promotion. I must not forget to say there are innumerable persons who consider that the concubine (age 35) is unable to conceive, and say that the daughter said to be hers and the abortion the other day are supposititious. Eight days ago the goods of the Dantzic merchants, which the King had sequestrated, were released. London, 10 Feb. 1535.

The King has lately given a Bishopric to one who some time ago abandoned the Augustinian habit1, and like a Lutheran fled to Germany, where it is said he has a wife. Fr., from a modern copy, p. 1.

Note 1. Barlow, who was about this time promoted to the Bishopric of St. Asaph, was certainly an Augustinian originally, but there seems here to be some confusion between him and Barnes (age 41).

Letters 1536. 25 Feb 1536. I learn from several persons of this Court that for more than three months this King has not spoken ten times to the Concubine (age 35), and that when she miscarried he scarcely said anything to her, except that he saw clearly that God did not wish to give him male children; and in leaving her he told her, as if for spite, that he would speak to her after she was "relevize1". The said Concubine (age 35) attributed the misfortune to two causes: first, the King's fall; and, secondly, that the love she bore him was far greater than that of the late Queen, so that her heart broke when she saw that he loved others [Jane Seymour (age 27)]. At which remark the King was much grieved, and has shown his feeling by the fact that during these festive days he is here, and has left the other (age 35) at Greenwich, when formerly he could not leave her for an hour.

Note 1. Possibly from 'relever' ie recovered?

Letters 1536. 25 Feb 1536. Vienna Archives. 352. Chapuys to Granvelle.

I thank you for your good report to the ambassador of England touching what I several times wrote of Mr. Secretary Cromwell, who, as you will see by what I write to his Majesty, has formally thanked me for it. You will learn all the news here from my letters to his Majesty, save that Cromwell has told me that the French king insinuated to the King his master that the Emperor was quite content with what he had done against the duke of Savoy; and, moreover, that a Bible has been printed here in English, in which the texts that favor the Queen, especially Deut. xix., have been translated in the opposite sense. I am credibly informed that the Concubine (age 35), after her abortion, consoled her maids who wept, telling them it was for the best, because she would be the sooner with child again, and that the son she bore would not be doubtful like this one, which had been conceived during the life of the Queen; thereby acknowledging a doubt about the bastardy of her daughter. London, 25 Feb. 1535. Fr., from a modern copy, p. 1.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Since the above was written I have had a letter from the Imperial ambassador in France, in date of the 15th ultimo, intimating that, according to news received from England, the King wished to marry the Princess to a gentleman of his kingdom, and that king Francis had told the Imperial ambassador that in consequence of a fall from his horse king Henry had been two hours unconscious without speech1; seeing which Ana Bolans (age 35) (Boleyn) was so struck that she actually miscarried of a son. Great news these, for which we are bound to thank God, because, were the Princess to be married as reported, she may at once be considered out of danger; for her marriage may hereafter be dissolved and declared null, as it would effectually be owing to the violence used, and the evident fear the Princess has of her life, should she not consent to it. At any rate, it must be owned that though the King himself was not converted like St. Paul after his fall, at least his adulterous wife (age 35) has miscarried of a son.

Note 1. Que el Rey de Inglaterra auia caitlo con su cavallo, y estado mas de dos horas sin habla, de lo qual la Ana (age 35) tuvo tan grande alteracion que movió un hijo." [That the King of England had fallen with his horse and remained without speech for more than two hours, causing such a great disturbance to Ana that she gave birth to a child.]

Letters 1536. 10 Mar 1536. Add. MS. 8715, f. 220 b. B. M. 450. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to the Prothonotary Ambrogio.

Reports a conversation he has had today with Francis, showing the imminence of war and the forces going to Piedmont under the Admiral. Francis said, among other things, that the duke of Gueldres was ready to make war on the Emperor, even if he (Francis) did not help him, having discovered that his Majesty wished to deprive him of two fortresses (terre), on which account he has beheaded some persons; that Henry will pay the third of the expense of the war outside this kingdom, and half in its defence, if need be, even though at present he seems to stand aloof, because he thinks that here they are too devoted to the Church; but Henry (quello) only desires the war to begin. He has become extremely avaricious, and has gained so much profit from the Church that the French king has not much hope of bringing him back. This he said in answer to a remark of the Bishop's, made as of himself, according to the Prothonotary's orders. Francis said also that they are committing more follies than ever in England, and are saying and printing all the ill they can against the Pope and the Church; that "that woman (age 35)" pretended to have miscarried of a son, not being really with child, and, to keep up the deceit, would allow no one to attend on her but her [her sister] sister (age 37), whom the French king knew here in France "per una grandissima ribalda et infame sopre tutte1." The king of England is infinitely displeased at the conclusion of the marriage with the king of Scotland, to whom Francis has given some artillery in certain castles held by the duke of Albany in an island there, but garrisoned at the expense of France. Ital., pp. 7. Modern copy. Headed: Al Signor Prothonotario Ambrogio, Da Monte Plaisant, li 10 Marzo.

Note 1. "a great prostitute and infamous above all".

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Feb 15361. And in February following was Queen Anne brought a bed of a child before her time, brought a bed of a child which was borne dead.

Note. Hall has the date wrong here - the miscarriage occurred on the 29th of January, the same day as Catherine of Aragon's funeral.

Funeral of Catherine of Aragon

On 29 Jan 1536 Catherine of Aragon (deceased) was buried at Peterborough Cathedral [Map] at a service for a Princess rather than Queen.

Bishop John Hilsey preached, alleging that, in the hour of death, she had acknowledged that she had never been Queen of England.

Eleanor Brandon Countess Cumberland (age 17) was Chief Mourner. [her husband] Henry VIII (age 44) refused their daughter [her step-daughter] Mary (age 19) permission to attend. On the same day Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35) miscarried a child.

William Harvey (age 26) attended; the only officer of arms to do so.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress..

His last letter, announcing the death and martyrdom of the Queen of England, was dated the 30th of January.

Since then he (Ortiz) has received one, dated the 19th of January, [from Chapuys?], informing him that the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 20) (Mary) was in good health. The Queen before dying showed well what her whole life had been; for not only did she ask for, and receive, all the sacraments ordained by the Church, but answered the questions put by the priest with such ardour and devotion that all present were edified. Some of those who were by her bedside, having suggested that it was not yet time to receive the sacrament of Extreme Unction, she replied that she wished to hear and understand everything that was said, and make fitting answers. She preserved her senses to the last, &c.

They say that when the [her husband] king of England (age 44) heard of the death of his Queen, dressed in mauve silk as he was at the time, and with a white feather in his cap, he went to solace himself with the ladies of the palace. In fact it may well be said of him and of his kingdom what the Prophet Isaias says, cap. lvii., "Justus periet, et non est qui recogitet in corde suo, et viri misericordia colliguntur quia non est qui intelligat."

Her Highness the Queen was buried with the honors of a Princess [dowager], 18 miles from the place where she died, at an abbey called Yperberu [Map] (Peterborough), the King having only sent thither some ladies of his Court to attend the funeral. The King and the concubine (age 35) were not in London, but at a place on the road called Octinton [Map] [Huntingdon].

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 26. How Anne Boleyn committed adultery and how it was found out.

Soon after the death of the sainted Queen Katharine, Anne Boleyn (age 35), who ostentatiously tried to attract to her service the best-looking men and best dancers to be found, heard that in the city of London there was a young fellow who was one of the prettiest monochord players and deftest dancers in the land. They told her he was the son of a poor carpenter, and she sent for him to play before her, asking him what his name was, to which he replied, "My lady, my name is Mark (age 24)." Then the Queen sent for her minions, amongst whom was one called Master Norris (age 54), and another Master Brereton, to whom the Queen showed great favour. She ordered Mark to play, Master Norris leading her out to dance, and Mark played some virginals so prettily, that while she was dancing she said to Norris, "What do you think of it, does not the lad play well?" and whilst they were passing near Mark, Norris answered gently, "Lady, I should well like him to play sometimes, if it were possible, when we are together." The Queen laughed, and Mark took notice of everything thbt passed. When that dance was finished, the Queen wanted to dance with Mark, and made one of her ladies play. So Mark danced with her; and he tripped it so well, and so gracefully, that she at once fell in love with him, and told him she wished him to live there. Mark fell on his knees and kissed her hand, and she ordered one hundred nobles to be given to him to buy clothes, and the next day Mark came all tricked out, looking like the son of a gentleman. He never left the palace, and the Queen persuaded the King to give him a salary of one hundred pounds, and from that time forward Anne always had Mark to play to her. One morning, when the Queen was in bed, she sent for Mark to play whilst she lay in bed, ordered her ladies to dance. They began dancing; and after a while, when Anne saw that they were becoming very merry, she ordered one of the ladies to play whilst the others danced. When she saw they were intoxicated with their dancing, she called Mark to her, and he fell on his knee by her bedside, and she had time to tell him that she was in love with him, whereupon he was much surprised; but being of a base sort, he gave ear to all the Queen said to him, forgetting, the sinner, that only two months before he was a poor fellow, and that the King had given him a good income, and might give him much more; so he answered, "Madam, I am your servant; you may command me." And the lady bade him keep it secret, and she would find means to compass her desires. Very few days after that the King went to Windsor, which is twenty-five miles from there, and stayed a fortnight before he came back; so Anne, seeing she had time, confided in an old woman of her chamber, who, as it afterwards turned out, knew the Queen's secrets; and this bad old woman, instead of putting obstacles in the way, said, "Leave it to me, Madam, I will find means to bring him to you whenever you want him." Anne was so enamoured that every hour seemed a year.

The History of the Reformation Volume 1 Book III. She was of a very cheerful temper, which was not always limited within the bounds of exact decency and discretion. She [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] had rallied some of the king's servants more than became her. Her brother, the [her brother] lord Rochford (age 33), was her friend, as well as brother; but his spiteful wife (age 31) was jealous of him and, being a woman of no sort of virtue, (as will appear afterwards by her serving queen Katharine Howard in her beastly practices, for which she was attainted and executed,) she carried many stories to the king, or some about him, to persuade, that there was a familiarity between the queen and her brother, beyond what, so near a relation could justify. All that could be said for it was only this; that he was once been leaning upon her bed, which bred great suspicion. Henry Norris, that was groom of the stole; Weston and Brereton, that were the king's privy chamber; and one Mark Smeton, a musician; were all observed to have much of her favour. And their seal in serving her was thought too warm and diligent to flow from a less active principle than love. Many circumstances were brought to the king, which, working upon his aversion to the queen, together with his affection to mistress Seimour (age 27), made him conclude her guilty.

Henry VIII Tournament Accident

Letters 1536. 12 Feb 1536. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 205. B. M. 294. Bishop of Faenza (age 35) to the Prothonotary Ambrogio. Hears that the king of England has had a fall from his horse, and was thought to be dead for two hours. His lady (age 35) miscarried in consequence. Ital., modern copy, pp. 3. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio, Da Leone, li 12 Febraro 1536

Letters 1536. 15 Feb 1536. Has received a letter from the ambassador in France, dated 15 Feb., stating that he hears from England that the King intends to marry the Princess to an English knight. The French king said that the king of England had fallen from his horse, and been for two hours without speaking. "La Ana" (age 35) was so upset that she miscarried of a son. This is news to thank God for. The Princess being thus married will be out of danger; and the marriage itself will be of no validity, on account of her fear being so great and so evident unless she consented; and although the King has not improved in consequence of his fall, it is a great mercy that his paramour miscarried of a son.

Sp., pp. 5. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. Crapelet, Lettres de Henry VIII., 167. 1036. Anne Boleyn (deceased).

Poem descriptive of the life of Anne Boleyn, composed at London, 2 June 1536.

Speaks of her having first left this country when Mary went to France "to accomplish the alliance of the two Kings." She learned the language from ladies of honor. After Mary's return to England she was retained by Claude and became so accomplished that you would never have thought her an English, but a French woman. She learned to sing and dance, to play the lute and other instruments, and to order her discourse wisely (et ses propos sagement adjancer). She was beautiful and of an elegant figure, and still more attractive in her eyes, which invited to conversation, &c. On her return her eyes fascinated Henry, who made her, first a marchioness, and afterwards Queen, 1 June 1533. Describes the birth and baptism of Elizabeth, the establishment of the royal supremacy, and the death of More and the Carthusians, of which Anne was accused of being the cause. Hence a severe ordinance was issued against any that spoke ill of her; which shut people's mouths when they knew what ought not to be concealed. Meanwhile Queen Catharine suffered patiently her degradation and even being separated from her daughter. Anne, on the other hand, had her way in all things; she could go where she pleased, and if perhaps taken with the love of some favored person, she could treat her friends according to her pleasure, owing to the ordinance. But that law could not secure to her lasting friendships, and the King daily cooled in his affection. Anne met with divers ominous occurrences that presaged evil;—first a fire in her chamber, then the King had a fall from horseback which it was thought would prove fatal, and caused her to give premature birth to a dead son. Nevertheless she did not leave off her evil conversation, which at length brought her to shame.

Letters 1536. 23 Feb 1536. Faustina, C. iii. 456. B. M. 345. Vice Chancellor and University of Cambridge to the Queen (age 35).

Thank her for her gentle and loving acceptance of their letters delivered to her in the West country, and for her promotion of their petition to the King for the remission of tenths and first-fruits due to him from the University. This yearly charge would greatly diminish the number of scholars in every college.

Beg her to consider what the Vice-Chancellor, the bearer, will show her on this subject, and to speak for them to the King. From Cambridge in our Regent House, 23 Feb.

Add. Endd.

Letters 1536. 29 Feb 1536. R. O. 371. Doubtful Divinity.

"The deposition of Tristram Reuel, late scholar of Christ's College, Cambridge, touching the translation of the book called the Sum of Christianity, ultimo Februarii, ao xxviimo."

About Easter last he borrowed of Dr. Leonard, a physician dwelling about the Crossed Friars, a book called Farrago Rerum Theologicarum, from which he made "the collection of the book aforesaid, translating the same word for word without addition, saving the epistle, which was of his own device." He first presented it to my Lord of Canterbury's brother, who showed it to my Lord himself. The Archbishop committed the examination to my Lord of Worcester and his said brother1, the archdeacon of Canterbury; and the Bishop of Worcester gave it to a monk, one of his doctors, to examine. Meanwhile, deponent carried the book printed to Mr. Latymer, the Queen's (age 35) cha[pla]in, "requiring him to present it to her [Grace, who], two days after, gave him .... Queen's (age 35) grace thanked him .... [b]ut she would not trouble herself .... oke. And hereupon it was committed to [the sai]d monk, of whom the said Tristram had none answer." But my Lord of Worcester said there were two or three extreme points in it that might not be borne; "nevertheless, in case it should come before them that had authority to put forth books, he would say his opinion in it."

He says he desired Redman to print, as he wished to dedicate it to the Queen (age 35), because his writing was not very legible; also that his father would have had him a priest, to which he was not inclined, and he had enterprised this translation in the hope of getting some exhibition from the Queen.

In Wriothesley's hand, pp. 2. Endd.

Note 1. Edmund Cranmer, Archdeacon of Canterbury.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Anne Bolans (age 35) is now in fear of the King deserting her one of these days, in order to marry another lady (age 27).

Letters 1536. 06 Mar 1536. La Ana (age 35) fears now that the King will leave her to make another marriage. The King has sent ambassadors to Scotland to ask the King to separate himself from the See Apostolic. During their audience there was a great storm and thunder, at which the Scotch king was much frightened, and, crossing himself, said he did not know whether to be more frightened at the thunder or their proposals. He ordered a sermon to be preached before the ambassadors on the obedience due to the Church.

When the Queen's death was known here the bull for the King's privation was already sealed. It has not been published, but the executorials in the principal cause have been obtained, with no little trouble to get them before the Queen's death was known. Rome, 6 March 1536.

Letters 1536. 18 Mar 1536. Vienna Archives. 495. Chapuys to Granvelle.

Knows not what to add to what he has written to the Emperor, except that he has been informed that of late the King said triumphantly at a full table how the Pope, fearing the Emperor's approach to Rome, had furnished the castle of St. Angelo to withdraw into, and was raising foot soldiers for the same reason. He also said that the marquis of Guasto had killed the marquis of Villa Franca, which was a very awkward thing for the Emperor. These are all French inventions, which this King has no great difficulty in believing. You will see by the letters I write to his Majesty, the gentle device of this King to extract money on pretext of charity by means of the offerings. If it succeed, as no doubt it will, he will gain an immense sum of money, for he will impose a tax according to his will which everyone will have to offer, and not engage to do so for once but for all the other innumerable inventions that this King daily puts forward in order to get money, at which the people is terribly grieved and almost desperate, but no man dare complain. The new amours of this King with the young lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] of whom I have before written still go on, to the intense rage of the concubine (age 35); and the King fifteen days ago put into his chamber the young lady's brother (age 36).

London, 18 March 1535Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Letters 1536. 28 Mar 1536. In this three things are to be considered:—(1.) That in that case nothing more can be done for her advantage during her father's life, and she can take no action with good conscience against her father even for redress of the injuries done to her late mother, even if her life was "advancée sinestrement," as is suspected; and if the sentence of the divorce were pursued, to make the King give up his concubine (age 35), he might marry another, whereas it is certain he could have no issue from the concubine (age 35) to hinder the succession of the Princess. And as one of the principal points which the King will think of with regard to our said cousin, and also the concubine (age 35) and her adherents, will be to whom they will marry her, and it is important also to treat of it as a principal point in order to with draw our said cousin even for her surety, as well as for the security of further negociations, you will endeavour discreetly to discover to what match the king of England leans; and, as of yourself, and in such wise that no one can presume it is part of your charge, you may suggest Don Loys of Portugal, our brother-in-law, who was lately with us in the Tunis expedition, and do your best to recommend it either to the King or Cromwell. He is, in truth, the person who, among all others, seems best suited both for the Princess herself and for the King and his realm, and the concubine (age 35) and her adherents ought to be less suspicious of him as the Portuguese are good neighbours and not quarrelsome, as you may suggest; but it must be with a suitable dowry. (2.) By this means the Princess might be drawn out of the kingdom, rescued from continual danger of her life, and allied with a person of suitable quality; and, when the time came, might be assisted by her allies in obtaining her right; and if issue came of the marriage, especially male issue, it would be a great occasion to her father to recall her and her children into the kingdom, if he is satisfied with the treaty we shall make together, and the good offices we shall continue to do him. And (3), although it be a good thing to bring back the King to his allegiance to the Church, even though the Church forbear some of her rights and profits, and also to withdraw our cousin out of the realm, yet we cannot do prejudice in the future either to the one or to the other, and means may be found hereafter of putting the said Church in full possession of her rights, especially if our said cousin succeed to the Crown; and she also, before leaving England, cannot make any treaty which can prejudice her, since everyone knows in what fear and danger she is kept. Moreover, although the concubine (age 35) might not agree to either the one or the other of the above means (the declaration or suspension),—which she and all her adherents ought to think a great advantage, to be relieved from the fear and danger they are continually in,—and though she put forth further claims in behalf of her daughter and other children that she might have, yet you should not break off negotiations on this account, but ascertain in this also to what she will agree, and, after making such representations to her as you think fit, say you will refer to us. If you find her demands too exorbitant you may use Cromwell's help, if he can and will do what he has promised, and use all possible dexterity to make the most advantageous terms for her that you can; and if there be anything that requires to be kept secret from the said concubine (age 35) or her adherents "il s'en usera selon ce."

Letters 1536. 28 Mar 1536. R. O. 573. T. Warley to Lady Lisle (age 42).

Received her letter today from Buck, Lord Edmund's servant, bidding him send the kirtle and sleeves given by the Queen (age 35), by Goodale. Had already given it to Hussey, with three yards of black satin for Lord Lisle's (age 71) doublet. As to her desiring him to take 20s. from Hussey to reward those in the Queen's wardrobe, Hussey says Mr. Taylour wishes no reward to be given. Has delivered the casket of steel and "flower" to Mrs. Margery Horsman. She was right glad of it, and said it would serve to keep her jewels in. Encloses a gold cramp ring, which she gave him for Lady Lisle (age 42). Has not seen Mr. Receiver since her letter. Since coming to London has received a letter of Lady Lisle (age 42) from Hussey, dated 17 March; another, dated 25 March, by Bucke; and one from Lord Lisle (age 71), dated 18 March. No news but that the abbeys shall down. The King's solicitor, Mr. Riche, is made general surveyor, and Mr. Pope, the Lord Chancellor's servant, the general receiver. Great fees are allowed them. There will be eight other receivers, who will have during their lives, £20 a year, £10 for the carriage of every £1,000, their costs and charges borne. Edward Waters, Mr. Gunston's brother-in-law, is one, and Freman, the King's goldsmith, another. Does not know the rest, nor who will be auditors. It is said the King will ride North to meet the king of Scots. Received from Bucke a packet of letters from Lord Lisle (age 71). Delivered them to Mr. Secretary, who incontinently read them. It is an evil time for suitors, as the King and his Council have so many matters in hand daily. Begs her to ask Lord Lisle (age 71) to write in his behalf to the Lord Chancellor, that he may have expedition in his suit. London, 28 March. Hol., p. 1. Add.: At Calais.

Letters 1536. 01 Apr 1536. There lately came to dine with me the young marquis, the widowed Countess of Kildare (age 39), lord Montagu, and other gentlemen; when lord Montagu, after many complaints of the disorder of affairs here, told me that the Concubine (age 35) and Cromwell were on bad terms, and that some new marriage for the King was spoken of; which agrees with what was written to me from France that Henry was soliciting in marriage the daughter of France, so as to confirm their mutual intelligence and test how matters went. I told Cromwell that I had for some time forborne to visit him that he might not incur suspicion of his mistress for the talk he had previously held with me, well remembering that he had previously told me she would like to see his head cut off. This I could not forget for the love I bore him; and I could not but wish him a more gracious mistress, and one more grateful for the inestimable services he had done the King, and that he must beware of enraging her, else he must never expect perfect reconciliation; in which case I hoped he would see to it better than did the Cardinal, as I had great belief in his dexterity and prudence; and if it was true, what I had heard, that the King was treating for a new marriage, it would be the way to avoid much evil, and be very much for the advantage of his master, who had been hitherto disappointed of male issue, and who knows quite well, whatever they may say or preach, that this marriage will never be held as lawful, for several reasons which he might sufficiently understand; and that although a more lawful marriage should follow, and male issue from it would be to the prejudice of the Princess, yet the affection I bore to the honor and tranquillity of the King and kingdom, and towards him particularly, made me desire another mistress, not for hatred that I bore to this one, who had never done me any harm. Cromwell appeared to take all this in good part, and said that it was only now that he had known the frailty of human affairs, especially of those of the Court, of which he had before his eyes several examples that might be called domestic, and he always laid his account that if fate fell upon him as upon his predecessors he would arm himself with patience, and leave the rest to God; and that it was quite true, as I said, that he must rely upon God's help not to fall into mischief. He then began to defend himself, saying he had never been cause of this marriage, although, seeing the King determined upon it, he had smoothed the way, and that notwithstanding that the King was still inclined to pay attention to ladies, yet he believed he would henceforth live honorably and chastely, continuing in his marriage. This he said so coldly as to make me suspect the contrary, especially as he said so, not knowing what countenance to put on. He leaned against the window in which we were, putting his hand before his mouth to avoid smiling or to conceal it (ou pour lencouurir), saying afterwards that the French might be assured of one thing, that if the King his master were to take another wife, he would not seek for her among them. He then said that when an answer came from your Majesty upon the subject of our communication we should discuss everything and do some good work. At last, when I was going to leave, he said to me that although I had formerly refused a present of a horse he wished to give me, that now I could not do so without suspicion of ill-will, and he offered me one that the Earl of Sussex had presented to him the day before; and for all I could say to excuse myself, I was obliged to accept it. I think that those here are not content with the appointment made by the Lubeckers with the duke of Holstein; for, happening to talk of the Lubeckers with Cromwell, he said they were false villains and canaille; and that, notwithstanding the said appointment, and that the Duke called himself king of Denmark, the King, writing lately to him for the release of certain ships, would not call him King, saying he knew there was another King alive with daughters, who might pretend to the kingdom. Hereupon Cromwell began to complain of the detention in Flanders of Dr. Adam, of whom I lately wrote, and a servant of this King, who came from Lubeck and Denmark, and begged I would write again for their deliverance. This I could not refuse to do; nevertheless, as I have before stated, it seems to me that unless your Majesty is fully informed, or the said doctor has been well examined and confessed, he ought not to be released. He is a "tres fin galant," who has been the cause of many evils, as I doubt not you are well advised.

Letters 1536. 01 Apr 1536. The said Marchioness (age 33) has sent to me to say that by this the King's love and desire towards the said lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] was wonderfully increased, and that he had said she had behaved most virtuously, and to show her that he only loved her honorably, he did not intend henceforth to speak with her except in presence of some of her kin; for which reason the King has caused Cromwell to remove from a chamber to which the King can go by certain galleries without being perceived, and has lodged there the eldest brother [Edward Seymour (age 36)] of the said lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] with his wife [Anne Stanhope Duchess Somerset (age 39)], in order to bring thither the same young lady (age 27), who has been well taught for the most part by those intimate with the King, who hate the Concubine (age 35), that she must by no means comply with the King's wishes except by way of marriage; in which she is quite firm. She is also advised to tell the King boldly how his marriage is detested by the people, and none consider it lawful; and on the occasion when she shall bring forward the subject, there ought to be present none but titled persons, who will say the same if the King put them upon their oath of fealty. And the said Marchioness (age 33) would like that I or some one else, on the part of your Majesty, should assist in the matter; and certainly it appears to me that if it succeed, it will be a great thing both for the security of the Princess and to remedy the heresies here, of which the Concubine (age 35) is the cause and principal nurse, and also to pluck the King from such an abominable and more than incestuous marriage. The Princess would be very happy, even if she were excluded from her inheritance by male issue. I will consult with them again today, and on learning her opinion will consider the expedient to be taken, so that if no good be done, I may at least not do any harm. London, 1 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 7.

Letters 1536. 14 Apr 1536. R.O. 669. Thomas Warley to Lady Lisle (age 42).

I have not seen Mr. Receiver since getting your letter. Mrs. Margery asked when you were coming to Court, for she longed to see you. I answered that you were as desirous to see the Queen (age 35) and her ladies and gentlewomen. Today the [her mother] Countess of Wiltshire (age 56) asked me when I heard from your Ladyship, and thanked you heartily for the hosen. She is sore diseased with the cough, which grieves her sore. Mr. Lypyngkot delivered my Lord's letter to the King on Shere Thursday. Mr. Page says it is not yet opened, but he gives attendance for an answer. Mr. Basset is in good health and merry. I was with him yesterday at Lincoln's Inn. I fear Leonard Snowden has the worst end of the staff, for Whettell and his father have made such suit by means of Mr. Heneage. The Parliament is clearly dissolved. I am sorry to hear of the sickness in Calais. I beg you to get me a favorable letter from my Lord, as I mentioned in my last letter by Goodale. Today Sir Edward Ryngeley showed me that the King will be at Dover in three weeks at the farthest, whither I intend to follow him, unless I am sooner dispatched. I would write more, but have no leisure, as the bearer, Worsley, the Mayor's officer, can inform you. Greenwich, Good Friday. Hol., p.1. Add.: At Calais. Endd.

Letters 1536. 21 Apr 1536. 699. On coming to Court I was most cordially received by all the Lords of the Council, who congratulated me on the happy news, praising greatly the good service they presumed that I had done,—especially [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 33), the Concubine's (age 35) brother, to whom I said that I did not doubt that he had as great pleasure in what was taking place as any other, and that he would assist as in a matter for the benefit of the whole world, but especially of himself and his friends. He showed me "fort grosse chiere," and I dissembled in the same way with him, avoiding all occasions of entering into Lutheran discussions, from which he could not refrain.

Before the King went out to mass Cromwell came to me on his part to ask if I would not go and visit and kiss the Concubine (age 35), which would be doing a pleasure to this King; nevertheless, he left it to me. I told him that for a long time my will had been slave to that of the King, and that to serve him it was enough to command me; but that I thought, for several reasons, which I would tell the King another time, such a visit would not be advisable, and I begged Cromwell to excuse it, and dissuade the said visit in order not to spoil matters. Immediately afterwards Cromwell came to tell me that the King had taken it all in good part, hoping that hereafter "lon y supplyeroit assez," and he immediately added that after dinner I should speak with the King at leisure, and that on leaving him, agreeably to their custom, I ought to see those of the Council and explain my charge. I told him that I thought things were so honorable and reasonable, and had been foreseen so long, that I thought the King would make up his mind immediately; and if not, he to whom my credence was addressed would make a far better report to the Council than I could; nevertheless, that till I had heard part of the King's will, I could neither promise to go, nor not to go, to the said Council, though I meant to speak particularly to all, and do all that they would counsel me. Just after this the King came out and gave me a very kind reception, holding for some time his bonnet in his hand, and not allowing me to be uncovered longer than himself; and after asking how I was, and telling me that I was very welcome, he inquired of the good health of your Majesty and showed himself very glad to hear good news. He then asked where you were, and on my telling him that the courier had left you near Rome, he said that by the date of your Majesty's letters to his Secretary it appeared that you were at Gaeta when the courier left. Hereupon he asked if you would stay long at Rome, and on my telling him that I thought not, unless your Majesty could gratify him by a long delay, for which purpose I was sure you would make no difficulty either in remaining or doing anything else that you could on his account, he said he thought it would have been better for your interests not to have come so soon to Rome, but to have staid in Naples, so as to afford a bait to those who needed it to involve themselves further in the meshes. I said that there was still time enough to use such dissimulation, and that I was sure you would in this and other matters be glad to follow his counsel as that of a very old friend, good brother, and, as it were, a father, as he might understand by what I should tell him hereafter more at leisure. On this he said, Well, we should have leisure to discuss all matters. I was conducted to mass by Lord Rochford (age 33), the concubine's brother, and when the King came to the offering there was a great concourse of people partly to see how the concubine and I behaved to each other. She was courteous enough, for when I was behind the door by which she entered, she returned, merely to do me reverence as I did to her. After mass the King went to dine at the concubine's lodging, whither everybody accompanied him except myself, who was conducted by Rochford (age 33) to the King's Chamber of Presence, and dined there with all the principal men of the Court. I am told the concubine (age 35) asked the King why I did not enter there as the other ambassadors did, and the King replied that it was not without good reason. Nevertheless, I am told by one who heard her, the said concubine after dinner said that it was a great shame in the king of France to treat his uncle, the duke of Savoy, as he did, and to make war against Milan so as to break the enterprise against the Turks; and that it really seemed that the king of France, weary of his life on account of his illnesses, wished by war to put an end to his days. As soon as the King had dined, he, in passing by where I was, made me the same caress as in the morning, and, taking me by the hand, led me into his chamber, whither only the Chancellor and Cromwell followed. He took me apart to a window. I reminded him of several conversations which Cromwell and I had had, and also of those of your ambassador in France with Wallop, and also of the old affection your Majesty had borne him, and began to declare your will touching the four points, taking the utmost care to speak as gently as possible, that he might not find grounds of quarrel or irritation. He heard me patiently and without interruption, till at last, on my saying that your Majesty, desirous above all things of the peace of Christendom, had forborne your claim to Burgundy, which you might demand by a much better title than the invaders of Savoy and Milan, he answered that Milan belonged to the king of France, and the duchy of Burgundy also, for you had renounced it by the treaty of Cambray, which qualified the unreasonable conditions of that of Madrid, and that even if Milan had now come to your hands the defensive treaties comprehended only the lordships possessed at the time they were passed. I showed him, but not without difficulty, that he was illinformed about your rights to Milan and Burgundy, and also that when those treaties were made you were the lawful Lord of Milan, and he who held it was only feudatory, after whose death the duchy was not newly acquired by your Majesty, but had only been consolidated; which argument, as Cromwell informs me, has since been weighed and approved by the King and his Council.

Letters 1536. 24 Apr 1536. Vienna Archives. 720. Chapuys to [Granvelle].

This very moment when the courier was about to mount I have been informed of his departure, and having already written pretty fully, I shall say little now. I forgot in my last to make answer about the intentions of those here with regard to the Council. They have made no formal reply, only saying that they would not disturb such a good thing, or cut themselves off from the number of Christians, but they conclude that such a Council must be convoked by the Emperor. Does not think they want one. Thinks the news of an arrangement between the Emperor and the king of France has thrown them into great confusion, and compelled them to dispatch this courier; because previously they cared nothing, and would not have written even to their ambassador if Chapuys had not urged them, which he very soon afterwards repented, for he would have dispatched the courier two days sooner without waiting for their letters. Yesterday the French ambassador was long at Court, and Chapuys has not been able yet to discover what he was negociating. The King also sent for the late Queen's physician, and told him he would have called him sooner but for fear of its being insinuated that there had been some intrigue to put the Queen to death. The King said he wished to make use of him, and thought that I would consent willingly, and get the Emperor to agree to it, otherwise he would not take him into his service, and that the means to get the Emperor and me to agree to it was to give out that he was retained for the Princess, with whom he would be left till all suspicions and murmurs had died out. And hereupon the King began to speak very well of me, and asked the physician two or three times if he had not spoken with me since Easter Tuesday when I was with him. I think he wished to find out what was in my mind after his brusque replies. Although I would not kiss or speak to the Concubine (age 35), the Princess and other good persons have been somewhat jealous at the mutual reverences required by politeness which were done at the church. I refused to visit her until I had spoken to the King. If I had seen any hope from the King's answer I would have offered not two but 100 candles to the shedevil, although another thing made me unwilling, viz., that I was told she was not in favor with the King; besides, Cromwell was quite of my opinion that I should do well to wait till I had spoken to the King. Even before receiving instructions from the Emperor, has always avoided "l'envoy" which the Princess urged, as again she has since done, for the reasons which he has heretofore written1. London, 24 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Note 1. "Sans quil eust pleu a sa matc me faire aduertir dexcuser lenvoy, dont la Princesse me sollicitoit comme encoires elle a depuis fait je nen (qu. m'en?) avoye garde, et continuellement luy ay satisfait des raisons que jay cy devant escriptes."

Letters 1536. 27 Apr 1536. R. O. 741. Henry Lord Stafford to Cromwell.

Though I am least able to serve you, yet the comfort you gave me makes me bold to write to you. I beg you will use means with the King that I may have the farm of the abbey of Rantone, if it be dissolved. It is within four miles of my house and reaches my park pale, and I will give as much for it as any man. I heard that the Queen (age 35) had moved the King to have me in remembrance for it, and he was content, saying it was alms to help me, having so many children on my hands. I heard that George Blunt endeavours to obstruct my suit. By the last act of the Lords Marchers my income will be £20 a year less. In the matter which I showed you of my [her father] Lord of Wiltshire's (age 59) motion, pray make my humble submission to the King. Stafford, 27 April. Signed. Pp. 2. Add.: Mr. Secretary. Sealed and endd.

Letters 1536. 28 Apr 1536. R. O. 748. Thomas Warley to Lord Lisle (age 71).

I thank you for the warrant you sent, whereby I did my friend a singular pleasure, and also for the letter you were good enough to write to Sir Francis Brian (age 46) for expedition of my suit. Sir Francis had departed into Buckinghamshire before it arrived. Dr. Bonner (age 36) came to Court yesterday, and asked heartily after you and my Lady. The Queen (age 35) expects my Lady to meet her at Dover, as Mrs. Margery Horsman informed me, and on Tuesday next the King and Queen will lie at Rochester. On Monday I intend to leave for Dover or Sandwich, to await the coming of your Lordship and my Lady. The Council has sat every day at Greenwich upon certain letters brought by the French ambassador, who was at Court yesterday and divers other times. On Monday in Easter week1, the Emperor's ambassador was at Court. Many ships laden with wheat have come to London. London, 28 April.

Note 1. April 17 in 1536. But from Chapuys's own despatch it appears to have been on Tuesday the 18th. See No.

Letters 1536. 28 Apr 1536. R. O. 749. Henry Lord Stafford to the Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

I recommend me to you and my good Lady and sister. So does my bedfellow. We are desirous of your returning into Staffordshire. I thank you for furthering my suit with the Queen (age 35). I should have been at London before this, but I tarried for you and my Lady. George Blount (age 23) makes great suit to have the abbey of Rantone, that I sue for. It is within four miles of Stafford, and near my park. He is my Lord of Richmond's servant, and has a fair house of his own. Intercede with Mr. Secretary for me. I will give as much as any man living, and do Mr. Secretary a great pleasure besides. If it cannot be had, pray speak for the White Ladies in Staffordshire. It is only £40 rent by year, and is in great decay. Stafford Castle, 28 April. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters 1536. 29 Apr 1536. 752. The Grand Ecuyer [Esquire], Mr. Caro (age 40), had on St. George's day the Order of the Garter in the place of the deceased M. de Burgain, to the great disappointment of [her brother] Rochford (age 33), who was seeking for it, and all the more because the Concubine (age 35) has not had sufficient influence to get it for her brother; and it will not be the fault of the said Ecuyer if the Concubine, although his cousin (quelque, qu. quoique? cousine) be not dismounted. He continually counsels Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] and other conspirators "pour luy faire une venue," [to make him a visit] and only four days ago he and some persons of the chamber sent to tell the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 20) to be of good cheer, for shortly the opposite party would put water in their wine, for the King was already as sick and tired of the concubine (age 35) as could be; and the brother of lord Montague told me yesterday at dinner that the day before the bishop of London (age 61) had been asked if the King could abandon the said concubine, and he would not give any opinion to anyone but the King himself, and before doing so he would like to know the King's own inclination, meaning to intimate that the King might leave the said concubine, but that, knowing his fickleness, he would not put himself in danger. The said Bishop was the principal cause and instrument of the first divorce, of which he heartily repents, and would still more gladly promote this, the said concubine and all her race are such abominable Lutherans. London, 29 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Arrest of Anne Boleyn and her Co-accused

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 01 May 1536. On Maye day were a solemn jousts kept at Grcnewyche [Map], and suddenly from the jousts the King departed having not above six persons with him, and came in the evening from Greenwich to his place at Westminster. Of this sudden departure many men mused, but most chiefly the Queen (age 35),

Letters 1536. 02 May 1536. R. O. 785. Roland Bulkeley to Sir Ric. Bulkeley (age 35), Chamberlain of North Wales.

Commendations to Sir Richard (his brother) and his lady. The Queen (age 35) is in the Tower, with the [her brother] Earl of Wiltshire, Lord Rochford (age 33)1, Mr. Norres (age 54), one master Markes (age 24), one of the King's privy chamber, and sundry ladies. The cause is high treason, that is to say, "that maister Norres (age 54) shulde have a do wythe the Queyne, and Markes (age 24) and the other acsesari to the sayme. The arre lyke to suffyre, all ther morre is the pitte."

Begs him to come to the King as soon as he can, for he can do more than 20 in his absence, and to make haste, and be there before any word be of their death. "When it is ones knone that ye shall dede all wylbe to latte." Asks him to keep this letter close. Grays Inn, 2 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.

Note. A mistake? George, Viscount Rochford, brother of Anne Boleyn, children of Thomas Bolyen, Earl of Wiltshire, was in the Tower.

On 02 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) was charged with treason and accused of 'despising her marriage and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust'! She was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. Five ladies were appointed to serve Anne whilst in prison:

Margaret Dymoke (age 36),

her aunt [her aunt] Anne Boleyn (age 60),

Mary Scrope (age 60), wife of the Lieutenant of the Tower of London William Kingston (age 60),

her aunt by marriage Elizabeth Wood aka Wode, wife of her uncle James Boleyn (age 71), and

Elizabeth Chamber Baroness St John Bletso, wife of Serjeant-at-Arms Walter Stonor (age 59).

The day before her brother George Boleyn, Henry Norrys, William Brereton and Francis West had been arrested; they would be executed on the 17 May.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 02 May 1536. ... and the same daie, about five of the clocke at nighta, Anne Bolleine (age 35) was brought to the Towre of London by my Lord Chauncelor (age 48)b, the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolke (age 63), Mr. Secretarie (age 51),c and Sir William Kingston (age 60), Constable of the Tower; and when she came to the court gate,d entring in, she fell downe on her knees before the said lordes, beseeching God to helpe her as she was not giltie of her accusement,e and also desired the said lordes to beseech the Kinges grace to be good unto her, and so they left her their prisoner.f.

Note a. "In the afternoon." — Stow.

Note b. Sir Thomas Audley.

Note c. Sir Thomas Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex.

Note d. "Towergate" in Stow.

Note e. On her arrest she was informed of the accusation of adultery.

Note f. Anne's prison-chamber was that in which she had slept the night before her coronation.

Letters 1536. 02 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 260. B. M. 784. Anne Boleyn. "Las nuevas de Ynglaterra de la presion de la Manceba del Rey."

The Emperor (age 36) has letters from England of 2 May, stating that the mistress [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] of the king of England, who is called Queen, had been put in the Tower [Map] for adultery with an organist of her chamber [Mark Smeaton (age 24)], and the King's most private "sommelier de corps (age 54)." Her [her brother] brother (age 33) is imprisoned for not giving information of her crime. It is said that, even if it had not been discovered, the King had determined to leave her, as he had been informed that she had consummated a marriage with the earl of Nortemberlano (age 34) (Northumberland) nine years ago.

Sp., p. 1, modern copy.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. 02 May 1536. How the Queen (age 35) and her brother the [her brother] Duke (age 33) were arrested.

On the 2nd of May the captain of the guard with hundred halberdiers came to Greenwich in the King's great barge, and went to the Queen, and said to her, "My lady, the King has sent me for you;" and she, very much astonished, asked the captain where the King was. She was told he was at Westminster; and she at once got ready, and embarked with all her ladies, thinking she was to be taken to Westminster, but when she saw they stopped at the Tower, she asked whether the King was there. The captain of the Tower appeared, and the captain of the guard addressed him, saying, "I bring you here the Queen, whom the King orders you to keep prisoner, and very carefully guarded." Thereupon the captain took Anne by the arm, and she, as soon as she heard that she was a prisoner, exclaimed loudly in the hearing of many, "I entered with more ceremony the last time I came." They ordered two of her ladies to remain with her, and the rest to be taken to Westminster, and amongst them one very attractive, of whom we shall have to speak further on.1

As soon as the King learnt that she was in the Tower, he ordered the Duke her brother to be arrested, and taken thither, the old woman having already been taken. The King then wished the Queen to be examined, and he sent Secretary Cromwell, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 46), the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63), and the Chancellor (age 48), who were expressly ordered by the King to treat her with no respect or consideration. They desired the Archbishop to be spokesman, and he said these words to her, "Madam, there is no one in the realm, after my lord the King, who is so distressed at your bad conduct as I am, for all these gentlemen well know I owe my dignity to your good-will;" and Anne, before he could say any more, interrupted him with, "My lord Bishop, I know what is your errand; waste no more time; I have never wronged the King, but I know well that he is tired of me, as he was before of the good lady Katharine." Then the Bishop continued, "Say no such thing, Madam, for your evil courses have been clearly seen; and if you desire to read the confession which Mark has made, it will be shown to you." Anne, in a great rage, replied, "Go to! It has all been done as I say, because the King has fallen in love, as I know, with Jane Seymour (age 27), and does not know how to get rid of me. Well, let him do as he likes, he will get nothing more out of me; and any confession that has been made is false."

With that, as they saw they should extract nothing from her, they determined to leave; but before doing so the Duke of Norfolk said to her, "Madam, if it be true that the Duke2 your brother has shared your guilt, a great punishment indeed should be yours and his as well." To which she answered, "Duke, say no such thing; my brother is blameless; and if he has been in my chamber to speak with me, surely he might do so without suspicion, being my brother, and they cannot accuse him for that. I know that the King has had him arrested, so that there should be none left to take my part. You need not trouble to stop talking with me, for you will find out no more. "So they went away; and when they told the King how she had answered, he said, "She has a stout heart, but she shall pay for it;" and he sent them to the Duke to see how he would answer. To explain why the Duke had been arrested, it should be told that the King was informed that he had been seen on several occasions going in and out of the Queen's room dressed only in his night-clothes. When the gentlemen went to him, he said, "I do not know why the King has had me arrested, for I never wronged him in word or deed. If my sister has done so, let her bear the penalty." Then the Chancellor replied, "Duke, it was ground for suspicion that you should go so often to her chamber at night, and tell the ladies to leave you. It was a very bold thing to do, and you deserve great punishment." "But look you, Chancellor," answered the Duke, "even if I did go to speak with her sometimes when she was unwell, surely that is no proof that I was so wicked as to do so great crime and treason to the King." Then the Duke of Norfolk said, "Hold thy peace, Duke, the King's will must be done after all." So they left him, and presently put old Margaret to the torture, who told the whole story of how she had arranged that Mark and Master Norris and Brereton should all have access to the Queen unknown to each other. She was asked about Master Wyatt, but she said she had never even seen him speak to the Queen privately, but always openly, whereupon Secretary Cromwell was glad, for he was very fond of Master Wyatt.

So the gentlemen ordered the old woman3 to be burnt that night within the Tower, and they took her confession to the King; and the King ordered all the prisoners to be beheaded, and the Duke as well, so the next day the Duke, Master Norris, Brereton, and Mark were executed.

Note 1. TT. Probably a reference to Jane Seymour (age 27).

Note 2. The chronicler is in error in calling the Queen's brother Duke. He was, of course, Viscount Rochford.

Note 3. Lady Wingfield; I can find no record, however, of her having been burnt in Tower, although her dying confession, of which a part only now remains, has always been considered the strongest proof of Anne's guilt.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 02 May 1536 ... who the next day was apprehended and brought from Greenwich to the Tower of London [Map], where after she was arraigned of high treason, and condemned. Also at the same time was likewise apprehended, the [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 33) brother to the said Queen (age 35), and Henry Norrys (age 54), Marke Smeaton (age 24), William Brereton and Sir Francis Weston (age 25), all of the King’s Privy Chamber. All these were likewise committed to the Tower [Map] and after arraigned and condemned of high treason.

Letters 1536. 29 May 1536. Corpus Reform., iii. 81. 990. Melancthon to Justus Jonas.

The reports from England are more than tragic. The Queen (deceased) is thrown into prison, with her father, [her brother] brother (deceased), two bishops, and others, for adultery. You will hear the whole thing from Bucer. Monday. Lat.

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. 1036. A Lord of the Privy Council seeing clear evidence that his sister loved certain persons with a dishonorable love, admonished her fraternally. She acknowledged her offence, but said it was little in her case in comparison with that of the Queen, as he might ascertain from Mark (deceased), declaring that she was guilty of incest with her own brother. The brother did not know what to do on this intelligence, and took counsel with two friends of the King, with whom he went to the King himself and one reported it in the name of all three. The King was astonished, and his color changed at the revelation, but he thanked the gentlemen. The Queen, meanwhile, took her pleasure unconscious of the discovery, seeing dogs and animals that day fight in a park. In the evening there was a ball, and the King treated her as if he knew no cause of displeasure. But Mark (deceased) was then in prison and was forced to answer the accusation against him. Without being tortured he deliberately said that the Queen had three times yielded to his passion. The King was thus convinced, but made no show of it, and gave himself up to enjoyment. Especially on the 1 May, he got up a tournay with several combatants; among others, my Lord of [her brother] Rocheford (deceased), the Queen's (deceased) brother, showed his skill in breaking lances and vaulting on horseback. Norris (deceased), also, best loved of the King, presented himself well armed, but his horse refused the lists and turned away as if conscious of the impending calamity to his master. The King seeing this, presented Norris with his own horse; who, however, knew that he could not keep it long. He, Weston (deceased), and Brereton did great feats of arms, and the King showed them great kindness "dissimulant leur ruyne prochaine." The Queen looked on from a high place, "et souvent envoioit les doulz regards," to encourage the combatants, who knew nothing of their danger. Immediately after the tournay archers were ordered to arrest Norris, and were much astonished and grieved, considering his virtue and intimacy with the King, that he should have committed disloyalty. Before he went to prison the King desired to speak to him, offering to spare his life and goods, although he was guilty, if he would tell him the truth. But being told the accusation, Norris offered to maintain the contrary with his body in any place. He was accordingly sent to the Tower. The Queen was conducted thither next day by the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63), and her brother also, who said he had well merited his fate. Waston (deceased) and Barton followed, and pages also. The city rejoiced on hearing the report, hoping that the Princess would be restored. The whole town awaited her coming with delight.

"Et n'eussiez veu jusque aux petis enfans

Que tous chantans et d'aise triumphans.

11 n'y a cueur si triste qui ne rye

En attendant la princesse Marie."

But she did not remove from her lodging, and did not avenge herself by blaming the Queen when she heard that she was a prisoner; but only wished she had behaved better to the King, and hoped God would help her, adding:—

"Et si sa fille est au Roy, je promectz

Qu'a mon pouvoir ne luy fauldray jamais."

Here follows a eulogy of the Princess, describing her education in astronomy, mathematics, logic, morals, politics, Latin, Greek, &c. The expectation that she would be restored made the King apprehensive of some commotion; to appease which he caused his thanks to be conveyed to the people for their good will to him and his daughter, but told them they need not be anxious about her return, for they would shortly be satisfied. The joy of the people on this was converted into sorrow and they dispersed (et confuz s'en partit).

The Queen, meanwhile, having no further hope in this world, would confess nothing.

"Riens ne confesse, et ne resiste fort Comme voulant presque estre délivre De vivre icy, pour aulz cieulz aller vivre; Et l'espoir tant en icelle surmonte, Que de la mort ne tient plus aucun compte."

Imprisonment and Trial of Anne Boleyn and her Co-Accused

Letters 1536. [03 May 1536] Otho, C. x. 225. B. M. Ellis, i Ser. II. 53. Singer's Cavendish, ii. 217. 793. Sir William Kingston (age 60) to [Cromwell].

On my Lord of Norfolk (age 63) and the King's Council departing from the Tower, I went before the Queen (age 35) into her lodging. She said unto me, "Mr. Kingston (age 60), shall I go into a dungeon?" I said, "No, Madam. You shall go into the lodging you lay in at your coronation." "It is too g[ood] for me, she said; Jesu have mercy on me;" and kneeled down, weeping a [good] pace, and in the same sorrow fell into a great laughing, as she has done many times since. "She desyred me to move the Kynges hynes that she [might] have the sacarment in the closet by hyr chamber, that she my[ght pray] for mercy, for I am as clere from the company of man as for s[in as I] am clear from you, and am the Kynges trew wedded wyf. And then s[he said], Mr. Kynston, do you know wher for I am here? and I sayd, Nay. And th[en she asked me], When saw you the Kynge? and I sayd I saw hym not syns I saw [him in] the Tylte Yerde. And then, Mr. K., I pray you to telle me wher my [Lord, my fa]der [Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 59)], ys? And I told hyr I saw hym afore dyner in the Cort. O[where is m]y sweet [her brother] broder (age 33)? I sayd I left hym at York Place; and so I dyd. I [hear say, sai]d she, that I shuld be accused with iij. men; and I can say [no more but] nay, withyowt I shuld oppen my body. And ther with opynd her gown. O, No[res] (age 54), hast thow accused me? Thow ar in the Towre with me, [and thow and I shall] dy together; and, Marke (age 24), thow art here to. O, my mother (age 56), [thou wilt die with] sorow; and myche lamented my lady of Worceter (age 34), for by c[ause that her child di]d not store in hyre body. And my wyf sayd, what shuld [be the cause? And she sai]d, for the sorow she toke for me. And then she sayd, Mr. [Kyngston (age 60), shall I die with]yowt justes? And I sayd, the porest sugett the Ky[ng hath, hath justice. And t]her with she lawed. Alle thys sayinges was yesterny[ght] .... and thys mornyng dyd talke with Mestrys Co[fyn. And she said, Mr. Norr]es Henry Norreys (age 54) dyd say on Sunday last unto the Quenes am[ner that he would s]vere for the Quene that she was a gud woman. [And then said Mrs.] Cofyn (age 36), Madam, Why shuld ther be hony seche maters [spoken of? Marry,] sayd she, I bad hym do so: for I asked hym why he [did not go through with] hys maryage, and he made ansure he wold tary [a time. Then I said, Y]ou loke for ded men's showys, for yf owth ca[m to the King but good], you would loke to have me. And he sayd yf he [should have any such thought] he wold hys hed war of. And then she sayd [she could undo him if she wou]ld; and ther with thay felle yowt, bot .... and sayd on Wysson Twysday last .... that Nores (age 54) cam more .. age and further ....

"Wher I was commaunded to charge the gentelwomen that gyfes thayr atendans apon the Quene, that ys to say thay shuld have now (i.e., no) commynycasion with hyr in lese my William Kingston (age 60) and wyf (age 60) ware present; and so I dyd hit, notwithstandynge it canot be so, for my Lady Bolen and Mestrys Cofyn (age 36) lyes on the Quenes palet, and I and my wyf at the dore with yowt, so at thay must nedes talke at be within; bot I have every thynge told me by Mestrys Cofyn (age 36) that she thinkes met for you to know, and tother ij. gentelweymen lyes withyowt me, and as I may knowe t[he] Kynges plesure in the premysses I shalle folow. From the Towre, thys morny[ng].

"Sir, syns the makynge of thys letter the Quene spake of Wes[ton [Francis Weston (age 25)], saying that she] had spoke to hym bycause he did love hyr kynswoman [Mrs. Skelton, and] sayd he loved not hys wyf (age 22), and he made ansere to hyr [again that h]e loved wone in hyr howse better then them bothe. And [the Queen (age 35) said, Who is] that? It ys yourself. And then she defyed hym, as [she said to me]. William Kyngston (age 60)."

Hol.

Letters 1536. 03 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 226. B. M. Burnet, i. 320. 792. [Cranmer (age 46) to Henry VIII.]

Have come to Lambeth, according to Mr. Secretary's letters, to know your Grace's pleasure. Dare not, contrary to the said letters, presume to come to your presence, but of my bounden duty I beg you "somewhat to suppress the deep sorrows of your Grace's heart," and take adversity patiently. Cannot deny that you have great causes of heaviness, and that your honor is highly touched. God never sent you a like trial; but if He find you no less patient and thankful than when all things succeeded to your wish, I suppose you never did thing more acceptable to Him. You will give Him occasion to increase His benefits, as He did to Job. If the reports of the Queen (age 35) be true, they are only to her dishonor, not yours. I am clean amazed, for I had never better opinion of woman; but I think your Highness would not have gone so far if she had not been culpable. I was most bound to her of all creatures living, and therefore beg that I may, with your Grace's favor, wish and pray that she may declare herself innocent. Yet if she be found guilty, I repute him not a faithful subject who would not wish her punished without mercy. "And as I loved her not a little for the love which I judged her to bear towards God and His Gospel, so if she be proved culpable there is not one that loveth God and His Gospel that ever will favor her, but must hate her above all other; and the more they favor the Gospel the more they will hate her, for then there was never creature in our time that so much slandered the Gospel; and God hath sent her this punishment for that she feignedly hath professed his Gospel in her mouth and not in heart and deed." And though she have so offended, yet God has shown His goodness towards your Grace and never offended you. "But your Grace, I am sure, knowledgeth that you have offended Him." I trust, therefore, you will bear no less zeal to the Gospel than you did before, as your favor to the Gospel was not led by affection to her. Lambeth, 3 May.

Since writing, my lords Chancellor, Oxford, Sussex, and my Lord Chamberlain of your Grace's house, sent for me to come to the Star Chamber, and there declared to me such things as you wished to make me privy to. For this I am much bounden to your Grace. They will report our conference. I am sorry such faults can be proved against the Queen as they report.

Hol. Mutilated. Endd.

Letters 1536. Around 05 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 209 b. B. M. Singer's Cavendish, ii. 225. Ellis, 1 Ser. ii. 61. 799. Sir Edward Baynton (age 44) to Mr. Treasurer (age 46) [Fitzwilliam?].

There is much communication that no man will confess anything against her, but only Marke (age 24) of any actual thing. It would, in my foolish conceit, much touch the King's honor if it should no further appear. I cannot believe but that the other two are as f[ully] culpable as he, but they keep each other's counsel. I think much of the communication which took place on the last occasion between the Queen (age 35) and Master Norres (age 54). Mr. Almoner [told] me that I might speak with Mr. S[ecretary] and you, and more plainly express my opinion in case they have confessed "like wret .... all things as they should do than my n .... at a point." I have mused much at [the conduct] of Mrs. Margery, who hath used her[self] strangely toward me of late, being her friend as I have been. There has been great friendship of late between the Queen and her. I hear further that the Queen standeth stiffly in her opinion, that she wi[ll not be convicted], which I think is in the trust that she [hath in the o]ther two. I will gladly wait upon you. Greenwich, .... morning. Signed.

Mutilated.

Letters 1536. Around 05 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 222. B. M. Singer's Cavendish, ii. 220. Ellis, I. Ser. ii. 56. 798. Sir William Kyngston (age 60) to Cromwell.

"After your departynge yesterday Greneway, gentelman yssher, cam to .... Mr. Caro and Master Bryan commaunded hym in the Kynges name to my .... [her brother] Ratchfort (age 33) from my Lady hys wyf (age 31) and the message was now more .... se how he dyd and also she wold humly sut unto the Kynges hy[nes] .... for hyr husband, and so he gaf hyr thankes and desyred me to kno .... tyme he shuld cum affore the Kynges consell, for I thynk I .... cum forthe tylle I cum to my jogement, wepynge very .... I departed from hym, and when I cam to the chambre the .... of me and sent for me, and sayd, I here say my Lord my .... here; it ys trowth, sayd I. I am very glad, sayd s[he] .... bothe be so ny to gether, and I showed hyr here was .... Weston (age 25) and Brerton, and she made very gud contenans .... I also sayd Mr. Page and Wyet (age 15) wase mo then she sayd he ha .... one hys fyst tother day and ys here now bot ma .... I shalle desyre you to bayre a letter from me .... [to Master] Secretory. And then I sayd, Madam, telle it me by [word of mouth, and I] wille do it. And so gaf me thankes, sayinge I ha[ve much marvel] that the Kynges conselle commes not to me and thys .... [she] sayd we shuld have now rayne tyll she ware [delivered out] of the Towre. I pray you it may be shortly, by [cause, said I, of the] fayre wether; you know what I mayne. The Que[ne said unto me that same] nyght that the Kyng wyst what he dyd w[hen he put such] ij. abowt hyr as my Lady Boleyn and Mestres [Cofyn; for] [Margaret Dymoke (age 36)] thay cowd tell her now thynge of my [Lord her [her father] father (age 59), nor] nothynge ellys, bot she defyed them alle. [But then upon this my Lady Boleyn (age 35)] sayd to hyr, Seche desyre as you have h[ad to such tales] hase browthe you to thys, and then sayd [Mrs. Stoner, Mark (age 24)] ys the worst cherysshe of hony m[an in the house, for he w]ayres yernes. She sayd that was [because he was no gen]telman; bot he wase never in [my chamber but at Winchester, and there] she sent for hym to pl[ay on the virginals, for there my] logynge wa[s above the King's] .... for I never spake with hym syns bot upon Saterday before Mayday; and then I fond hym standyng in the ronde wyndo in my chambre of presens. And I asked why he wase so sad, and he ansured and sayd it was now mater; and then she sayd, You may not loke to have me speke to you as I shuld do to a nobulle man by cause you be an inferor [pe]rson. No, no, madam, a loke sufficed me, and thus fare you welle. [Sh]e hathe asked my wyf whether hony body makes thayr beddes, [and m]y wyf (age 60) ansured and sayd, Nay, I warant you; then she say[d tha]y myght make balettes well now, bot ther ys non bot .... de that can do it. Yese, sayd my wyf (age 60), Master Wyett by .... sayd trew .... my Lorde my broder wille dy .... ne I am sure thys was as .... tt downe to dener thys day.

William Kyngston (age 60).

Letters 1536. 11 May 1536. 908. On the 11th were condemned as traitors Master Norreys (age 54), the King's chief butler, (sommelier de corps) Master Weston (age 25), who used to lie with the King, Master Brereton, gentleman of the Chamber, and the groom (varlet de chambre) [Mark Smeaton (age 24)], of whom I wrote to your Majesty by my man. Only the groom (age 24) confessed that he had been three times with the said putain and Concubine (age 35). The others were condemned upon presumption and certain indications, without valid proof or confession.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. Item, the 12th daie of Maie, 1536, being Fridaie, their were arraygned at Westminster [Map]g Sir Frances Weston (age 25), knight, Henrie Norrisy (age 54) esquier, Brerton, and Markes (age 24), being all fower of the Kinges Privie Chamberh, and their condemned of high treason against the [her husband] Kinge (age 44) for using fornication with Queene Anne (age 35), wife to the Kinge, and also for conspiracie of the Kinges death, and their judged to be hanged, drawen, and quartered, their members cutt of and brent [burned] before theim, their heades cutt of and quartered; my Lord Chauncelor (age 48) being the highest Commissioner he geving their judgment, with other lordes of the Kinges Counsell being presente at the same tyme..

Note g. They were tried by a Commission of Oyer and Terminer in Westminster Hall, after having been twice indicted. True bills were found by the two grand juries of the counties of Kent and Middlesex, the crimes they were charged with being said to be done in both counties.

Note h. Sir Francis Western and William Brereton, esq. of the King's Privy Chamber. Henry Norris, Groom of the Stole, and one Mark Smeton, a musician.

Letters 1536. 12 May 1536. R. O. 855. John Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

I delivered your letter to Mr. Secretary, who promises to be your very friend. I could not see the King, but delivered his letter through Sir John Russell, who promises to consult with Mr. Secretary on your behalf; but there is no time to make suit till the matters now in hand be overblown. As to the friar (Mr. Secretary would they were all at the Devil), he shall be rid, but it will be tomorrow ere I have the letter for his despatch, which Goodall will bring, who will depart tomorrow night. You may tell Mr. Porter, Mr. Treasurer will meddle with no matter till this business be rid. Today Mr. Norrys (age 54), Weston (age 25), Bryerton, and Markes (age 24) have been arraigned, and are judged to be drawn, hanged, and quartered. They shall die tomorrow or Monday. Anne the queen (age 35), and her [her brother] brother (age 33), shall be arraigned in the Tower, some think tomorrow, but on Monday at furthest, and that they will suffer there immediately "for divers considerations, which are not yet known." Mr. Payge and Mr. W[y]at (age 15) are in the Tower, but it is thought without danger of life, though Mr. Payge is banished the King's court for ever. A new Parliament is summoned to commence on Thursday in Whitsun week. Walter Skynner comes over to your Lordship with my Lord Chancellor's letters, to summon you and lord Grey, but you will not go without further licence. Here is one Hall, serjeant-at-arms, who desires much to speak with Mr. Degory Graynfyld. London, 12 May.

Mr. Rossell sent his servant, the bearer, to me while I was writing. Please write some kind letter to Mr. Russell and Mr. Hennage, and write again to Mr. Secretary. Hol., p. 1. Add.

Letters 1536. 12 May 1536. R. O. 854. Sir John Russell (age 51) to Lord Lisle (age 72).

On behalf of the bearer, who has been sore troubled to his utter undoing unless Lisle will make him a victualler in his retinue. Today Mr. Norres (age 54) and such other as you know are cast, and the Queen (age 35) shall go to her judgment on Monday next. I have delivered the King your letters. I wonder your Lordship did not write to me that I might have made suit for you. Westm., 12 May. Signed. P. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Letters 1536. 12 May. R. O. 848. Trial of Weston (age 25), Norris (age 54), and others.

Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex to Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, [her uncle] Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), [her father] Thomas Earl of Wiltshire (age 59), Rob. Earl of Sussex, William lord Sandys, Thomas Crumwell (age 51), chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

ii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the grand jury at Westminster on Wednesday, 10 May next. Dated 9 May 28 Henry VIII.—Grand jury panel annexed, 16 sworn.

iii. Indictment found in Middlesex against Anne Boleyn (age 35), &c. as in No. 876, with marginal note stating that it was sent before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as steward of England, hac vice, as regards all matters touching the Queen and [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 33).

iv. The justices' precept to the constable of the Tower to bring up Sir Francis Weston (age 25), Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Mark Smeton (age 24), at Westminster, on Friday next after three weeks of Easter. Westm., 10 May 28 Henry VIII.—With reply of the Constable endorsed.

v. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the petty jury for the trial of Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Sir Francis Weston [here follows an erasure which evidently contained the name of Mark Smeaton (age 24)]. Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.—With panel annexed.

vi. Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Kent, to Sir Thomas Audeley (age 48), Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Rob. Earl of Sussex, Thomas Crumwell, chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lyster, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

vii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Kent for the return of the grand jury at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May. Endd. by Sir Edward Wotton, sheriff.—Panel of grand jury annexed.

viii. Indictment found in Kent, as in No. 876, with memorandum in margin, as in section iii.

ix. Record of the sessions holden Friday after three weeks of Easter 28 Henry VIII. before the above justices. Noreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24) were brought up in the custody of the constable of the Tower, when Smeton (age 24) pleaded guilty of violation and carnal knowledge of the Queen, and put himself in the King's mercy. Noreys, Bryerton, and Weston pleaded Not guilty. The jury return a verdict of Guilty, and that they have no lands, goods, or chattels.

Judgment against all four as in cases of treason; execution to be at Tyburn.

The above file of documents is endorsed: "Sessiones Comitatuum Middlesexiæ et Kanciæ primo tentæ apud villam Westmonasterii in comitatu Midd. coram Thoma Audeley, milite, Cancellario Angliæ, et aliis, &c., et secundo tentæ apud Depford in comitatu Kanciæ coram Johanne Baldewyn, milite et aliis, anno regni Regis Henrici VIII. vicesimo octavo."

Letters 1536. 13 May 1536. R. O. 865. J. Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

Here is no good to be done, neither with the King nor with any of his Council, till matters now had in hand be fully achieved. Mr. Secretary had no leisure to despatch the letter for the Friar's delivery. It is useless suing to Mr. Treasurer till he have more leisure. It is believed this matter will be rid by the end of next week. Here are so many tales I cannot tell what to write. This day, some say, young Weston (age 25) shall scape, and some that none shall die but the Queen (age 35) and her [her brother] brother (age 33); others, that Wyat (age 15) and Mr. Payge are as like to suffer as the others. The saying now is that those who shall suffer shall die when the Queen and her brother go to execution; but I think they shall all suffer. If any escape, it will be young Weston (age 25), for whom importunate suit is made. It is rumoured that Harry Webbe has been taken in the West country, and put in hold for the same cause. By Wednesday [May 17] all will be known. Sir Thomas Cheyne (age 51) is named Lord Warden, some say by Mr. Secretary's preferment. My [her illegitimate step-son] Lord of Richmond (age 16) is Chamberlain of Chester and N. Wales, and Mr. Harry Knyvet, Constable of Beaumaris. If Mr. Secretary keep promise your Lordship shall have something. Today Mr. Russell was in very sad communication with Mr. Whethill. I fear I have taken a wrong pig by the ear, but I shall know by his preferring of your affairs ere long. Mr. Brian is chief gentleman of the privy chamber, and shall keep the table. There is plain saying that the King will assign the groom of the stole from time to time at his pleasure. I trust you will remember Mr. Secretary with wine and letters, and also Mr. Hennage. The King comes not to Dover at this time. There shall be both burgesses and knights of the shire for Calais. Give credence to Goodall, and keep secret what he tells you. London, 13 May. Hol., p. 1. Add.

Letters 1536. 13 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 221. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge, 113. Burnet, vi. 167. 864. Earl of Northumberland (age 34) to Cromwell.

I perceive by Raynold Carnaby that there is supposed a pre-contract between the Queen (age 35) and me; "whereupon I was not only heretofore examined upon my oath before the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, but also received the blessed sacrament upon the same before the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63) and other the King's highness' council learned in the spiritual law, assuring you, Mr. Secretary, by the said oath and blessed body, which afore I received and hereafter intend to receive, that the same may be to my damnation if ever there were any contract or promise of marriage between her and me." Newington Green, 13 May 28 Henry VIII. Signed. Mutilated. Add.

Letters 1536. 14 May 1536. Add. MS. 25,114, f. 160. B. M. 873. Cromwell to Gardiner and Wallop.

The King has deferred answering their letters sent by Salisbury till the arrival of the bailly of Troyes. Has to inform them, however, of a most detestable scheme, happily discovered and notoriously known to all men. They may have heard the rumour of it. Will express to them, however, some part of the coming out, and of the King's proceeding. The Queen's (age 35) incontinent living was so rank and common that the ladies of her privy chamber could not conceal it. It came to the ears of some of the Council, who told his Majesty, although with great fear, as the case enforced. Certain persons of the privy chamber and others of her side were examined, and the matter appeared so evident that, besides that crime, "there brake out a certain conspiracy of the King's death, which extended so far that all we that had the examination of it quaked at the danger his Grace was in, and on our knees gave him (God ?) laud and praise that he had preserved him so long from it." Certain men were committed to the Tower, viz., Marks (age 24) and Norris (age 54) and the Queen's [her brother] brother (age 33); then she herself was apprehended and committed to the same place; after her Sir Francis Weston (age 25) and Thomas Brereton [A mistake for William?]. Norris, Weston, Brereton, and Marks are already condemned to death, having been arraigned at Westminster on Friday last. The Queen and her brother are to be arraigned tomorrow, and will undoubtedly go the same way. "I write no particularities; the things be so abominable that I think the like was never heard. Gardiner will receive £200 of the £300 that were out amongst these men, notwithstanding great suit hath been made for the whole; which though the King's highness might give in this case, yet his Majesty doth not forget your service; and the third £100 is bestowed of the Vicar of Hell (age 46), upon [whom]1 though it be some charge unto you, his Highness trusteth ye will think it well bestowed." From the Rolls in haste, 14 May.

P.S.—Wallop will not be forgotten, though Cromwell cannot tell at present how much he is to have. The King is highly pleased with the services of both. Signed.

Pp. 3. In Wriothesley's hand. Add. Endd.

Note 1. This word seems to be omitted. The despatch must have been hurriedly written, and two or three verbal errors have been overlooked.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. R. O. 876. Trial of Anne Boleyn (age 35) and [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 33).

Record of pleas held at the Tower of London before [her uncle] Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), treasurer and Earl marshal, lord high steward, citing:—

1. Patent appointing the said Duke steward of England hac vice for the trial of queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.

2. Mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thos. Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex, to return all indictments found against queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

3. Similar mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners for Kent. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

4. Mandate to Sir William Kyngestone, constable of the Tower, to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) before the Lord High Steward when required. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

5. The Lord High Steward issued his precept, 13 May, to Sir John Baldewyn and his fellows in Middlesex, to return the indictments at the Tower before him on Monday, 15 May, and a similar precept to Sir J. Baldewyn, Luke, and his fellows in Kent; a third precept to the constable of the Tower to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) that day before him; and a fourth to Ralph Felmyngham, serjeant-at-arms, to summon such and so many lords of the kingdom, peers of the said queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33), by whom the truth may appear.

6. Pleas held before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), steward of England, at the Tower, on Monday, 15 May 28 Henry VIII.

The justices bring in the indictments for Middlesex and Kent, Sir William Kingston (age 60) produces the prisoners, and Ralph Felmyngham declares that he has summoned the peers. Proclamation being then made, the peers answer to their names; viz., Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter, William Earl of Arundel, John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 34), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Edward Earl of Derby (age 27), Henry Earl of Worcester, Thomas Earl of Rutland (age 44), Rob. Earl of Sussex, George Earl of Huntingdon, John lord Audeley, Thos. lord La Ware, Henry lord Mountague, Henry lord Morley, Thos. lord Dacre, George lord Cobham, Henry lord Maltravers, Edward lord Powes, Thos. lord Mount Egle, Edward lord Clynton, William lord Sandes, Andrew lord Wyndesore, Thos. lord Wentworth, Thos. lord Burgh, and John lord Mordaunt.

7. Indictment found at Westminster on Wednesday next after three weeks of Easter, 28 Henry VIII.1 before Sir John Baldwin, &c., by the oaths of Giles Heron, Roger More, Richard Awnsham, Thos. Byllyngton, Gregory Lovell, Jo. Worsop, William Goddard, William Blakwall, Jo. Wylford, William Berd, Henry Hubbylthorn, William Hunyng, Rob. Walys, John England, Henry Lodysman, and John Averey; who present that whereas queen Anne has been the wife of Henry VIII. for three years and more, she, despising her marriage, and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust, did falsely and traitorously procure by base conversations and kisses, touchings, gifts, and other infamous incitations, divers of the King's daily and familiar servants to be her adulterers and concubines, so that several of the King's servants yielded to her vile provocations; viz., on 6th Oct. 25 Henry VIII., at Westminster, and divers days before and after, she procured, by sweet words, kisses, touches, and otherwise, Henry Noreys, of Westminster, gentle man of the privy chamber, to violate her, by reason whereof he did so at Westminster on the 12th Oct. 25 Henry VIII.; and they had illicit intercourse at various other times, both before and after, sometimes by his procurement, and sometimes by that of the Queen. Also the Queen, 2 Nov. 27 Henry VIII. and several times before and after, at Westminster, procured and incited her own natural brother, George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, alluring him with her tongue in the said George's mouth, and the said George's tongue in hers, and also with kisses, presents, and jewels; whereby he, despising the commands of God, and all human laws, 5 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., violated and carnally knew the said Queen, his own sister, at Westminster; which he also did on divers other days before and after at the same place, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 3 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and after, at Westminster, procured one William Bryerton, late of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so on 8 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, in the parish of Lytel Hampton, and on several other days before and after, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 8 May 26 Henry VIII., and at other times before and since, procured Sir Fras. Weston, of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, &c., whereby he did so on the 20 May, &c. Also the Queen, 12 April 26 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, at Westminster, procured Mark Smeton (age 24), groom of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so at Westminster, 26 April 27 Henry VIII.

Moreover, the said Lord Rochford (age 33), Norreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24), being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, could not endure any of them to converse with any other woman, without showing great displeasure; and on the 27 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., and other days before and after, at Westminster, she gave them great gifts to encourage them in their crimes. And further the said Queen and these other traitors, 31 Oct. 27 Henry VIII., at Westminster, conspired the death and destruction of the King, the Queen often saying she would marry one of them as soon as the King died, and affirming that she would never love the King in her heart. And the King having a short time since become aware of the said abominable crimes and treasons against himself, took such inward displeasure and heaviness, especially from his said Queen's malice and adultery, that certain harms and perils have befallen his royal body.

And thus the said Queen and the other traitors aforesaid have committed their treasons in contempt of the Crown, and of the issue and heirs of the said King and Queen.

8. Record of indictment and process before Baldewyn, Luke, and others, in co. Kent.

The indictment found at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May 28 Henry VIII., is precisely similar in character to the Middlesex indictment, except as regards times and places; viz., that the Queen at Estgrenewyche, 12 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, allured one Henry Noreys, late of Est Grenewyche, to violate her, whereby he did so on the 19 Nov., &c.; that on 22 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers other days, at Eltham, she allured George Boleyn, Lord Rochford (age 33), &c., whereby he did so, 29 Dec., &c.; that on the 16 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers, &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured one William Bryerton, late of Est Grenewyche, &c., whereby he did so, 27 Nov., &c.; that on the 6 June 26 Henry VIII., &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Sir Fras. Weston, &c., whereby he did so, 20 June, &c.; that on the 13 May 26 Henry VIII. &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Mark Smeton (age 24), &c., whereby he did so, 19 May 26 Henry VIII.

And further that the said Boleyn, &c. grew jealous of each other; and the Queen, to encourage them, at Eltham, 31 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers times before and since, made them presents, &c.; that the Queen and the others, 8 Jan. 27 Henry VIII., conspired the King's death, &c., and that she promised to marry one of the traitors whenever the King was dead, affirming she would never love him, &c.

And afterwards, Monday, 15 May, queen Anne comes to the bar before the Lord High Steward in the Tower, in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), pleads not guilty, and puts herself on her peers; whereupon the said Duke of Suffolk (age 52), marquis of Exeter, and other peers, are charged by the High Steward to say the truth; and being examined from the lowest peer to the highest, each of them severally saith that she is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then, at the King's command, to the Green within the Tower, and there to be burned or beheaded as shall please the King.

The same day, Lord Rochford (age 33) is brought before the High Steward in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), and pleads not guilty. The peers are charged, with the exception of the Earl of Northumberland (age 34), who was suddenly taken ill, and each of them severally saith that he is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then drawn through the city of London, to the gallows at Tyburn, &c., as usual in high treason.

R. O. 2. Originals of the above indictments, commission to the Lord High Steward, mandates and precept, with the original panel of peers. Several of these documents are a good deal injured.

Note 1. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of the Pub. Records, App. ii. 243. The whole of the proceedings are printed by Mr. Hamilton in the Appendix to Vol. I. of Wriothesley's Chronicle.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. 908. On the 15th the said Concubine and her [her brother] brother (age 33) were condemned of treason by all the principal lords of England, and the [her uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63) pronounced sentence. I am told the [her father] Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) was quite as ready to assist at the judgment as he had done at the condemnation of the other four. Neither the putain (age 35) nor her brother (age 33) was brought to Westminster like the other criminals. They were condemned within the Tower, but the thing was not done secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present. What she was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris (age 54) to marry after the King's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted to mean that she had poisoned the late Queen and intrigued to do the same to the Princess. These things she totally denied, and gave to each a plausible answer. Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston (age 25), as she had often done to other young gentlemen. She was also charged, and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the King and his dress, and that she showed in various ways she did not love the King but was tired of him. Her brother was charged with having cohabited with her by presumption, because he had been once found a long time with her, and with certain other little follies. To all he replied so well that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted, especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.

I must not omit, that among other things charged against him as a crime was, that his sister (age 35) had told his wife (age 31) that the King "nestoit habile en cas de soy copuler avec femme, et quil navoit ne vertu ne puissance1." This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with a warning not to repeat it. But he immediately declared the matter, in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the King's issue. He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question whether his sister's daughter was the King's child. To which he made no reply. They were judged separately, and did not see each other. The Concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which was to be burnt or beheaded at the King's pleasure, she preserved her composure, saying that she held herself "pour toute saluee de la mort2," and that what she regretted most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the King, were to die for her. She only asked a short space for shrift (pour disposer sa conscience3). Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death. He only begged the King that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid out of his goods.

Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the putain, there are some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and people speak variously of the King; and it will not pacify the world when it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Mrs. Jane Semel (age 27). Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the King, having received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the arrest of the putain; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies, sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river. Most part of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as showing his delight at getting rid of a "maigre vieille et mechante bague4," with hope of change, which is a thing specially agreeable to this King. He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the Bishop of Carlisle, and showed an extravagant joy, as the said Bishop came to tell me next morning, who reported, moreover, that the King had said to him, among other things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him; and, so saying, the King drew from his bosom a little book written in his own hand, but the Bishop did not read the contents. It may have been certain ballads that the King has composed, at which the putain and her brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great crime.

Note 1. "was not skilful in case of copulating with a woman, and that he had neither virtue nor power".

Note 2. "for every death salute".

Note 3. to dispose of one's conscience.

Note 4. skinny old nasty ring

Note 5. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

On 15 May 1536 Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London [Map].

[her uncle] Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl Arundel (age 60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl Arundel (age 24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).

Edward Powers Lord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother [her brother] George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. Hannaert has written to Granvelle on the 9th that he had just heard that the king of England's Concubine (age 35) had been surprised in bed with the King's organist (age 24). If this be so, as it is very probable that God has permitted it after her damnable life, we think the King will be more inclined to treat, especially as regards our cousin; but you must use great dexterity lest the King intend a marriage in France, and that he should rather choose one of his own subjects, either the one with whom he is in love or some other. We trust that if there be anything in it you will let us know with diligence. We send letters of credence for you for the dukes of Richmond, Norfolk, and Suffolk, and also for Cromwell, such as you will see by the copies. Pontremulo, 15 May 1536.

P.S.—Since the above was written your man George has arrived, who confirms the news touching the King's Concubine (age 35), and, as we suppose that the King will put her and her accomplices to death and take another wife, as he is of amorous complexion and always desires to have a male child, and as on the side of France they will not fail to offer him a match, you will suggest, when you can, to him or Cromwell, a marriage with the Infanta of Portugal, daughter of our sister the queen of France, who has 400,000 ducats dowry by testament. Another marriage might be arranged for the Infant Don Loys of Portugal, our brother-in-law, with the princess of England. You must point out to them that these matches would be very expedient, both to remove past scruples and to promote strict amity between us, him, and Portugal, and would be very advantageous to England in case the King should have a male child by this marriage, as he may reasonably hope from the youth and bringing up of the Infanta. If you see the King not inclined to these marriages you might propose one between the King and our niece, the duchess dowager of Milan, a beautiful young lady, well brought up and with a good dowry; treating at the same time of the other marriage between Don Loys and our cousin. But we should greatly prefer the former match with the Infanta, for the good of both, and in order to be able to dispose of our niece of Milan otherwise. Bersel, 15 May 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 284. B. M. 1043. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

The prayers of the late Queen of England and the Holy Martyrs have prevailed. The King's mistress (deceased) had six lovers, one being her own [her brother] brother (deceased). Another, a musician [Mark Smeaton (deceased)], seeing that he was less favoured, discovered the fact to the King, first asking for pardon and his life. Now they are all taken it is found to be true. Her [her father] father (age 59), who was innocent, approved her condemnation. She was sentenced, first to be degraded from being Queen, then beheaded and burnt, seeing the others suffer the same death, with the exception of the one who revealed the crime. It was proved at the trial that she had behaved in this way before the conception of the child which the King thought to be his. It is intended to declare the child not to be the King's. Images have been restored and purgatory is preached again.

The cardinal of Burgos told him that a saint, who was martyred at the beginning of her tyrannical exaltation, prophesied that Anne (deceased) would be burnt to death.

It is said that the process against her states that she poisoned the Queen. The King is enamoured of another lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)]. Rome, 2 June 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 06 May 1536. 808. Anne Boleyn (age 35) to Henry VIII.1

"Your Grace's displeasure and my imprisonment are things so strange unto me as what to write or what to excuse I am altogether ignorant. Whereas you sent unto me, willing me to confess a truth and so to obtain your favour, by such an one whom you know to be my ancient professed enemy, I no sooner received this message by him than I rightly conceived your meaning; and if, as you say, confessing a truth indeed may procure my safety, I shall with all willingness and duty perform your command." But do not imagine that your poor wife will ever confess a fault which she never even imagined. Never had prince a more dutiful wife than you have in Anne Boleyn, "with which name and place I could willingly have contented myself if God and your Grace's pleasure had so been pleased." Nor did I ever so far forget myself in my exaltation but that I always looked for such an alteration as now; my preferment being only grounded on your Grace's fancy. You chose me from a low estate, and I beg you not to let an unworthy stain of disloyalty blot me and the infant Princess your daughter. Let me have a lawful trial, and let not my enemies be my judges. Let it be an open trial, I fear no open shames, and you will see my innocency cleared or my guilt openly proved; in which case you are at liberty both to punish me as an unfaithful wife, and to follow your affection, already settled on that party for whose sake I am now as I am, "whose name I could somewhile since have pointed unto, your Grace being not ignorant of my suspicion therein." But if you have already determined that my death and an infamous slander will bring you the enjoyment of your desired happiness, then I pray God he will pardon your great sin, and my enemies, the instruments thereof. My innocence will be known at the Day of Judgment. My last request is that I alone may bear the burden of your displeasure, and not those poor gentlemen, who, I understand, are likewise imprisoned for my sake. "If ever I have found favor in your sight, if ever the name of Anne Boleyn has been pleasing in your ears, let me obtain this request, and so I will leave to trouble your Grace any further."From my doleful prison in the Tower, 6 May,

In an Elizabethan hand. Pp. 2, mutilated.

Note 1. That this letter was not really either written or composed by Anne Boleyn, the handwriting and the style alike indicate beyond any reasonable doubt. It does, therefore, beg the question how did become added the the Calendar Rolls?

Letters 1536. 10 May 1536. Add. MS. 8715, f. 248b. B. M. 838. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to Mons. Ambrogio.

News came yesterday from England that the King had caused to be arrested the Queen (age 35), her father, mother, [her brother] brother (age 33), and an organist (age 24) with whom she had been too intimate. If it be as is reported, and as the cardinal Du Bellay has given him to understand, it is a great judgment of God. Hears that that King has so bound himself to this king (Francis), that he hopes, if it is so, that the Pope will regain him by means of these people (the French), because Madame Madalena ought reasonably to be given to him. The King is going seven leagues hence, but intends to return. The ambassadors are staying by order of the Grand Master.

Ital., p. 1. Modern copy. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio. Da Suoyeu, li 10 Maggio 1536.

ii. Extract from the original letter in the Vatican. Dated Suryeu le Contal (Sury le Comtat), 10 May 1536.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. Item, on Munday,c the 15th of May, 1536, there was arreigned within the Tower of London [Map] Queene Anne (age 35),d for treason againste the Kinges owne person, and there was a great scaffold made in the Kinges Hall within the Tower of London [Map], and there were made benches and seates for the lordes, my [her uncle] Lord of Northfolke (age 63) sittinge under the clothe of estate, representinge there the Kinges person as Highe Steward of Englande and uncle to the Queene, he holdinge a longe white staffe in his hande, and the Earle of Surrey (age 20) his sonne and heire, sittinge at his feete before him holdinge the golden staffe for the Earle Marshall of Englande, which sayde office the saide duke had in his handes; the Lord Awdley Chauncellour of England (age 48), sittinge on his right hande, and the Duke of Suffolke on his left hande, with other marqueses, earles, and lordes, everie one after their degrees.

Note c. Stow's account seems to hare been taken from this, with considerable verbal differences and some omissions.

Note d. There was no precedent for the trial of a Queen for treason, so Henry determined that she should be arraigned before a commission of Lords, as had been practised in the case of the Duke of Buckingham.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 May 1536. And first the Kinges commission was redd, and then the Constable of the Tower (age 60)e and the Lieutenant (age 56) brought forthe the Queene (age 35) to the barre, where was made a chaire for her to sitt downe in, and then her indictment was redd afore her,g whereunto she made so wise and discreet aunsweres to all thinges layde against her, excusinge herselfe with her wordes so clearlie, as thoughe she had never bene faultie to the same,a and at length putt her to the triall of the Peeres of the Realme, and then were 26 of the greatest peeres there present chosen to passe on her, the Duke of Suffolke beinge highest, and, after they had communed together, the yongest lorde of the saide inquest was called first to give verdict, who sayde guiltie, and so everie lorde and earle after their degrees sayde guiltie to the last and so condemned her. And then the [her uncle] Duke of Northfolke (age 63) gave this sentence on her, sayinge: Because thou haste offended our Sovereigne the Kinges grace, in committinge treason against his person, and here attaynted of the same,' the lawe of the realme is this, that thou haste deserved death, and thy judgment is this: That thow shalt be brent here within the Tower of London on the Greene [Map], els to have thy head smitten of as the Kinges pleasure shal be further knowne of the same; and so she was brought to warde agayne, and two ladies wayted on her, which came in with her at the first, and wayted still on her, whose names were the Ladie Kingstone (age 60) and the [her mother] Ladie Boleyn (age 56), her aunte.

Note e. Sir William Kingston (age 60).

Note f. Sir Edmond Walsingham (age 56).

Note g. Her indictment, which comprised six sereral charges, is preserred in the Public Record Office, with the subsequent proceedings thereon.

Note a. Upon her examination she positively denied she had ever been false to the King; but, being told that Norris, Weston, Brereton, and Smeton had accused her, she said she ought not to conceal certain things which had passed between her and them. See Burnet, tom, i. pp. 191, 280, &c.

Excerpta Historica Page 260. 16 May 1536. Translation Of A Letter From A Portuguese Gentleman To A Friend In Lisbon, Describing The Execution Of Anne Boleyn (age 35), [her brother] Lord Rochford (age 33), Brereton, Norris (age 54), Smeton (age 24), And Weston (age 25).

The following extremely interesting Letter, which has been translated and obligingly communicated by Viscount Strangford, from the original in the Cartorio of the Monastery of Alcobaja, in Portugal, conveys an account of the execution of Anne Boleyn and her presumed accomplices, by, probably, an eye-witness.

Several letters from Sir William Kingston (age 60), the Lieutenant of the Tower, to Secretary Cromwell (age 51), have been printed1, which afford minute information on the conduct of the unfortunate Queen, from the time of her committal to the Tower until the day before her execution, together with notices of Lord Rochford, whose request to receive the sacrament was thus alluded to:-

"I have told my Lord of Rochford," says Kingston, on the 16th of May, "that he be in readiness to-morrow to suffer execution, and so he accepts it very well, and will do his best to be ready, notwithstanding he would have received his rights [i.e. the sacrament] which hath not been used and in especial here."2

From the same letter it is manifest that the Queen still entertained hopes of mercy, as Sir William Kingston adds — "Yet this day at dinner the Queen said that she should go to Antwerp, and is in hope of life." Her desire to go to Antwerp may be ascribed to its being the residence of many persons of the reformed religion, to one of whom she had rendered some service.3

Note 1. Ellis's Original Letters, First Series, vol. ii. p. 52 — 64.

Note 2. Ibid. p. 63.

Note 3. Ibid. p. 46.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. And the same day, in the after-noone, at a solemne court kept at Lambeth by the Lord Archbishoppe of Canterburie (age 46) and the doctors of the lawe, the King was divorced from his wife Queene Anne (age 35), and there at the same cowrte was a privie contract approved that she had made to the Earle of Northumberlande (age 34) afore the Kings tyme; and so she was discharged, and was never lawfull Queene of England, and there it was approved the same.

Letters 1536. 17 May [1536]. Wilkins, iii. 803. 896. Anne Boleyn (age 35).

Sentence pronounced by the archbishop of Canterbury of the nullity of the marriage between the King and Anne Boleyn (age 35), in the presence of Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), and others, at Lambeth, 17 May 1536.

Memorandum.—This was sealed on the 10th June, and subscribed by both Houses of Convocation on the 28th.

Letters 1536. 18 May. Vienna Archives. 901. Chapuys to Antoine Perrenot.

As I hear that letters from England are opened at Calais, you will have more trouble in deciphering several things which but for this might be written clear. I have no news to add to what I write to His Majesty, except to tell you something of the quality of the King's new lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)], which the Emperor and Granvelle would perhaps like to hear. She is sister of one Edward Semel (age 36), "qua este a sa majesty," of middle stature and no great beauty, so fair that one would call her rather pale than otherwise. She is over twnty-five years old. I leave you to judge whether, being English and having long frequented the Court, "si elle ne tiendroit pas a conscience de navoir pourveu et prevenu de savoir que cest de faire nopces1." Perhaps this King will only be too glad to be so far relieved from trouble. Also, according to the account given of him by the Concubine (age 35), he has neither vigour nor virtue; and besides he may make a condition in the marriage that she be a virgin, and when he has a mind to divorce her he will find enough of witnesses. The said Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] is not a woman of great wit, but she may have good understanding (un bel enigm, qu. engin?). It is said she inclines to be proud and haughty. She bears great love and reverence to the Princess. I know not if honors will make her change hereafter. The news you wrote on the 22nd ult. touching Haurain2 and the Sophi are very good, and I pray God your wish may be accomplished towards those who are in grief. London, 18 May 1536.Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Note 1. if she would not be aware of not having provided and warned to know that it is to make a wedding

Note 2. Ibrahim Pacha?

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 908. The joy shown by this people every day not only at the ruin of the Concubine (age 35) but at the hope of the Princess' restoration, is inconceivable, but as yet the King shows no great disposition towards the latter; indeed he has twice shown himself obstinate when spoken to on the subject by his Council. I hear that, even before the arrest of the Concubine, the King, speaking with Mistress Jane Semel (age 27) of their future marriage, the latter suggested that the Princess should be replaced in her former position; and the King told her she was a fool, and ought to solicit the advancement of the children they would have between them, and not any others. She replied that in asking for the restoration of the Princess she conceived she was seeking the rest and tranquillity of the King, herself, her future children, and the whole realm; for, without that, neither your Majesty nor this people would ever be content. Will endeavour by all means to make her continue in this vein. Hopes also to go and speak with the King within three days, and with those of the Council in general and particular. Will also get some of the lords spoken with who have been called hither for the Parliament to commence on the 8th proximo. Thinks the Concubine's little bastard will be excluded from the succession, and that the King will get himself requested by Parliament to marry. To cover the affection he has for the said Semel (age 27) he has lodged her seven miles hence in the house of the grand esquire, and says publicly that he has no desire in the world to get married again unless he is constrained by his subjects to do so. Several have already told me, and sent to say that, if it cost them their lives, when Parliament meets they will urge the cause of the Princess to the utmost (il pourteront jusques au boult laffaire de lad. princesse).

The very evening the Concubine (age 35) was brought to the Tower, when the [her illegitimate step-son] Duke of Richmond (age 16) went to say Good night to his father, and ask his blessing after the English custom, the King began to weep, saying that he and his sister, meaning the Princess, were greatly bound to God for having escaped the hands of that accursed whore, who had determined to poison them; from which it is clear that the King knew something about it.

Letters 1536. 19 May [1536]. Vienna Archives. 909. Chapuys to Granvelle.

Refers him for the news to his letter to the Emperor. Hopes to make amends for his present brevity by writing to him the history of the conduct of this English Messalina or Agrippina during her imprisonment. The woman who has her in charge will not conceal anything from Chapuys. She has already sent to tell him some news, among others that the said Messalina could not imagine that anyone but Chapuys had got her in disgrace with the King, for ever since he came to Court the King has regarded her with an evil eye. It is well for Chapuys she did not escape, because with her humanity she would have given him to the dogs to eat. There are still two English gentlemen1 detained on her account, and it is suspected that there will be many more, because the King has said he believed that more than 100 had to do with her. You never saw prince nor man who made greater show of his horns or bore them more pleasantly. I leave you to imagine the cause.

Owing to my illness, and to await the last act of the story, besides that George must have informed you what was to follow, I have not hastened to write sooner. London, 18 May 1536.

Yesterday the archbishop of Canterbury declared by sentence that the Concubine's daughter was the bastard of Mr. Norris (deceased), and not the King's daughter. This already removes an obstacle in the way of the Princess, who, I hope, whatever difficulty the King has made hitherto, will be declared true heiress of the kingdom, not as born of lawful marriage, but as legitimate propter bonam fidem parentum. Others tell me that the said Archbishop had pronounced the marriage of the King and Concubine (age 35) invalid on account of the King having had connection with her [her sister] sister (age 37), and that, as both parties knew of this, the good faith of the parents cannot make the said bastard legitimate. Although the matter is not much to be relied on, many think that most of the new bishops "ont davoir leur Sainct Marten," because, having persuaded the Concubine (age 35) that she had no need to confess, she grew more audacious in vice; and, moreover, they persuaded her that according to the said sect it was lawful to seek aid elsewhere, even from her own relations, when her husband was not capable of satisfying her. The Concubine (age 35), before her marriage with the King, said, to increase his love, that there was a prophecy that about this time a Queen of England would be burnt, but, to please the King, she did not care. After her marriage she boasted that the previous events mentioned in the prophecy had already been accomplished, and yet she was not condemned. But they might well have said to her, as was said to Cæsar, "the Ides have come, but not gone." Has no doubt that if the Emperor intends to negociate with the English he will send some one to give greater weight to the affair, according to the letters of his Majesty; and if the said personage could negociate before the conclusion of Parliament, it would be very advantageous both for the interests of the Princess and for the rest. If he come about St. John's Day, he will probably assist at the new marriage and coronation, in which the King intends to do wonders. He has already given orders to build a vessel like the "Busentaure de Venice," to carry the lady from Greenwich hither. London, 19 May. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Note 1. The mutilations in the original are supplied from Burnet. Compare also Herbert, who abridges.

Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

Letters 1536. 20 May 1536. Vienna Archives. 926. Chapuys to Granvelle.

Wrote yesterday very fully to the Emperor and Granvelle. Has just been informed, the bearer of this having already mounted, that Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] came secretly by river this morning to the King's lodging, and that the promise and betrothal (desponsacion) was made at 9 o'clock. The King means it to be kept secret till Whitsuntide; but everybody begins already to murmur by suspicion, and several affirm that long before the death of the other (deceased) there was some arrangement which sounds ill in the ears of the people; who will certainly be displeased at what has been told me, if it be true, viz., that yesterday the King, immediately on receiving news of the decapitation of the putain (deceased) entered his barge and went to the said Semel (age 27), whom he has lodged a mile from him, in a house by the river. Cannot write to the Emperor for the haste of the courier, but will send particulars to him shortly. London, 20 May 1536.Fr., from a modern copy, p. 1.

Letters 1536. 23 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 276. B. M. 947. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Received today her letter of 15 April. Supposes that the Empress has since received his letters with news of the Princess's health. No letters have arrived from Eustace Chapuis, but the queen of Hungary writes that the king of England has imprisoned his mistress (deceased) in the Tower. Other letters state that in order to have a son who might be attributed to the King, she committed adultery with a singer (deceased) who taught her to play on instruments. Others say it was with her [her brother] brother (deceased). The King has sent them to the Tower with her father, mother, and other relations. Expresses his joy at her fall, which will ensure the safety of the Princess.

Remembers that the cardinal of Burgos told him he had heard, when ambassador in England, that it was foretold that this Ana would be burnt to death.

It is said that the king has taken from "Maestro Cronvel" the office by which he did so much harm to the monasteries; and that he has chosen two Catholic bishops of good life, by whom he wishes to be governed.

The bull for the convocation of the Council has been concluded by the Consistory, and will be intimated soon. The Pope has given up his journey to Bologna. The card. of Santa Cruz is going to Hungary to negotiate between the king of the Romans and the Vayvode. Rome, 23 May 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 44) and Jane Seymour (age 27) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map] by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 53). She by marriage Queen Consort England. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41) and Margaret Dymoke (age 36) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Jane Seymour (age 27).

Jun 1536. The Second Succession Act 1536 28 Hen 8 c7 annulled Henry VIII's marriages to Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (deceased), and removed Princesses [her former step-daughter] Mary (age 20) and [her daughter] Elizabeth (age 2) from the Succession, declaring them both illegitimate.

Letters 1536. 01 Jun 1536. Corpus Reform. iii., 90. 1033. Melancthon to John Agricola Islebiensis.

She (Anne Boleyn (deceased)) is said to have had connexion with her own [her brother] brother (deceased) and others, and to have conspired the death of the King and another prince [[her illegitimate step-son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16)]. Her brother (deceased) and [her father] father (age 59) have been arrested with her, as well as some bishops who were cognisant of her plans. See how dreadfully this calamity will dishonour the King. Such evil has the divorce brought. The daughter of the former Queen has been restored to her former dignity. What a great change has suddenly been made. Lat.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. Vienna Archives. 1069. Chapuys to Charles V.

On the 24th of this month, the Eve of Ascension Day, immediately on the arrival of the courier who was despatched to Pontremolo, Cromwell sent me the packet which your Majesty had forwarded to that place, begging that I would impart my news to him without delay. Shortly afterwards he sent to say that he would come and see me, but as, owing to his being so much occupied, he had failed in a like promise two days before, I, in order to put him under greater obligation, went to see him. On my arrival he told me that he had been to Court that morning, only to obtain audience for me, which the King had granted for next day. The said courier had brought letters from their ambassador, giving such news of the sincere goodwill your Majesty bore the King that Cromwell said he was better pleased than if he had gained 100,000 cr.; and he was sure I should find the King otherwise inclined than he had been before, both as regards the principal matter and also as to myself in particular, for I had greatly increased the affection he bore me on account of certain letters I had lately written to him, of which I send a copy to Grandvelle; also that by the death of the Concubine (deceased) matters would be more easily arranged now than they had been. He said it was he who had discovered and followed up the affair of the Concubine (deceased), in which he had taken a great deal of trouble, and that, owing to the displeasure and anger he had incurred upon the reply given to me by the King on the third day of Easter, he had set himself to arrange the plot (a fantasier et conspirer led. affaire), and one of the things which had roused his suspicion and made him enquire into the matter was a prognostic made in Flanders threatening the King with a conspiracy of those who were nearest his person. On this he praised greatly the sense, wit, and courage of the said Concubine (deceased) and of her [her brother] brother (deceased). And to declare to me further the hope of good success, he informed me in great confidence that the King, his master, knowing the desire and affection of all his people, had determined in this coming Parliament to declare the [her former step-daughter] Princess (age 20) his heir; but by what he said afterwards, which I shall partly report, he left me in much greater doubt than before. For, besides requesting me in speaking to the King not to make any request on the Princess's behalf, and, if she were mentioned, not to speak of her as Princess, he also told me it was above all things necessary the Princess should write a letter to her father according to a draft that Cromwell had drawn up in the most honorable and reasonable form that could be, and that to solicit the Princess to do this he had, by the King's command, sent to her a very confidential lady; but, in any case, to avoid scruple, the King wished I would write to her, and send her one of my principal servants to persuade her to make no difficulty about writing the said letter, which he would have translated from English into Latin, that I might see that it was quite honorable. This translation he gave me next day as I left the Court; and since reading it I have not found the said Cromwell, to tell him my opinion of it, although I begged him the day before, when he spoke about it, to take care that it did not contain anything which could directly or indirectly touch her right, or the honor either of herself or of the late Queen, her mother, nor yet her conscience; otherwise she would not consent thereto for all the gold in the world, and the King's indignation against her would only be increased; and that he whom the said Princess regarded as almost a father, ought to take good care that the whole was free from danger and scruple. This, he said, he had done, as I should see by the tenor of the letter, of which I send your Majesty the very translation he delivered to me. Besides the evidence that letter contains that there is some bird catching attempted (quy y a de la traynee et pipe), this has been confirmed to me from a good quarter, and I have warned the Princess. I mean to get out of it (de me demesler) and dissemble the affair as much as I can, without speaking or writing of it till I have understood the intention of those here on the principal article of the negotiations. I shall excuse myself for not having sent to the Princess by saying that the messenger (icelluy) to whom I had committed the translation had lost it in returning from Court. When I have learned their intention I shall not fail to make the necessary remonstrances as to the unreasonableness of the letter, and seek all means possible to moderate such rigour; nevertheless your Majesty will be pleased to instruct me what to say and do in case the King insist on having the letter entirely written by the Princess, and that otherwise he means to punish her, as the lady sent by the King to the Princess has given a servant of mine to understand.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. The night before Anne (deceased) was beheaded she talked and jested, saying, among other things, that those bragging, clever persons who had invented an unheard-of name for the good Queen would not find it hard to invent one for her, for they would call her "la Royne Anne sans teste;" and then she laughed heartily, though she knew she must die the next day. She said, the day before she was executed, and when they came to lead her to the scaffold, that she did not consider that she was condemned by Divine judgment, except for having been the cause of the ill-treatment of the Princess, and for having conspired her death.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 48) and Anne of Cleves (age 24) were married by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 50) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Anne of Cleves (age 24) was crowned Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of John La Marck III Duke Cleves and Maria Jülich Berg Duchess Cleves. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 49) and Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 52) and Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters [her former step-daughter] Mary (age 27) and [her daughter] Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 55) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) succeeded VI King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Thomas Wendy (age 46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King's last will and testament, for which he received £100.

Letters and Papers 1533. 10 Apr 1553. 324. Excuse me if I speak of things concerning your service; but I think it can hardly displease you to make an enterprise against this kingdom, considering the enormous injury done to your aunt; for when this cursed Anne has her foot in the stirrup, you may be sure she will do the Queen all the injury she can, and the Princess likewise,—of which the Queen is most afraid. The said Anne has boasted that she will have the said Princess for her lady's maid (demoiselle); but that is only to make her eat humble pie (manger trop), or to marry her to some varlet, which would be an irreparable injury. And the enterprise would be more justifiable to obviate the scandal which will arise from this divorce, and likewise to prevent the kingdom from alienating itself entirely from our Holy Faith and becoming Lutheran; which will shortly come to pass without any remedy, as the King shows them the way, and lends them wings to do it; and the archbishop of Canterbury does still worse. The attempt would be easy; for they have no horse, nor men to lead them, nor have they the heart of the people, which is entirely in favor of you, the Queen, and the good Princess,—I may say not of the mean, but of the higher classes, except Norfolk and two or three others. It will be right that the Pope should call in the secular arm; and meanwhile, in support of the censures already executed, you might forbid negotiations in Spain and Flanders, and so induce the people to rise against the authors of this cursed marriage; and now and then, in order to animate them, it would be right to take up ships, and secretly support the Scots with money, and prevent them treating with this nation for peace. The chief difficulty is that the Most Christian King might do something new against your coasts; which I can hardly believe, seeing how just your quarrel is. For when the King here asked Monpesat whether his master would assist him in such a case, he said he did not know, as it was not expressed in their treaties. And if the Most Christian King wished to do mischief, seeing that the enterprise of this kingdom would be of so short duration, and doubting whether he could do anything of consequence, he would wait the issue; and if this King, who is the right hand of the other, was punished, it would abate his pride. Moreover, as he can do nothing without the Swiss, if they were advertised of the enormity of the case, they would not assist him against your Majesty, especially if you gave them a good pot of wine.

Letters and Papers 1533. Apr 1553. R. O. 423. The Staple Of Calais.

"Demands to be made of the King's behalf of the merchants of the Staple."

1. That they shall pay the King the sums due this day upon all obligations according to the days of payment. 2. That they shall pay ½d. more on each woolfell that they shall load hereafter to Calais, and 13s. 4d. more on every sack. 3. That they shall bring in bullion for every sack according to law, and not henceforth make any exchanges without licence.

On these conditions the King is willing to take their house and lands in Calais and the Marches, and to accept the other offers made in their supplication, and to grant them liberty to ship and to continue their company, and to pay for no more wools and fells than they shall ship.

In Cromwell's hand, p. 1.

ii. Memoranda on the back of the preceding:—

"For to remember the judgment to be prepared for in the King's great matter.

Item, for the despatch of my [her uncle] lord of Norfolk (age 80).

Item, the bill for the succession, and to rest upon the same.

Item, for to devise for the coronation, and to see presendementtes for the same.

Item, to devise for lands for the Queen.

Item, for the establishment of the Dowager."

In Cromwell's hand.

Letters and Papers 1533. 30 May 1553. R. O. 559. Stephen Vaughan to Cromwell.

I am informed that the Queen intends to have a silkwoman to trim and furnish her Grace with such things as she shall wear. If you will recommend my wife to the place you will bind us both. You know what she can do. I suppose no woman can better trim her Grace. Your house at Canbery, this Sunday.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: Right worshipful.

The Martyrdom of the King of Scotland. Le Roy adverti de ce mauvais mesnage envoya par devers Thomas Boullen le marquis d'Orceftre pour luy imposer filéce, et luy faire tres expres commandement de reprendre sa femme en grace, et se départir de proces. Le pavure homme craignant la fureur du Roy, vaincu par les remonstràces du Marquis, et asseuré non seulement par icelles, mais aussi par le dire de sa femme, et par le rapport des premiers et plus grans seigneurs du royaume, que celle fille estoit au Roy et non à autre, il se contenta et la nourit comme fienne, soubs le nom d'Anne Boullen.

The King, informed of this bad marriage, sent Thomas Boullen the Marquis of Dorset to impose his duty on him, and very expressly command him to take back his wife in grace, and to give up the lawsuit. The poor man fearing the fury of the King, defeated by the remonstrances of the Marquis, and assured not only by them, but also by the words of his wife, and by the report of the first and greatest lords of the kingdom, that this daughter was of the King and not anyone else, he was content and nourished her as a mother, under the name of Anne Boullen.

The Martyrdom of the King of Scotland. Depuis ce temps là ceux de la maifon de Boullen devindrent grands courtisens, bien honorez et respectez d'un chacun, à cause du bon visàge le Roy leur portoit. Et entre autres damesde la cour, [her sister] Marie Boullen souer uterine d'icelle Anne citoit lors tant en la bonne grace du Roy qu'en fin il abusa d’elle comme il avoit faite la mere.

Since that time those of the house of Boullen became great courtiers, well honored and respected by everyone, because of the good face the King wore to them. And among other ladies of the court, Marie Boullen, Anne's uterine sister, was then so much in the good grace of the King that in the end he abused her as he had done the mother.

Archaeologia Volume 25 Section VI. Proclamation of [her former husband] Henry the Eighth on his Marriage with Queen Anne Boleyn; in the possession of the Corporation of Norwich: Communicated by Hudson Gurney, Esg. V.P., in a Letter to Henry Ellis (age 54), Esq., F.R.S., Secretary.

Read 29th March, 1832.

Keswick, January 21, 1832.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. [Of] which prophecy neither my lord that declared it, ne I that heard it, understood the effect; although that even then it was a working to be brought to pass. For this cow the king gave as one of his beasts appertaining of antiquity unto his earldom of Richmond, which was his ancient inheritance; this prophecy was after expounded in this wise. This dun cow, because it was the king's beast, betokened the king; and the bull betokened Mistress Anne Boleyn, which was after queen, because that her father, Sir Thomas Boleyn, gave the same beast in his cognisance. So that when the king had married her, the which was then unknown to my lord, or to any other at that time, then was this prophecy thought of all men to be fulfilled. For what a number of priests, both re ligious and secular, lost their heads for offending of such laws as were then made to bring this [marriage] to effect, is not unknown to all the world. Therefore it was judged of all men that this prophecy was then fulfilled when the king and she were joined in marriage. Now, how dark and obscure riddles and prophecies be, you may behold in this same: for before it was brought to pass there was not the wisest prophesier could perfectly discuss it, as it is now come to effect and purpose. Trust therefore, by mine advice, to no kind of dark riddles and prophecies, wherein ye may, as many have been, be deceived, and brought to destruction. And many times the imaginations and travailous business to avoid such dark and strange prophecies, hath been the very occasion to bring the same the sooner to effect and perfection. There fore let men beware to divine or assure them selves to expound any such prophecies, for who so doeth shall first deceive themselves, and, secondly, bring many into error; the experience hath been lately experienced, the more pity. But if men will needs think themselves so wise, to be assured of such blind prophecies, and will work their wills therein, either in avoiding or in fulfilling the same, God send him well to speed, for he may as well, and much more sooner, take damage than avoid the danger thereof! Let prophecies alone, a God's name, apply your vocation, and commit the exposition of such dark riddles and obscure prophecies to God, that dis poseth them as his divine pleasure shall see cause to alter and change all your enterprises and imaginations to nothing, and deceive all your expectations, and cause you to repent your great folly, the which when ye feel the smart, will yourself confess the same to be both great folly and much more madness to trust in any such fantasies. Let God therefore dispose them, who governeth and punisheth according to man's deserts, and not to all men's judgments.

Extracts from The Life of Anne Boleyn. Among the other calumnies with which the memory of the unfortunate Queen Anne Boleyn has been aspersed by the enemies of the Reformation, it has been said "that she had long carried on a criminal intercourse with Sir Thomas Wyatt the poet; who, we are told, had gone so far as to confess to the king that he had debauched her; and had urged this, in the first instance, as an argument to dissuade the king from marrying her." The story requires no refutation; but Wyatt's name having been called in question when Anne Boleyn's conduct was scrutinized, gave the forgers of fabulous history an opportunity of engrafting their libellous inventions on slight circumstances, in order to give them something of the colour of probability. How far there was any foundation for these calumnies will now appear. The following interesting pages were written, it is presumed, by the grandson of the poet, George Wyatt, Esquire, sixth son and heir of Sir Thomas Wyatt the younger, who was beheaded for rebellion in the first year of the reign of Queen Mary. The writer died at the advanced age of eighty, at Boxley in Kent, in the year 1624, and seems to have meditated a complete exposure of such parts of Saunders' Book on the Reformation as came within his own immediate knowledge. He was maternal uncle to Sir Roger Twysden, and in 1623 communicated to him part of his collections. A fragment of the Life of Cardinal Wolsey, by George Cavendish, was in the late Mr. Bindley's library, to which we have already referred, at p. 57 of the present edition; prefixed to which was the following note by Sir Roger Twysden. "I receaved this from my uncle Wyatt, Anno 1623, who beeing yonge had gathered many notes towching this lady, not without an intent to have opposed Saunders." It is remarkable that this fragment from Wolsey's Life has been twice printed as a piece of original and authentic cotemporary history, without suspicion of its being an extract from Cavendish; the first time for private distribution, in 1808, and secondly by Dr. Nott, in his appendix to Wyatt's Poems, in 1816.

The manuscript from which the present very interesting memoir is printed, was purchased at the late Sir Peter Thompson's sale. It is in the hand writing of the Rev. John Lewis, of the Isle of Thanet, the celebrated antiquary. It was printed in 1817 for a few noblemen and gentlemen, but twenty-seven copies only having been taken off, may be considered still to have almost the rarity of a manuscript.

Letters 1536. R. O. St. P. II. 302. 185. Dame Anne Skeffington to Queen Anne Boleyn.

Her husband, Sir William Skeffyngton, died on 31 Dec. Asks her intercession in favor of the petition she will show to Cromwell. She and her children are clearly undone by her husband's service. Dublin. 26 Jan. Hol., p. 1. Add.: To the Queen's most excellent highness. Endd.: Dame Anne Skevyngton, a letter and certain articles.

Archaeologia Volume 23 Section V. Deane. Why, how dyed the others?

George. Mary in a manner confessed all but Mr. Norice, who sayed allmost nothinge at all.

Deane. How do ye know it?

George. Mary I hearde them, and wrote every worde that they spake.

Deane. What sayed the others?

George. The lorde of Ratchforde, after many wordes, to the effecte sayed this. I desyre you that no man wilbe discoraged from the Gospell for my fall. For if I had lyved accordinge to the gospel as I loved it, and spake of it, I had never come to this. Wherfore sayed he Syrs for Gods love, leave not the gospel, but speake lesse and lyve better. For I had rather have one good lyver accordinge to the gospel then ten bablers. And Weston sayed, I had thought to haue lyved in abhominacion yet this twenty or thrittie yeres & then to haue made amendes. I thought little it wold haue come to this: willinge all other to take example at hym. And Markes sayed: Masters I pray you all praye for me, for I haue deserved the deeth. And the Quene sayed: I do not entende to reason my cause, but I committe me to Christ wholy, in whome ys my whole trust, desirynge you all to praye for the Kynges maiestie that he maye longe regne over you, for he ys a veraye noble prince and full gently hath handled me.

Deane. Know ye any thinge of the examinacyon of her?

George. Her brother and she were examined at the towre. I hearde saye he had escaped had it not byn for a Letter. Almost all the lordes that were in the realme were there. And the duke of Northfolke, uncle to them both, he was, as it was told me, in the Kynges place and Judge. It were pittie he shuld be alyve if he shuld judge them against right.

Deane. A marvelouse case, and a great fall.

George. So it was. Now Syr, because that she was a favorer of Gods worde, at the leest wise so taken, I tell you few men wolde beleve that she was so abhominable. As I be saved afore God I cowld not beleve it, afore I hearde them speake at their deeth. For there were that sayed that moch money wold haue byn layed that daye, & that great oddes, that the Lorde Ratchforde shulde haue byn quytte.

Deane. I never hearde so moch before, as that the Duke of Northfolke was judge.

George. So I hearde saye, And that the water ronne in his eyes. I blame hym not though it greved hym.

Calendars. Oct. 14. Sanuto Diaries, v. lvii. p. 243. 816. Carlo Capello to the Signory.

On Friday the 7th instant the King left Greenwich and crossed to Calais. It is said he goes to terminate the divorce, and espouse Marchioness Anne; but one of the doctors who wrote in favour of his Majesty, declares that he will take for wife the daughter of the most Christian King, and give the Marchioness in marriage in France, so as to unite himself with the Pope and satisfy the Emperor; and for this purpose the Bishop of Langres, who had been to the Emperor, came hither. A week ago King Henry sent another ambassador in haste to his Majesty (King Francis?).

The Papal ambassador tells me this interview is not about the divorce, and still less for the marriage of the Marchioness; they will not assume the Pope's office (non si vorano far si stessi Pontifici) but will negotiate matters of extreme importance. He (the Papal ambassador) said, "The Signory would do well to have a secret agent with them, to bear in mind the League of Cambrai." I replied thanking him, but said that the Signory merely employed ambassadors.

A few days ago, on the northern coast of this island, the sea stranded a dead fish of marvellous size, 90 feet long. Sends a letter addressed to Dom. Polydore Vergil "de quì" [in London], together with the engraved likeness of this fish.1

Three weeks since there appeared here a comet, which is still visible, two hours before daybreak, to the eastward, its tail extending towards the south, five yards in length; well nigh in the form of a luminous silver beard. (De qui già xx. giorni, di quì è aparso una Cometa, ch'ancor a pare do hove inanzi giorno in le parte di Oriente, e stende la coda sua, verso mezo dì, di longeza, di hraza 5, in forma qvasi di una lunga barba, e d'arzento splendulo)

On the morrow of the King's departure from Greenwich, the people here declare that the tide flowed for nine hours, the water having nearly reached Greenwich Chapel; a thing never hitherto seen or heard of. The English consider these things prodigies.

Nothing more is known about the affairs of Scotland. King Henry is mustering considerable forces for the Scottish borders, and here every night diligent guard is kept.

The plague increases daily, and makes everybody uneasy.

London, 14th October. Registered by Sanuto 22nd November.

[Italian.]

Note 1. "In 1526, Polydore Vergil published a treatise de Prodigiis (8vo., Lond.), consisting of Dialogues and Attacks upon Divination. This work was reprinted at Basle by Bebelius, in 1531, and again by Hingrim in 1545." See pp. xiii. xiv., Sir Henry Ellis's Preface to "Three Books of Polydore Vergil's English History," printed for the Camden Society, 1844.

Note 2. In date 5 August 1531, the ambassador Falier mentioned the appearance in London of Halley's comet; and of the comet of 1532, a Venetian dictionary of dates, contains the following notice: "From the 23rd September to the 20th November, with a long tail towards the south." (Cronologia del P. Coronelli, p. 509; ed. Venice 1707 )

Extracts from The Life of Anne Boleyn. After so many cross billets of cunning polities, surmounted by the guiding providence of God, after so many trials of her truth, passed through by her wise and virtuous governance, the king having every way made so thorough proof how deep root honour had taken in her bosom, and having found it not to be shaken even by him, this royal and famous prince Henry the Eighth, resolving her matchless perfections meet alone to be joined with his, now at the length concluded forthwith to knit up this marriage, although for certain causes the same was thought more convenient to be performed some what privately and secretly. On the twenty-fifth of January8, therefore, the ceremony was consummate. The king also, shortly after having himself more ascertained, and by more inward trial more assured of her spousal truth, would yet farther testify that his opinion of her, by giving her that highest honour he could give her virtues, in having her solemnly and royally crowned. And thus we see they lived and loved, tokens of increasing love perpetually increasing between them. Her mind brought him forth the rich treasures of love of piety, love of truth, love of learning. Her body yielded him the fruits of marriage, inestimable pledges of her faith and loyal love. And touching the former of these, it is here first not to be forgotten, that of her time (that is during the three years that she was queen) it is found by good observation, that no one suffered for religion, which is the more worthy to be noted for that it could not so be said of any time of the queens after married to the king. And amongst other proofs of her love to religion to be found in others, this here of me is to be added. That shortly after her marriage, divers learned and christianly disposed persons resorting to her, presented her with sundry books of those controversies that then began to be questioned touching religion, and specially, of the authority of the pope and his clergy, and of their doings against kings and states. And amongst other, there happened9 one of these, which, as her manner was, she having read, she had also noted with her nail as of matter worthy the king's knowledge10. The book lying in her window, her maid (of whom hath been spoken) took it up, and as she was reading it, came to speak with her one11 then suitor to her, that after married her; and as they talked he took the book of her, and she withal, called to attend on the queen, forgot it in his hands, and she not returning in some long space, he walked forth with it in his hand, thinking it had been hers. There encountered him soon after a gentleman of the cardinal's of his acquaintance, and after salutations, perceiving the book, requested to see it, and finding what it was, partly by the title, partly by some what he read in it, he borrowed it and showed it to the cardinal. Hereupon the suitor was sent for to the cardinal and examined of the book, and how he came by it, and had like to have come in trouble about it, but that it being found to have pertained to one of the queen's chamber, the cardinal thought better to defer the matter till he had broken it to the king first, in which meantime the suitor delivered the lady what had fallen out, and she also to the queen, who, for her wisdom knowing more what might grow thereupon, without delay went and imparted the matter to the king, and showed him of the points that she had noted with her finger. And she was but newly come from the king, but the cardinal came in with the book in his hands to make com plaint of certain points in it that he knew the king would not like of, and withal to take occasion with him against those that countenanced such books in general, and specially women, and as might be thought with mind to go farther against the queen more directly if he had perceived the king agreeable to his meaning. But the king that somewhat afore distasted the cardinal, as we have showed, finding the notes the queen had made, all turned the more to hasten his ruin, which was also furthered on all sides.

Note 8. A. D. 1532-3.

Note 9. Tyndal's Obedience of a Christian Man.

Note 10. This curious and interesting occurrence, which probably had considerable effect in furthering the progress of the Reformation, is told with more circumstance by Strype, from the manuscripts of Fox. It is so entirely corroborated by what is here said, that I think it incumbent upon me to place it in juxtaposition with Wyatt's narrative.

"Upon the Lady Anne waited a young fair gentlewoman, named Mrs. Gainsford; and in her service was also retained Mr. George Zouch. This gentleman, of a comely sweet person, a Zouch in deed, was a suitor in the way of marriage to the said young lady: and among other love tricks, once he plucked from her a book in English, called Tyndall's Obedience, which the Lady Anne had lent her to read. About which time the Cardinal had given commandment to the prelates, and especially to Dr. Sampson, dean of the king's chapel, that they should have a vigilant eye over all people for such books, that they came not abroad; that so as much as might be, they might not come to the king's reading. But this which he most feared fell out upon this occasion. For Mr. Zouch (I use the words of the MS.) was so ravished with the spirit of God speaking now as well in the heart of the reader, as first it did in the heart of the maker of the book, that he was never well but when he was reading of that book. Mrs. Gainsford wept because she could not get the book from her wooer, and he was as ready to weep to deliver it. But see the providence of God: -Mr. Zouch standing in the chapel before Dr. Sampson, ever reading upon this book; and the dean never having his eye off the book, in the gen tleman's hand, called him to him, and then snatched the book out of his hand, asked his name, and whose man he was. And the book he delivered to the cardinal. In the meantime, the Lady Anne asketh her woman for the book. She on her knees told all the circumstances. The Lady Anne showed herself not sorry nor angry with either of the two. But, said she, ' Well, it shall be the dearest book that ever the dean or cardinal took away. ' The noblewoman goes to the king, and upon her knees she desireth the king's help for her book. Upon the king's token the book was restored. And now bringing the book to him, she besought his grace most tenderly to read it. The king did so, and delighted in the book. For (saith he) this book is for me and all kings to read. And in a little time, by the help of this virtuous lady, by the means aforesaid, had his eyes opened to the truth, to advance God's religion and glory, to abhor the pope's doctrine, his lies, his pomp, and pride, to deliver his subjects out of the Egyptian darkness, the Babylonian bonds that the pope had brought his sub jects under. And so contemning the threats of all the world, the power of princes, rebellions of his subjects at home, and the raging of so many and mighty potentates abroad; set forward a reformation in religion, beginning with the triple crowned head at first, and so came down to the members, bishops, abbots, priors, and such like." - Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. i. p. 112.

Note 11. Mr. George Zouch.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. The king commanded the queen to be re moved out of the court, and sent to another place; and his highness rode in his progress, with Mistress Anne Boleyn in his company, all the grece season5.

Note 5. The season of hunting, when the hart is in grease or full season. Dr. Wordsworth's edition and the more recent manuscripts read - 'all that season'.

Letter X. Anne Boleyn to Cardinal Wolsey. [Fiddes Collections, p. 256.]

My Lord, after my most humble recommendations this shall be to gyve unto your grace as I am most bownd my humble thanks for the gret payn & travelle that your grace doth take in steudyeng by your wys dome and gret dylygens how to bryng to pas honer ably the gretyst welth that is possyble to come to any creator lyving, and in especyall remembryng howe wretchyd and unworthy I am in comparyng to his hyghnes. And for you I do know my selfe never to have deservyd by my desertys that you shuld take this gret payn for me, yet dayly of your goodnes I do perceyve by all my frends, and though that I had nott knowlege by them the dayly proffe of your deds doth declare your words and wrytyng toward me to be trewe; nowe good my Lord your dyscressyon may consyder as yet how lytle it is in my power to recompence you but all onely wyth my good wyl, the whiche I assewer you that after this matter is brought to pas you shall fynd me as I am: bownde in the mean tym to owe you my servysė, and then looke what a thyng in thys woreld I can immagen to do you pleasor in, you shall fynd me the gladyst woman in the woreld to do yt, and next unto the kyngs grace of one thyng I make you full promes to be assewryd to have yt and that is my harty love unfaynydly deweryng my lyf, and beying fully determynd with Godds grace never to change thys porpos, I make an end of thys my reude and trewe meanyd letter, praying ower Lord to send you moche increase of honer with long lyfe. Wrytten with the hand of her that besechys your grace to except this letter as prosydyng from one that is most bownde to be

Your humble and obedient Servante

Anne Boleyn.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. And as I heard it reported by them that waited upon the king at dinner, that Mistress Anne Boleyn was much offended with the king, as far as she durst, that he so gently entertained my lord, saying, as she sat with the king at dinner, in communication of him, "Sir," quoth she, "is it not a marvellous thing to consider what debt and danger the cardinal hath brought you in with all your subjects?" "How so, sweetheart?" quoth the king. "Forsooth" quoth she, "there is not a man within all your realm, worth five pounds, but he hath indebted you unto him;" (meaning by a loan that the king had but late of his subjects)." "Well, well," quoth the king, "as for that there is in him no blame; for I know that matter better than you, or any other." Nay, Sir, "quoth she, "besides all that, what things hath he wrought within this realm to your great slander and dishonour? There is never a nobleman within this realm that if he had done but half so much as he hath done, but he were well worthy to lose his head. If my Lord of Norfolk, my Lord of Suffolk, my lord my father, or any other noble person within your realm had done much less than he, but they should have lost their heads or this." "Why, then I perceive," quoth the king, "ye are not the cardinal's friend?" "Forsooth, Sir," then quoth she, "I have no cause, nor any other that loveth your grace, no more have your grace, if ye consider well his doings." At this time the waiters had taken up the table, and so they ended their communication. Now ye may perceive the old malice beginning to break out, and newly to kindle the brand that after proved to a great fire, which was as much procured by his secret enemies, [of whom] I touched something before, as of herself.

Letter XI. Anne Boleyn to Cardinal Wolsey. From Fiddes Collections, p. 255. Collated with the Original in the Cottonian Collection. Brit. Mus. Otho c. x. fol. 218.

MY LORD, in my most humblyst wyse that my powuer hart can thynke I do thanke your grace for your kind letter, and for youer rych and goodly pre sent, the whyche I shall never be able to desarve wyth owt your gret helpe, of the whyche I have hetherto hade so grete plente that all the dayes of my lyfe I ame moaste bownd of all creators next the kyngs grace to love and serve your grace, of the whyche I besyche you never to dowte that ever I shalle vary frome this thought as long as ony brethe is in my body. And as tochyng your grace's troble with the swet I thanke ower Lord that them that I desyerd and prayed for ar scapyd, and that is the kyng and you. Not doughthyng bot that God has preservyd you bothe for grete cawsys knowen allonly to his hygh wysdome. And as for the commyng of the legate I desyer that moche; and yf it be Goddis pleasor I pray him to send this matter shortly to a good ende; and then I trust my lord to recompense part of your grete panys, the whych I must requyer you in the meane tyme to excepte my good wyll in the stede of the power, the whyche must prosede partly from you as ower Lourd knoweth to whome I be syche to sende you longe lyfe with continew ance in honor. Wrytten wyth the hande of her that is most bound to be

Your humble and obedyent servante,

Anne Boleyn

Letters 1536. 9 June. Brady's Episc. Succession. 1105. Consistory at Rome.

"Fuerunt lectæ literæ de morte Reginæ imo concubinæ Regis Angliæ quæ deprehensa in adulterio a Rege fuit tradita neci cum [her brother] fratre et quatuor nobilibus viris."

"There were letters read about the death of the Queen, that is, the concubine of the King of England, who, having been caught in adultery by the King, was handed over to be put to death with her brother and four noble men."

From Barberini MSS.

Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism Introduction. As to the reputation of Anne Boleyn, Dr. Sander did it no harm. It is true that the weight of his authority is added to the testimony of others, but he is neither the first nor the loudest in publishing the matters which make the life of Anne Boleyn so sad, for Simon Grynæus1 speaks of her as a woman entitled to no respect. Mr. Pocock2 has produced proofs that she was evil spoken of at a time when Dr. Sander had probably learned neither to write nor to read. The French am bassador did not spare her3, and the king's own sister, the duchess of Suffolk, is said to have uttered "opprobrious language" against her.4

Note 1. P. 26. Note 2.

Note 2. Records of "the Reformation, ii. pp. 468, 566.

Note 3. Le Grand, iii. 325.

Note 4. Venetian Calendar, Rawdon iv. 761.

Letters 1536. Parl. Roll 27 Henry VIII. 243. Parliament. Holden by prorogation at Westminster, 4 Feb. 27 Henry VIII. Acts passed concerning—

1. Manor of Grenes Norton assured to the King.

2. Jointure of lady Elizabeth Vaux.

3. Lands late of Sir John Tuchet, lord Audeley, assured to the King.

4. Agreement between the Earl of Rutland and the city of York.

5. Exchange with the Duke of Norfolk and the prior and convent of Thetford.

6. Exchange with the archbishop of Canterbury.

7. Moiety of lands lately issued by Cornelys Vanderdelf assured to Rich. Hyll.

8. Lady Eleanor Clyfford's jointure.

9. Pardon to the Duke of Suffolk.

10. Exchange between the Duke of Suffolk and the Earl of Northumberland.

11. The Duke of Suffolk's place in Southwark assured to the King and Norwich Place to the Duke of Suffolk.

12. Agreement between the Duke of Suffolk and Sir. Chr. Wylloughby.

13. Manor of Hasyllegh assured to the Queen.

14. Exoneration of Oxford and Cambridge from First Fruits and Tenths.

15. "An Act between Sir Piers Dutton and others."

16. Partition of lands between the heirs of lord Broke.

17. Temporalities of Norwich assured to the King.

18. Dissolution of the lesser monasteries.

19. Partition of lands between lord Thomas Howard and Sir Thomas Ponynges.

20. The Earl of Northumberland's lands assured to the King.

21. Lands assured to Sir Thomas Audeley, the Lord Chancellor.

22. A void plot of ground in Chepe assured to the mayor and commonalty of London.

23. Manor of Halyng assured to the King.

24. Manor of Colly Weston assured to the Queen.

25. Exchange with Corpus Christi College, Oxford.

26. Exchange with the prior and convent of Marten.

27. Lands assured to Sir Arthur Darcy.

28. Jointure of Anne Fitzwilliam.

29. Lands assured to lord William Howard.

30. Lands assured to Thomas Pope.

31. Deed of feoffment by Sir Thomas More annulled.

32. Attainder of John Lewes.

33. A longer day to be given to collectors of the Tenths to bring in their certificate.

34. Manor of Bromhill assured to the King.

35. "An Act for reëdifying of divers towns."

36. "An Act concerning the forging of the King's Sign Manual," &c.

37. "An Act for avoiding of exactions taken at Kingston upon Hull.

38. Concerning pirates.

39. For making justices of the peace in Wales.

40. Concerning the breed of horses.

41. Against abuses in the forests of Wales.

42. "For discharge of payment of the Tenths in that year in which they pay their First Fruits."

43. "Licensing all butchers for a time to sell victual in gross."

44. "Concerning uses and wills."

45. Concerning clerks of the Signet and Privy Seal.

46. "For true making of woollen cloths."

47. That certain woollen cloths may be exported.

48. Concerning the custom of leather.

49. Touching the making of ecclesiastical laws.

50. Enrolments of contracts of lands.

51. Concerning servants who rob their masters.

52. For the preservation of the river Thames.

53. Limitation of an order for sanctuaries.

54. An order for tithes.

55. For tithes in London.

56. Decay of houses and enclosures.

57. Preservation of Havens in Devon and Cornwall.

58. Concerning general surveyors.

58.* For continuing certain liberties taken from the Crown.

59. For punishment of sturdy vagabonds.

60. For justice to be ministered in Wales as in England.

61. "An Act establishing the Court of Augmentations."

62. Ordinances for Calais.

Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism Chapter V. Sir [her father] Thomas Boleyn — Sir Francis Bryan — Education Of Anne Boleyn.

Anne Boleyn was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn's [her mother] wife; I say of his wife, because she could not have been the daughter of Sir Thomas,1 for she was born during his absence of two years in France on the king's affairs.2 Henry VIII. sent him apparently on an honourable mission in order to conceal his own criminal conduct; but when Thomas Boleyn, on his return at the end of two years, saw that a child had been born in his house, he resolved, eager to punish the sin, to prosecute his wife before the delegates of the archbishop of Canterbury, and obtain a separation from her. His wife informs the king, who sends the marquis of Dorset3 with an order to Thomas Boleyn to refrain from prosecuting his wife, to forgive her, and be reconciled to her.

Note 1. Sir Thomas Boleyn or Bullen was made viscount Rochford, June 18, 1525 ; earl of Wiltshire in England, and earl of Ormond in Ireland, Dec. 8, 1529. He died in 1538, having seen the dishonoured rise and the disgraceful ruin of his family.

Note 2. "In Francia legatum agente." Acting as ambassador, but not ne cessarily an ambassador ; and the document, printed for the first time by Mr. Pocock, Records of the Refor mation, ii. p. 573, agreeing substan tially with this history, has the words : "A ce fois aux garres en France pourle roy." Here in the mar gin of the original is a note in these words : "Hæc narrantur a Gulielmo Rastallo, judice, invita Thomse Mori." William Rastall was a nephew of Sir Thomas More, and in the reign of Mary one of the puisne judges of the King's Bench.

Note 3. Thomas Grey, son of the first marquis of Dorset, and the father of Henry Grey, who was made duke of Suffolk. This duke of Suffolk married Frances, daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, and of Mary, sister of Henry VIII. Thomas Grey died in 1530, and all the honours of his family were forfeited by his eldest son, the duke of Suffolk.

Life of Cardinal Wolsey. [In this time of my lord's being in France, over and besides his noble entertainment with the king and nobles, he sustained diverse dis pleasures of the French slaves, that devised a certain book, which was set forth in diverse articles upon the causes of my lord's being there: which should be, as they surmised, that my lord was come thither to conclude two marriages; the one between the king our sovereign lord and Madame Reneé2, of whom I spake hereto fore; and the other between the then princess of England, (now being queen of this realm) my Lady Mary the king's daughter and the French king's second son, the Duke of Orleans, who is at this present king of France: with diverse other conclusions and agreements touching the same. Of this book many were imprinted and conveyed into England, unknown to my lord, [he] being then in France, to the great slander of the realm of England, and of my Lord Cardinal. But whether they were devised of policy to pacify the mutterings of the people, which had diverse communications and imaginations of my lord's being there; or whether [they] were devised of some malicious person, as the dispositions of the common people are accustomed to do, upon such secret consultations, I know not; but whatsoever the occasion or cause was, the author hath set forth such books. This I am well assured, that after my lord was thereof well advertised, and had perused one of the said books, he was not a little offended, and assembled all the privy council of France together, to whom he spake his mind thus; saying, that it was not only a suspicion in them, but also a great rebuke and a defamation to the king's honour to see and know any such seditious untruths openly divulged and set forth by any malicious and subtle traitor of this realm; saying furthermore, that if the like had been attempted within the realm of England, he doubted not but to see it punished according to the traitorous demeanour and deserts. withstanding I saw but small redress3].

Note 2. Catherine Reneé, one of the daughters of Louis the Twelfth. It does not seem that this exposition of the cardinal's views in regard to the union of Henry with this princess, in case of a divorce, were without foundation, for he persuaded himself that Henry's passion for Anne Boleyn would soon subside, and thought this alliance a sure mode of perpetuating the peace and union between the sovereigns. The other part of the assertion was proved true by the subsequent treaty, in which it was agreed that the Princess Mary should marry either Francis, or the Duke of Orleans; the first if he should remain a widower until she was of sufficient age, the second if it seemed expedient that Francis should keep his faith to the emperor, and marry his sister Leonora, to whom he was contracted by the Treaty of Madrid. Hence the necessity of keeping these designs secret, and the cardinal's anger at their developement.

Note 3. This passage stands in the ordinary MSS., and in Dr. Wordsworth's edition, in the following abridged and confused manner. The transcribers of the MSS. appear to have been sensible that their copy was defective, for in several of them one or two blank leaves are here left.

"Now shortly after there were divers malicious practices pretended against us by the French, who by their theft somewhat impaired us whereupon one of them, being a man I was well acquainted with, maintained a seditious untruth, openly divulged, and set forth by a subtle and traitorous subject of their realm, saying also that he doubted not, but the like had been attempted within the king of England his majesty's dominions; but to see so open and manifest blasphemy to be openly punished, according to their traitorous deserts, notwithstanding I saw but small redress."